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VOX.. V. 

P. Contraction of Pugillus. 

Also, a contraction of Papilla, optic. 

Also, a contraction of Pars, or Partes. 

Also, a symbol of Phosphorus. 

P. JE. Contraction of Partes cequales. 

P. B. Abbreviation for Pharmacopoeia 
Britannica ; more often written 2?..P. or B. Ph. 
(British Pharmacopoeia). 

P. Bor. Abbreviation for Pharmacopoeia 
Borussica, the Prussian Pharmacopoeia. 

P. X>. Abbreviation for Pharmacopoeia 
B'ublinoisis, the Dublin Pharmacopoeia. 

P. e. Abbreviation for Pars equalis. 

P. E. Abbreviation for Pharmacopoeia 
Edinensis, the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia. 

P. Gr. Abbreviation for Pharmacopoeia Ger- 

P. Xi . Abbreviation for Pharmacopoeia Lon- 

P.P. Med.Pharm. Abbreviation for Prce- 

P. Ph. Abbreviation for Paris Pharma- 

Pab'ulum. (L. pabulum, from Aryan 
root^a, to feed.) Food. 

P. vi tee. (L. vita, life.) An old term for 
the principle which is the foundation of nutri- 
tion, in like manner as oxygen is the foundation 
of respiration. 

Pacay'. The fruit of Prosopis dulcis. 

Pacchio'ni, Anto'nio. An Italian 
anatomist, born at Reggio in 1665, died in Rome 
in 1726. 

P., cor'puscles of. (L. corpuscidum, a 
small body. I. corpuscoli del Pacchioni.) The 
Pacchionian bodies. 

P., glands of. (F. glandes de Pacchioni.) 
The Pacchionian bodies. 

P., granula tions of. (L. granulum, a 
small grain. G. Pacchioni' 'sche Granulationen.) 
The Pacchionian bodies. 

Pacchio nian. Relating to Pacchioni. 

P. bod'les. (F. glandes de Pacchioni ; I. 
corpuscoli del Pacchioni; G. Pacchioni' sche 
Korper, P. Granulationen, Arachnoidalzotten, 
Luschka.) Villous outgrowths from the 
arachnoid membrane of the cranium, especially 
frequent in the neighbourhood of the superior 
longitudinal sinus ; they aro pear-shaped or 
spheroidal and have a thin stalk ; they increase 
in size as years advance, passing through holes 
in the dura mater and projecting into the sinus 
or lying in the Pacchionian fossas of the skull 
bones. They are enlargements of the arachnoidal 
villi, and consist of springy connective-tissue, 

continuous with the subarachnoid tissue and 
covered with a membrane continuous with the 
arachnoid ; they can be injected from their 
pedicles. It has been suggested by Gaskell that 
they are possibly homologous with the liver of 
an Arthropod. 

P. depressions. See Fossa, Pacchio- 

P. fos'sae. (I. depressioni del Pacchioni ; 
Gr. Pacchioni' sche Gruben.) See Fossa;, Pacchio- 

Faccia'num. Old terra, Gr. anal. 
TlaKKutvov, for a collyrium mentioned by Aetius 
and Galen. 

Pachae'mia. See Pachyhamia. 

Fachan drous. (Ila^us, thick; avvp, 
a male. F . pachandre.) Having thick stamens. 

Pacheablepharo'sis. See Pachy- 

Pach etos. (Jla.x t ' T0 ' s -) The same as 

Pachi'ra. A Genus of the Nat. Ord. Ster- 

P. aquat'lca, Aubl. (L. aquaticus, living 
in water.) The Carolinea princeps. 

Pachis'mus. (nax^s, thick, large. F. 
pachisme.) Massiveness, extreme fatness. 

Pach ne. Old term for the sabulous con- 
tents of the urine. 

Pacho meter. (Tlaxoi, thick; ulTpov, 
a measure. F. pachometre ; G. Dickmesser.) An 
instrument for measuring the thickness of a 
body. Employed by Benoit to designate an in- 
strument for measuring the thickness of the glass 
of a mirror. 

Pachulo'siS. (HaxvXos, thickish.) Sir 
Erasmus Wilson's term for a skin disease in 
which there is hypertrophy of the epidermis. 

Pachyae'ma. See Pachyhamia. 

Pachyan drous. See Pachandrous. 

Pachybleph'aron. (naxi'n, thick ; 
pkidiapov, the eyelid. F. pachyblepharon ; 1. 
pachiblefarosi ; G. Augenliderschwiele.) A 
thickened condition of the borders of the eyelids, 
from chronic inflammation, or from scrofulous dis- 
ease,or from obstruction of the Meibomian glands. 

Pachyblepharo'sis. (n«x^ ; /3\t'/>- 
apov. F. pachyblcpharose ; I. pachyblefarosi.) 
The same as Pachyblepharon. 

Pachycarp ous. (Ilaxus; Kopj-o^, 
fruit. F. pachycarpe ; G. dickfruchtig .) Hav- 
ing thick, large fruit. 

Pachycephalia. (n«x''"-'; KifaXt'i, 
the head. F '. pachgcephalie ; I. pachicefalia.) 
A condition in which the skull is very thick. 



pachycephal'ic. (n« X u9; 
Y palhycfphale.) Relating tc > Pachycephalia 

Pachvceph'alus. OW* ; «"t>« x '>;> 
One having a thick skull from synostosis of the 
parietal and occipital bones. 

Pachycholia. (ria XUS ; x°*'' ? bll °- 

F. p*L/^.) Great thickness of the bile. 

Pachychymia. n« x .5 s , thick; x ^°*> 
iuice ) Having thick humours or juices. 
J Pacbychy mous. Relating to Pachy 

^p'achycne'mous. (Hav**, . thick ; 
K J™h££r F.pachycneme.) Havmg thick 

U ' P achy colic. Relating to Pachycolia. 
Pachydactil'ia. . (n« x ^ ; 

a fin~r F. pachydactylie ; I. pachidactiha.) 
The condition of being Pachydactylous.^ 

Pachydac'tylous. (n«x^ ; ooktwXos. 
F.pachyd'ctyle.) Having thick, fleshy fingers. 

Pachy derma. (n«Fi ^P/ 1 "- the 
skin.) Thickness of the skin. 

P. vul'vse. (L. vulva, the female external 
o-enital* ) Same as Elephantiasis vulva. 
° Fachyder mata. (na X <5«;. Sippa, the 
skin. F. pachydermes ; I. paehydermi ; G. XH<*- 
hciuter.) An Order of Mammalia comprehend- 
in" the elephant, rhinoceros, horse, pig, and 
such like ; now included in the Order Ungulata. 

Pachydermatocele. (na X us; Stppa, 
the skin ; kijXtj, a tumour. F. pachydermatocele ; 
I. pachidermatocele.) Valentine Mott's term for 
a hypertrophy of the coriuni and subcutaneous 
areolar tissue, generally congenital, commencing 
as a small dark spot or mole, and growing into 
a soft, slightly vascular, creased, breast-like 

Pachyder matous. (lTa X us; Stppa. 
F. pachyderme; G. dickhdulig.) Thick skinned. 

Pachydermia. (n« X us; Slppa. F. 

pachy dermie ; I. pachidermia ; G. Pachy - 
dermie.) Thickening of the skin. 
Also, a synonym of Elephantiasis. 
Also, a synonym of Myxedema. 

P. lacti'flua. (L. lac, milk ; fluo, to flow.) 
The form of Elephantiasis arabum in which there 
is a discharge of milky lymph. 

P. lacti'flua scro ti. (L. scrotum.) The 
same as Lymph-scrotum. 

P. laryn'gls. (A«puy£, the upper part of 
the windpipe.) Virchow's term for a form of 
papillary growth in the larynx. 

P. lympnangelectat'lca. The form of 
Lymphatigeiectasis called Lymph-scrotum. 

P. verruco'sa. (L. verruca, a wart.) 
Virchow's term for a warty epidermic growth. 
Pachyder'moUS. See Pachydermatous, 
Pachy g-as'trous. (H« X «s, thick; 
yuoTTifi, the belly. F. pachygaslre ; G. dick- 
buuehig.) Having a large abdomen. 

PachyglOS'SOUS. (na X us; yXwoya, 

the tongue. F. pachyglosse ; G. dickzungig.) 
Having a thick tongue. 

Pachyhee'mia. (n« X u«; alpa, blood 
F. pachyemie.) Thickness of the blood. 

Pachyhao'mic. (n<i X us ; alpa.) Re- 
lating to Pachyhccmia. 

Pachyhee'mous. (na X ut ; alpa.) 

Having thick blood. 

Pachyhyme nia. (Haxvs; 
membrane. F. pachymenxe.) 
the skin. 

Pachyhyme'nic. (na X u's; 

, v/ivv, a 
Thickening of 


Varhvlo'siS. See Pachulosis. 

Pachy'ma, Fries. (n« x fr, thick.) A- 
Genus of the Family Lycoperdacea, Order Gas- 
tcromycetes.^ ^ Lymperdm „„. 

to ^ r t°uW-re' S i«m, Fries. (L. tuber,* 
truffle ; rex, a king.) Hab. Moluccas. Used 111 
diarrhoea and fevers. 
Pachyme'nia. Same as Pachyhymema. 
Pachvme nic. Same as Pachyhymemc. 
Pachymeningitis. (na X ys, thick; 
avvtyf, a membrane. F. pachytnemngite; 1. 
pachymenigite.) Inflammation of the thick 
memhrane, or dura mater, of the central nervous 
system, cerebral or spinal. 

It is not now usual to describe separately 
pachymeningitis, arachnitis or inflammation of 
the arachnoid, and leptomeningitis or inflamma- 
tion of the pia mater. Various diseases of the 
skull-bones may give rise to inflammation, 
ulceration, or sloughing of the corresponding 
part of the dura mater. But the local affection 
is only the immediate forerunner of diffused 
leptomeningitis or of a cerebral abscess. 

P. cerehra'lis exter na. (L. cerebrum, 
the brain; externus, outward.) Inflammation 
of the thick, outer, periosteal layer of the cranial 
dura mater, usually resulting from injury to, or 
from caries or necrosis of, the bony cranium. 
The affected layer becomes red and swollen, pus 
forms between it and the bone or between it 
and the inner layer, or there may be adhesion 
of the dura mater and the bone with osteophytic 
growths from the latter. There are generally 
fever, headache, and delirium, and occasionally 

P. cerebra'lis inter'na. (L. cerebrum; 
internus, within.) Inflammation of the inner 
layer of the cranial dura mater, usually extension 
of the external form in which pus has resulted. 

A hemorrhagic form is known as Hematoma 
of dura mater, or P. {cerebralis) interna hemor- 

P. cervica'lls hypertropn'ica. Adis- 

ease characterised by a chronic thickening of the 
dura mater,regarded by Charcotas another form of 
progressive muscular atrophy combined with spas- 
tic paraplegia (amyotrophic deuteropathique). 

The thickened dura mater and arachnoid firmly 
adhere to the cord, compressing it and surround- 
ing and pressing on the nerve-roots coming off 
at the level of the lesion, generally the nerves 
of the brachial plexus. There is" progressive 
wasting of the muscles of the upper limbs, with 
rigidity of the lower limbs. 

The ulnar and median nerves are specially 
involved, the wrist consequently becoming ex- 
tended. The musculo -spiral nerve escapes. 
According to Charcot, the skin of the arms and 
upper part of the trunk often becomes anaesthetic, 
and the rigid lower limbs do not appear to waste. 

The disease is especially characterised byan 
early stage lasting two or three months, during 
which there are severe pains in the neck and 
occiput, a sort of rigidity of the cervical muscles, 
tingling and numbness in the upper limbs, and 
occasionally bullous eruptions. It is not always 
incurable. It does not spread to the medulla 
and cause bulbar paralysis. At last there may 
be loss of power over the sphincters, and bed- 
sores may form. 

P. chronica hemorrhagica. The 
samo as Lftematoma of dura mater. 


P. interna noemorrhagr'ica. See P. 

cerebralis interna. 

P. spina lis exter na. (L. spina, the 
spine; externus, outward.) Inflammation of the 
outer layer of the spinal dura mater, usually the 
result of external violence or of the extension 
of disease, such as caries of bone or suppuration. 
There may be simple inflammation with red- 
ness, an opacity of the membrane with, effusion 
of lymph, or there may be infiltration of pus, or 
caseous material may be deposited on the outer 
surface of the dura mater; the disease may 
spread to the inner layer, or there may be ad- 
hesion to the bones. The symptoms vary a 
good deal ; among the most prominent are stiff- 
ness of the spinal muscles, and pain in the back 
increased by movement and spreading along the 
track of the nerves involved in the inflamed 
structures ; hyperesthesia and spasm are not 
uncommon, followed by anaesthesia and paresis. 

Pachyme'ninx. (Ilaxus; nijmy£.) The 
Dura mater. 

Pachyn'sis. (Ilaxuuo-ts, a thickening. 
F. pachynse ; G. Verdickung .) A thickening ; 
an enlargement ; obesity. 

Pachyn tic. (HaYui/TiKos, having the 
power of thickening. F. pachyntique ; G. 
verdickend.) Having the power of thickening 
the humours or fluids of the body. 

Also, fleshy or fat. 

Pachyntica. Medicines having the 
action called Pachyntic. 

Pachy otoiis. (Ilaxus, thick ; ous, the 
ear. F. pachyole ; G. dickdhrig.) Having 
thick, large ears. 

Pachy pelviperitonitis. (Ilaxus ; 
pelvis ; peritonitis.) Pelvic peritonitis with 
thick fibrous deposit upon the uterus. 

Pachyphyl louS. (Ilaxus ; (jyuXKov, a 
leaf. F.pachyphylle ; U.dickblattrig.) Having 
thick leaves. 

Pachy podous. (Ilaxus ; -n-ous, a foot. 
F. pachypode ; G. dickfussig.) Having large, 
thick feet. 

Pach'yry. Same as PucJmry. 

Pachysmus. (IIaxuo>ids, stoutness.) 

Pach'ytes. (ITaxuTijs, thickness.) A 
synonym of Pachyblepharon. 

Also, a synonym of Obesity. 

Fachyt'ic. (flaxes.) Thick, fleshy, fat. 

Also, the same as Pachyntic. 

Pachy trichous. (Ilaxus; dpi£, the 
hair. F . pachy trique ; G. dichhaarig.) Having 
thick hair. 

Pachy vaginalitis. (F. pachyvagi- 
nalite ; from Ilaxus; tunica vaginalis.) In- 
flammation of the tunica vaginalis of the testicle. 

Pacific congress spring-s. 

United States of America, California, Santa 
Clara County. Athermal, alkaline, saline, chalyb- 
eate waters, containing sodium carbonate 123-35 
grains, calcium carbonate 17-29, iron bicarbo- 
nate 14 03, sodium sulphate 12-14, sodium chlo- 
ride 119-16, with 49-88 grains of alumina and 
silica, in a gallon. 

Paci'ni, Filip'po. An Italian anato- 
mist, born in Pistoja in 1812, died in Florence 
in 1883. 

P., cor'puscles of. See Pacinian cor- 

P.'s method of artificial respira- 
tion. A mode of producing respiratory move- 
ments in an asphyxiated newly- born child. The 

patient is placed on his back, the operator stand- 
ing at the head with the hands in the axilla?, the 
shoulders are pulled upwards and forwards, and 
then allowed to fall back. 

Paci nian. Relating to Pacini, Filippo. 

P. bodies, See P. corpuscles. 

P. cor'puscles. (L. corpusculum, a small 
body. F. corpuscules de Pacini; I. corpuscoli 
di Pacini; G. Pacini 'sche Kurperchcn.) A 
form of the end-bulbs of nerves, being the oval 
seed-like bodies attached by a stalk to the sub- 
cutaneous nerves of the palm and sole, to those 
of some of the abdominal sympathetic plexuses, 
and to those of the corpora cavernosa and pros- 
tate of man; they are also found in the mesen- 
tery of the cat, and on the nerves over the tibia 
of the rabbit. They are about 1*3 mm. long, 
and somewhat less in width, and consist of the 
simple axis-cylinder of a medullated nerve fibre 
in a central cylindrical clear space surrounded 
by thirty or forty concentric layers of connective 
tissue, each lined with endothelium, and con- 
tinuous as to the outer layers with the thickened 
perineurium, or sheath of Henle, or the nerve 
branch to which it is the termination. The 
axis-cylinder in the central space is surrounded 
by a transparent substance containing along its 
periphery rows of spherical nuclei, and is con- 
tinuous to the upper end of the space, where it 
terminates in a dilated extremity or in several 
short branches, each of which has a terminal 
granular thickening. The layers of the capsule 
are each considered as a separate capsule, and 
consist from within outwards of a single layer of 
flattened, nucleated endothelium, and of fine 
connective tissue fibres lying in a hyaline ground 

Pack. (Mid. E. pakke ; Low L. paccus, 
through the Latin from Aryan root pak, to 
fasten. F. paquet ; I. pacco ; S. fardo ; G. 
Pack.) A bundle. 

Also (F. emballer, einpaqueter ; I. imballare, 
impacchettare ; S. empaquetar ; G. packen), to 
make into a bundle. 

In Medicine, to envelope a sick person in a 
wet sheet with dry blankets on the outside, so as 
to induce perspiration. 

Pack et. (Old F. pacquet ; from Low L. 
paccus, a bundle ; from Aryan root pak, to 
fasten. F. paquet ; I. pacchetto ; S. paquete; 
G. Packet.) A small bundle. 

P. coc'cl. {Coccus. G. Packerkokken.) A 
synonym of Sarcina. 

Packfong. Chinese white copper; an 
alloy of copper, nickel, and zinc, with a trace of 
iron, which has for several hundred years been 
made in China and India. It was formerly used 
for dial-plates, thermometer-scales, &c. ; but 
now German silver is generally used for such 

Packing*. The Therapeutical operation 
described under Pack. 

Pack tong. See Packfong. 

Pacour'ia. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

P. guianen'sis, Aublet. A species which 
supplies caoutchouc. 

Pacouri na. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

P. edu lis, Aubl. (L. edulis, eatable.) 
Hab. Cayenne. Eeceptacle and entire plant 

Pacourinop'sis. A Genus of the Nat. 
Order Composite. 


P. lntegrifol'ia, Cass. (L. integer, en- 
tire ; folium, a leaf.) Same as Pacourina edults. 

Faculo sis. See Paehulosis. 

Pad. (Of Celtic or Scandinavian origin 
from the root put, to bulge out. F. bourrelet ; I. 
cuscinetto; S. cojin ; G. Wulst.) A small 

P. of cor'pns callo'sum. (L. corpus, a 
body; callows, thick-skinned.) The Spleniwn. 

Fad anoon. The same as Bit-noben. 

Pad'dy. (Malay pddi ; Canareae bhatta, 
rice in the husk ; from Sanskrit bhakta, boiled 
rice.) The grain of rice enclosed in the husk. 

Pa'dus. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

Also, the Primus padus. 
P. a vium. The Primus avium. 
P. laurocer'asus. The Primus lauro- 
cerastis. t 

Faedag'O'g'ia. (rials, a child; aywyi.a 
guiding, h'. pedagogic) The training of young 
people. ( 

Paedan'cbone. (rials ; ayx 0 '"'). a 
throttling.) Severnius's term for a fatal form 
of sorethroat or quinsy. 

Faedartbroc'ace. (rials; dpdpov, a 
joint ; kokii, evil. F. pedarthrocace ; I. pedar- 
trocace ; S. pedartrocace.) Joint-evil; scro- 
fulous disease of the joints in children. 

Especially applied to the disease formerly 
called Spina ventosa. 

Paedatropb'ia. (rials; dTpotyia, wast- 
ing.) Atrophy of children. A synonym of Tabes 

P. glandulo'sa. {Gland.) Atrophy pro- 
duced by Scrofula. 

Paederais'tia. (JlaiSepacrTta ; from 
iruts; kpacj-Tivw, to love. F. pederastie ; G. 
Knabenschdndung .) Sodomy with a boy. 

Paederas'tic. Kelating to Pcederastia. 

Faede'ria. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

P. foe'tida, Linn. (L.fcetidus, stinking.) 
Hab. India, Japan. Root emetic ; alliaceous 
leaves used in decoction tor retention of urine. 

Paedero'ta. A Lenusof the Nat. Order 

P. virgin ica. The Leptandra virginica. 

Faedeu'sis. (IIaiY~£ucns, the process of 
the rearing of a child. F. pedeusie ; G. Kin- 
dererziehung.) The education of children. 

Paedi'a. (Ilato ila, the rearing of a child.) 
The bringing up, physical and moral, of children. 

Paediaphth'a. (ll aiciov, a little child; 
&<j>da, ulceration in the mouth. F. pediaphthe.) 
A synonym of Thrush. 

Paediatri'a. (Haiotov, a little child; 
luTptia, medical treatment. F. pc'dialrie.) The 
treatment of children's diseases and disorders. 

Paediatrics. Relating to Paediatrics. 

PaBdlaf rica. Same as Pediatrics. 

Paediatrics. (Hats; lai-puo;, medi- 
cine.) Same as Padiatria. 

Paediatropb'ia. Same as Padolrophg. 

Paedica'tion. (L. paidico. from Gr. 
iraioiurt, a darling.) The committal of sodomy 
with a boy. 

Pae'dlci. (rinioiKos, of a child.) Farr's 
term for the developmental affections of children. 

Predictor us. (rials; Tkti/oos, the jaun- 
dice.) Same as Icterus neonatorum. 

Paediom'eter. {JlaMov, a little child ; 
HiTpov, a measure. F. pediometre.) An in- 
strument for measuring a child. 

Fae'dion. (UaiSiov.) A young child. 
Faediop'atliy. Same a- Padopathy. 
Paediof ropliy. (Tlai.oioTpo<ptu>, to rear 
children.) Same as Pmdotrophy. 
Fae'dium. Same as Padion. 
Pedobaromacro meter, (rials, a 

child ; (idpos, woight ; fiaicpos, long, large ; 
ixirpov, a measure. F.pedobaromacrometre.) An 
instrument for measuring the weight and size 
of an infant. 

Paedobarome'ter. (Tlais ; fidpos ; 
ixiTpov. F. pedobarometre.) An instrument for 
ascertaining the weight of a child. 

Faedog en'esis. (rials; yiveo-is; gene- 
ration.) Sexual reproduction by means of 
parents in the larval stage of development. 

Paedom'eter. (rials ; p.i-rpov.) Same 
as Padiometer. 

Faedonosol'Og'y. (TTaTs ; i/oa-os, dis- 
ease. F. pedonosologie.) The account of the 
diseases of children. 

Paedon'osos. (rials; voa-ot. A disease 
of a child. 

Paeclon'osus. Same as Pcedonosos. 

Faedopae a. {Tlaioo-noiiia, to beget chil- 
dren.) The procreation of children. 

Paedop'athy. (riaTs ; irddoi, disease.) 
The pathology of childhood. 

Paedopblebof omy. (rials; <f>\td/, 
a vein ; touij, a cutting. F. pedophlebolomie.) 
The opening of a vein in a child for the purpose 
of letting blood. 

Paedopblysis. (TTa7s; diXicris, a break- 
ing out. F. pedophlyse.) A vesicular eruption 
in a child. 

Fsedoph tbisis. (ITaTs ; 00i«ris, a 
wasting.) A wasting disease of children, be it 
pulmonary consumption or tabes mesenterica. 

Pae dopus. (Ilais, a child; 7rous, a foot. 
G. Knabeiifuss.) The foot of a child. 

Paedop'yra america na. (rials ; 
Trip, fever heat.) Eisenmann's term for Cholera 

Faedostath'mion. (nuts; a-Tud/uov, 
a standard weight.) An instrument for ascer- 
taining the weight of a child. 

Faedofribes. (natooTp//3iis, one who 
teaches boys wrestling and other exercises.) A 
gymnastic master. 

Paedotropb'ium. (TlaiSo-rpofpiio.) A 
foundling hospital. 

Faedof rophy. (TlaiSoTpod>ia, the rear- 
ing of children ; from iruts ; Tpt<f>w, to nourish. 
F. pedotrophie.) The branch of medicine which 
is concerned with the rearing of children. 

Paeeos'yne. (Tlai.ioawti, from Ylaidv, 
the physician of the gods.) The healing art. 

Pae on. (Jlaidu.) A physician. 

Paeo'nia. (TTaicuvia, the pajony, from 
■n-aitbv, from Triudv.) A Genus of the Tribe 
Patoniem, Nat. Order Ranunculacea. 

P. coram na. Linn. (L. corallium, red 
coral.) Female pajony. Used as P. officinalis. 

P. femin'ea. (L. femineus, feminine.) 
The P. corallina. 

P. lobata. (L. lobus, a lobe.) The P. 

P. mas cula. (L. masculus, male.) The 

P. officinalis. 

P.mou tan.Sims. Hab. China. Employed 
in hemorrhages and menstrual disorders ; used 
to procure abortion. 

P. nemoralis. (L. nemoralis, belonging 
to the woods.) The P. officinalis. 



P. officinalis, Retzius. (L. offioina, a 
shop. F. pivoine; I. peonia ; G. Pjingstrose, 
Gichtrose.) The root and seeds have heen used 
in intermittent fever, epilepsy, and amcnorrhcea ; 
and the seeds, as an emetic and cathartic ; the 
flowers were made into calmative waters and 

Peeoniae'ee. (Paonia.) A Tribe of the 
Nat. Order Ranunculacea, having an imbricate 
calyx, and fruit consisting of two to five follicles 
with a cup-shaped disc. 

Paeo nic. (ITcuuji/ikos, healing ; from 
Tlaidv, the physician of the gods.) Medical; 

Paeo nice. (JlaiooviKoi.) The medical art. 
Fae'onin. (Pceonia.) Synonym for Coral- 
lin, red. 

Pae'ony. The plants of the Genus Pceonia. 

Fae pale. (IlanraXt;, reduplicated from 
TraXij, pollen.) The finest meal. 

Also, a term for Pollen. 

Pagani'na. Old term in the Spagyric 
pharmacopoeia for powdered meconium, which 
was used as a remedy for epilepsy. 

Pagapople xia. See Pagoplexia. 

Pagenstech'er, Alexander. A 
German ophthalmologist, born at Wallau, near 
Wiesbaden, in 1828 ; died in 1879. 

P.'s oint'ment. Hydrargyrum oxidum 
flavum grains 1 to 3, vaseline a drachm. 

Pag et, Sir James. An English sur- 
geon, born at Great Yarmouth in 1814, and now 

P.'s disease'. An eczematoid disease of 
the nipple, first described by Paget in 1874 as 
having the appearance of a florid, intensely red, 
raw surface, very finely granular, exuding a 
copious, clear, yellowish, viscid fluid which dries 
to a scab ; it is frequently followed by cancer of 
the mammary gland ; sometimes the surface is 
dry and scaly, and resembles psoriasis. The 
nature of the disease is not settled. Butlin has 
described the extension of the proliferation of 
the nipple epidermis into the mouths of the 
galactophorous ducts, whereby the columnar 
cells become spheroidal, and thence into the 
lactiferous ducts and alveoli, when the cancer 
becomes developed. Thin considers that the 
earliest change is a cancerous disease at the 
mouths of the galactophorous ducts which, by 
the exudation of an ichorous fluid, produces the 
eczematous condition of the skin of the nipple. 

Pagils. The Primula veris. 

Pagina. (L. pagina, a written page.) 
The side of a leaf of a book. 

Pagiorheumatis'mus. (Ifdyios, 
steadfast; rheumatism.) Long-lasting rheuma- 

Pagliaris haemostat ic. (F. eau 

de Pagliari.) The Aqua hmmostatica. 

P.'s styp'tic. (Stutttiko's, astringent.) 
The Aqua hcemostatica. 

Pagoplexia. (lUyos, first; TrX/ifis, a 
stroke.) The benumbing of a beast of burden 
from cold. 

Also, a synonym of Frostbite. 

Pag'os. (ITayos, that which is firmly 
fixed.) The scum on the surface of milk. 

Also, any Pellicle. 

Also, the Peritoneum. 

Pag-o'sa spring's. United States of 
America, Colorado, Conejos County. Thermal 
waters from four springs, having a temperature 
of 148" F. (64-44° C.) ; spring No. 1 contains 

sodium carbonate 4 - 7 grains, calcium carbonate 
59, magnesium carbonate 4-85, lithium carbonate 
•71, sodium sulphate 221-66, potassium sulphate 
7*13, sodium chloride 29 - 25, and silica 5*7 grains 
in a gallon. The rest are very similar in com- 

Pagu'rus. (TIayoupos, a kind of crab.) 
A Genus of the Tribe Anomura, Order Deca- 

P. Bernhar dus. The hermit crab, occa- 
sionally used as food. 

P. streblony'a. The P. Bcrnhardus. 

Pah'gun spring. United States of 
America, Arizona, Mohave County. A thermal 
mineral water, having a temperature of 100° F. 
(37-77° C.) 

Paidi'a. See Pcedia. 

Fai'dici. See Pcedici. 

Fai'dion. See Pcedion. 

Faidonosol'ogy. See Pcedonosology. 

Pai'gil. See Peagle. 

Pail. (Mid. E. paile, pagle ; Old F. paele, 
a little pan ; from L. patella, a small pan ; dim. 
of patera, aflat dish. F. seau ; I. seech ia ; S. 
cubo ; G. Eimer.) A large open vessel of wood 
or other substance. 

P. sys'tem. The Goux system. A mode 
of removing refuse by putting the excreta into 
pails containing stable litter, or sawdust, or other 
similar material, with admixture with any fluid. 

Pain. (Mid. E. peine, peyne ; from F. 
peine ; from L. pmna, punishment; Gr. -nowi'i, 
penalty. F. douleur ; I. dolor e ; S. dolor; G. 
Schmertz.) Bodily suffering. 

P.s, after. See After pains. 
P.s, la'bour. See Labour pains. 
P.s, la'bour, false. Painful, irregular 
contractions of the uterus, unaccompanied by any 
yielding of the cervix, not uncommonly occur- 
ring just before labour. They are often due to 
local irritation, such as dyspepsia or faecal accu- 

P.s la'bour, spu'rious. The same as 
P.s, labour, false. 

P., sun. A term for Hcmicrania when it 
lasts only as long as the sun is above the horizon. 

Pain'ful. {Pain. F. douloureux; I. 
dolorosa; S. dolorido ; G. schmerdich.) Full of 

P. point. See Point, painful. 

P. subcuta'neous tu'mour. (L. sub, 
under ; cutis, the skin ; tumor, a swelling.) A 
small fibromatous growth connected with a 

Painless. Without Pain. 

Paint. (Mid. E. peinten ; Old F. peint, 
paint ; from L. pingo, to paint. F. pcindcr ; I. 
ping ere ; S. pintar ; G. malen, austreichen.) 
To colour. 

Also (F. couleur ; I. colore; S. pintura; G. 
Far be), colouring- stuff. 

P., Zn'dian. The Hydrastis canadensis. 
Also, the Sanguinaria canadensis. 
P., i odine. The Linimentum iodi. 
P., yellow. The Hydrastis canadt ft 
Paint Lick min eral well. United 
States of America, Kentucky, Garrard County. 
A weak saline water. 

Faint'er. (Paint. F. peint re ; I. pit- 
tore; S. pintor ; G. Maler.) One who paints. 

P.'s col'ic. (F. colique des peintres; I. 
colica dei pittori ; G. Maler Icolik.) The same as 
Colic, lead. 

Pair. (Mid. E. peire, peyre; F. paire; 


from L. par, equal. I. pajo ; S. par ; G. Paar.) 
A couple. 

P. of nerves. (F. paire de nerfs ; I. pajo 
di ttervi; G. Nervenpaar.) The two nerves of 
either side which ure homologous in origin. 

Fak long". See Packfong. 

Pala'ceous. (L. pala, a spade. F. 
palaci.) Suovel-like. Applied to leaves and 
other structures with a marginal attachment. 

Palaeolithic. (IlaXaio's; XtOos, a stone. 
F. paleolUhique.) Isolating to the older stone 
period of prehistoric time. 

FalaeoTog'y. (TlaXaio's, old; Xdyor, a 
discourse. F. palvologie.) The account of an- 

FalaBOntOSr'raphy. (IlaXatds; ovra, 
the things which actually exist ; ypa<pw, to 
write. F. paleontographie.) The description 
of extinct and fossil organised beings. 

Palaeontolog-'ical. (F. paleonto- 
logique.) Relating to Palaeontology. 

Palaeontol ogy. (IlaXaio's; 6Wa, the 
things which actually exist; Xdyos, an account. 
F. paleontologie ; I. paleontologia ; S. paleon- 
tologia ; G. Paldontologie.) The account of ex- 
tinct and fossil organised beings. 

Palaeophytog raphy. (IloXaids ; 
<pvTov, a plant; yputpta, to write.) An account 
of fossil plants. 

Palaeozo ic. (IlaXaio's ; X,wov, an animal. 
F. paleozo'ique.) Relating to fossil animals. 

Palaezobl ogy. (IlaXaids ; J5o» ; Xdyos, 
an account.) The science of fossil animals. 

Pal ama. (IIa\d;u?), the palm of the 
hand. F. palame.) Illiger's term for the inter- 
digital membrane of some Mammals. 

Also, the interdigital membrane of web-footed 

Pal ame. (HaW/iii.) The palm of the 

Palamosyphilolepis. (UaXAp^ ; 
syphilis; \iirh, a scale.) Syphilitic psoriasis 
of the palm of the hand. 

Paiamothe ca. (JlaXdpij; Owi}, a case. 
F. palamotheque.) Illiger's term for the epi- 
dermis of the Palama. 

Pala tal. Relating to, or connected with, 
the Palate. 

P. plate. (G. Gauinenplatte.) The Pala- 
tine process. 

P. pro cess. See Palatine process. 

P. triangles. See Triangles, palatal. 
Pal'ate. (-Mid. E. palet, palase ; Old F. 
palat ; from L. palatum, the palate. F. palais ; 
I. palato ; S. paladar; G. Gaumen.) The 
roof of the mouth, which separates it from the 
nasal fossa. The front part is the P., hard; the 
hinder part with a free edge is the P., soft. 

P., ar ches of. See under Arch. 

P., artificial. An instrument of caout- 
chouc, or metal, or other substance, for the clos- 
ing of the aperture in a cleft palate. 

P. bone. (F. os palalin ; I. osso pala- 
lino; G. Gaumenbein.) A very irregular, thin 
bone, consisting of two portions united at a right 
angle, a horizontal or palato plate and a vertical 
or nasal plate. The palato plate or process is 
four-sidecf, and forms on eacn side the hinder 
part of the hard palate ; in front, it articulates 
with the palate process of the superior maxillary 
bone ; behind, it forms a concave free border to 
which the soft palato is attached; its inner 
border unites with its fellow of the opposite side, 
and its outer edge is formed by the springing 


of the vertical plate, and is grooved by a deep 
notch forming part of the posterior palatine 
canal ; its upper surface forms the hinder part 
of the floor of the nasal fossa, and its lower sur- 
face forms part of the roof of the mouth. The 
vertical plate is thin, and forms part of the 
lateral wall of the nose ; in front, it is in contact 
with the hinder part of the inner surface of the 
superior maxillary bone, and behind, it is in con- 
tact with the internal pterygoid plate of the 
sphenoid bone. On its inner surface is a hori- 
zontal ridge, the inferior turbinal crest, for the 
attachment of the inferior turbinal bone, and 
higher up, the superior turbinal crest for the 
middle turbinal bone. The outer surface is 
rough for attachment to the superior maxillary 
bone, and marked by a groove which assists 
in forming the posterior palatine canal behind, 
which is a smooth surface, forming part of the 
pterygo-maxillary fissure, having above it a 
roughened surface for articulation with the inner 
surface of the pterygoid process of the sphenoid 
bone ; the front edge of this surface consists of a 
thin projecting plate, the maxillary process, which 
overlaps the orifice of the antrum. At the junction 
of the horizontal and vertical plates, extending 
outwards and backwards, is the pyramidal pro- 
cess, which projects into the space between the 
external and internal plates of the sphenoid 
bone. Bending inwards and upwards from the 
posterior surface of the upper part of the vertical 
plate is the sphenoidal process, its upper surface 
touching the sphenoid bone at the base of its 
internal pterygoid plates, its inner surface 
forming part of the nasal fossa, and its outer 
smooth surface helping to form the pterygo- 
maxillary fossa. At the upper end of the 
anterior margin of the vertical plate is the 
orbital process with its two free and three 
articulating surfaces ; of the former, the upper 
forms the hinder part of the floor of the orbit, 
and the outer forms part of the spheno-maxil- 
lary fossa; its articulating surfaces are in front 
for the superior maxillary bone, within for the 
ethmoid, and behind for the sphenoid. Between 
these two latter processes is the spheno-palatine 

The palate bone is formed in the ptery go- 
quadrate cartilage from one centre of ossification 
at the junction of the horizontal and vertical 
plates, which appears about the seventh week. 

P., cleft. See Cleft palate. 

P., falling down of. A term for a re- 
laxed uvula. 

P., false. The same as P., artificial. 

P., fissured. See P., cleft. 

P., hard. (G. harter Gaumen.) The 
anterior two-thirds of the palate, consisting of 
the palatine processes of the superior maxillary 
and palate bones covered by periosteum, and a 
thick, pale, corrugated mucous membrane, sepa- 
rated from the bone by the palatine glands. Its 
arteries are branches of the internal maxillary 
artery ; its veins anastomose freely with those 
of the soft palate, some traverse the posterior 
palatine canal, but tho chief pass through the 
anterior palatine cannl to join the anterior veins 
of the Schneiderian membrane ; the lymphatics 
are very delicate ; they communicate at the 
sides and in front with those of the gums, and 
behind with thoso of the lower surface of the 
soft palate; they terminato in small vessels 
which pass round the tonsils to glands lying on 
the borders of the thyro-hyoid membrane ; the 


nerves are derived from the spheno-palatine 

P.-my'ogniph. (MOs, a muscle ; ypa<j>u, 
to write.) An instrument for recording graphi- 
cally the movements of the soft palate during 
the act of producing sounds. 

P. pro'cess of palate bone. (G. Gau- 
menfortsatz des Gaumenbeins.) See P. bone. 

P. pro'cess of supe'rior maxillary 
bone. (F. apophyse palatine du maxillaire 
superieur ; G. Gaumenfortsatz des Oberkiefer- 
beins.) See Maxillary bone, superior. 

P., soft. The Velum pendulum palati. 

P., split. The same as P., cleft. 
Pala tif'orm. (L. palatum, the palate ; 
forma, shape. F. palatiforme; G. Gaumen- 
formig.) Having the shape of a palate. 

Applied by Kirby to the tongue of insects 
where it forms the inferior surface of the lip. 

Pal atine. (F. palatin ; I. palatino ; S. 
palatino.) Relating to the Palate. 

P. arch. (F. voute palatine.) The Palate. 

P. ar ches. See Palate, arches of. 

P. ar'tery, ascending-. (F. artere pala- 
tine ascendante ; G. aufsteigende Gaumcn- 
schlagader.) A branch of the facial artery 
below the jaw, or occasionally of the common 
carotid artery ; it ascends between the stylo- 
pharyngeus and the styloglossus muscles which 
it supplies ; reaching the upper part of the wall 
of the pharynx it gives branches to the superior 
constrictor of the pharynx, the tonsils, and the 
Eustachian tube ; and accompanying the levator 
palati to the soft palate it is distributed to the 
structures connected therewith. It anastomoses 
with its fellow, with the descending palatine 
artery, and with the ascending pharyngeal artery. 

P. ar'tery, descending-. (F. artere 
palatine superieure; G. absteigende Gaumen- 
schlagader.) A branch of the internal maxillary 
artery in the spheno-maxillary fossa ; it tra- 
verses the posterior palatine canal, runs along 
the hard palate, to the structures of which it is 
distributed, and terminates in a small vessel 
which passes through the incisor foramen to 
anastomose with the naso-palatine artery. 

P. ar'tery, infe rior. (L. inferior, lower.) 
The P. artery, ascending. 

P. ar'tery of pharynge al. A large 
branch of the ascending pharyngeal artery which 
supplies the soft palate, and anastomoses freely 
with its fellow of the opposite side. 

P. ar'tery, supe'rior. (L. superior, 
upper. F. artere palatine superieure.) The 
P. artery, descending. 

P. bone. See Palate bone. 

P. but'ton-bole. A slit made in the soft 
palate to facilitate the removal of a polypus in 
the posterior nares. 

P. canal', ante'rior. See Canal, pala- 
tine, anterior. 

P. canal', descending. See Canal, 
palatine, posterior. 

_ P. canal', poste'rlor. See Canal, pala- 
tine, posterior. 

P. cells. The cells formed by the junc- 
tion of the palatine bone with the ethmoid bone. 

P. ducts. The same as P. canals. 

P. fora'men, ante'rior. (L. foramen, 
a hole; anterior, in front.) The Foramen, 

P. fora'men, poste'rlor. (L. foramen ; 
posterior, hinder.) The lower opening of the 
Canal, palatine, posterior. 

P. fos sa. (F . fosse palatine.) See Fossa 

P. glands. See Glands, palatine. 

P. mem'brane. (L. membrana, a thin 
skin.) The mucous membrane which covers the 
roof of the mouth, including the soft palate. 

P. nerve, ante'rior. (L. anterior, in 
front. F. nerf palatin anterieur ; G. vorderer 
Gaumennerv.) One of the descending branches 
of the spheno-palatine ganglion, whence it de- 
scends to the posterior palatine canal which it 
traverses to reach the hard palate ; in the canal 
it gives off the inferior nasal nerve, a fine fila- 
ment for the mucous membrane of the antrum, 
and a branch for the supply of the soft palate ; 
at the exit from the canal it bifurcates and 
divides into many branches which run in canals 
of the bony palate and supply its mucous mem- 
brane and that of the gums. 

P. nerve, exter'nal. (F. nerf palatin 
moyen.) The smallest of the descending branches 
of Meckel's ganglion. It traverses the external 
palatine canal, to the tonsils and outer part of 
the soft palate. 

P. nerve, large. (F. grand nerf pala- 
tin.) The P. nerve, anterior. 

P. nerve, poste'rlor. (L. posterior, 
hinder.) It traverses the lesser palatine canal, 
and supplies the soft palate, tonsils, uvula, 
levator palati, and azygos uvula?. 

P. nerve, small. (F. nerf palatin petit.) 
The P. nerve, posterior. 

P. pro'cess of supe'rior maxillary 
bone. See Maxillary bone, superior. 

P. rid ges. (G. Gaumenleisten.) The 
central ridge and the lateral corrugations of the 
mucous membrane of the hard palate ; they are 
more marked in the human foetus and in some of 
the lower animals, than in the human adult. 

P. sec'tor. See Sector, palatine. 

P. spine. (F. epine palatin ; G. Gaumen- 
fortsatz.) The Nasal spine, posterior. 

P. ster'tor. See Stertor, palatine. 

P. su'ture. See Suture, palatine. 

P. su'ture, trans'verse. See Suture, 
palatine transverse. 

P. vein, lnfe'rior. (L. inferior, lower. 
F. veine palatine inferieure; G. untere Gaumen- 
blutader.) A vein which collects blood from 
the circumtonsillar venous plexus and from the 
soft palate, and descends by the lateral wall of 
the pharynx to one of the neighbouring branches 
of the facial vein or the facial vein itself. 

P. vein, supe'rior. (L. superior, upper. 
F. veine palatine superieure ; G. obere Gaumen- 
blutader.) A vein which accompanies the su- 
perior palatine artery, and empties into the 
pterygoid venous plexus. 

Palati'tis. (L. palatum, the palate. F. 
palatite ; I. palatitide ; G. Gaumenentzundung.) 
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of both 
hard and soft palate. A form of Stomatitis. 

Palatoglossal. (L. palatum; Gr. 
yXoio-o-a, the tongue.) Relating to the palate 
and the tongue. 

P. fold. The anterior pillar of the fauces. 
Palatoglos sus. (L. palatum ; Gr. 
yXtba-a-a, the tongue. F. glosso-staphylin ; I. 
palato-glosso ; G. Zungengaumenmuskel.) A thin 
layer of pale muscular fibres which arises from 
the root of the tongue in connection with the 
transverse muscular fibres of the latter, and with 
the fasciculi of the styloglossus, and, traversing 
the anterior pillar of the fauces, ends in the sub- 


mucous tissue of the velum pendulum palati in 
uuion with its fellow of the opposite side. They 
contract the isthmus of the glottis, and by ele- 
vating the tongue force the bolus of food back- 
wards into the pharynx. 

Palatogna'thus. (L. palatum ; Gr. 
yviSui, the jaw.) One who has a cleft palate. 

Pala to la bial. (L. palatum ; labialis, 
belonging to the lip.) Relating to the palate 
and the lips. 

P. ar'tery. (F. artere palato-labiale, 
Chaussier.) The Facial artery. 

Pala'to-maxil'lary. (L. palatum; 
maxilla, the lower jaw.) Relating to the palate 
and the lower jaw. 

P. arch. The Maxillary process, superior. 
P. ar'tery. The Palatine artery, su- 

Palatopharyngeal. (L. palatum; 
Gr. <pa P vy£, the gullet.) Relating to the palate 
and the pharynx. 

P. fold. The posterior pillar of the fauces. 

Palatopharyng-e'us. (L. palatum; 
Gr. tpapvyZ, the gullet. F. pharyngo-staphylin, 
palato-pharyngien ; I. palato-faringeo ; S. 
palalo -faring eo ; G. Schlundgaumenmuskel.) An 
ill-defined set of muscular fibres lying in the 
posterior pillar of the fauces. It arises by three 
fasciculi : one proceeding from the posterior angle 
of the cartilage of the Eustachian tube, the 
Salpingopharyngeus of Santorini ; a second from 
the aponeurosis of the velum pendulum palati ; 
and a third, much larger than either of the 
others, from the same aponeurosis. After tra- 
versing the posterior pillar of the fauces, it ex- 
pands and terminates by three sets of fibres : 
an internal set which interlace with those of 
the opposite in the postero-median portion of 
the pharynx and also in the median part of the 
velum ; a middle set which are connected with 
the fibrous layer of the pharynx near the cricoid 
cartilage ; and an external set which are at- 
tached along with, but in front of, the fibres of 
the stylopharyngeus to the posterior border of 
the thyroid cartilage. It derives its nerve-supply 
from the pharyngeal plexus. It draws the velum 
downwards and the pharynx upwards. 

Palatopharyng-olaryng-e'us. (L. 

palatum ; Gr. <pitpvy£ ; \upuy%, the upper part 
of the windpipe.) The Palalopharyngeus. 

Palatoplasty. (L. palatum ; Gr. 
ifKaaaia, to form.) The same as Vranisco- 

Palatorrhaphy. (L. palatum ; Gr. 
fia€pj'i, a seam. F. palalorrhapic.) The sutur- 
ing of a cleft palate. 

Palatosalpin'g-eus. (L. palatum; 
Gr. naXiriyP, a war-trumpet. F. palato-salpin- 
gien; I. palato-salpingiano; S.palato-salpingco.) 
The Tensor palati. 

Palatoschisis. (L. palatum; Gr. 
ax'tati, a cleaving.) Cleft palate. 

Palatostaphyli nus. (L. palatum ; 
Gr. <TT<«pu\i'i, the uvula. F. palalo-staphylin ; 
I. palato-i/afilino ; S. palato-cstafilino ; G. 
Zapfcnmuskel.) Each half of the Azygos 

Pala'to-uvula'ris. (L. palatum; 
UQUut.) 'l'iii' Azygos uvula. 

Pala tum. The Palate. 
P. du rum. (L. durus, hard.) See Palate, 

P. hs sum. (L. flttUt, cleft.) See Cleft- 

(L. osseus, bony.) The 


P. mobile. (L. mobilis, moveable.) The 
Palate, soft. _, „ , , 

P. mol'le. (L. mollis, soft.) The Palate, 


P. osseum. 

Palate, hard. 

P. pen dulum. The Velum pendulum 


P. stabile. (L. stabilis, form.) 
Palate, hard. 

Pale. (Mid. E. pale; Old F. pale, palle, 
pasle; from L. pallidas, pale. F. pale; I. 
pallido ; S. palido ; G. blass, bleich.) Colourless. 

P. bark. See Cinchona pallida. 

P. lau'rel. The Ealmia glauca. 

P. rose. (F. rose pale ; I. rosa pallida.) 
The Rosa centifolia. 
Pal'e. (n«\i;, the finest meal.) Pollen. 
Pal'ea. (L. palea, chaff. Y . paillette ; I. 
palea, pagliacola ; S. pajita ; G. Spreublatlchen, 
Spreu.) Chaff consisting of short, linear, ob- 
tuse, dry scales. 

P. Cabot'li. A Javan fern. Filaments 
of stem used as a mechanical styptic. 

Palea ceous. (E. palea, chaff. F. pa- 
leace ; I. paleaceo ; S. paleaceo ; G. Spreuartig, 
SpreiUragend.) Bearing chaff, or small scales 
like chaff. 

Paleae Cibo'tii. The same as Pili 

Pale'iform. (L. palea; forma, shape. 
F. palciforme ; G. Spreuformig.) Like chaff. 

Pale'ness. (Pale. F. pdleur; I.pallore; 
S. palidez ; G. Blasse.) Whiteness of the com- 
plexion. The same as Pallor. 

Paleole. (Dim. of L. palea, chaff. F. 
paleole.) A synonym of Glumellule. 

Paleolii'erous. {Paleole ; L. fero, to 
bear. F. paleolifire.) Bearing paleoles. 

Paleolithic. See PalccolUhic. 

Paleontology. See Paleontology. 

Pal'estine buck thorn. The Rham- 
nus paliurus. 

Pal'fyn, Johan nes. A Dutch sur- 
geon, born at Kortryk in 1650, died in Ghent 
in 1730. 

P.'s for'ceps. See Forceps, midwifery, 

Pali plague. A malignant fever re- 
sembling plague observed first in Pali, after- 
wards spreading throughout Rajputanain 1836, 
and especially characterised by hajmoptysis. 

Palicou'rea officinalis, Mart. (L. 
officina, a shop.) Hab. Brazil. Used as a 

P. diuret'lea, Mart. Used as P. officinalis. 

P. longlfol'la, H. B. and K. (L. longus, 
long ; folium, a leaf.) Used as P. officinalis. 

P. so nans, Mart. (L. sono, to sound.) 
Used as P. officinalis. 

P. speclo'sa, H. B. and Kunth. (L. spe- 
ciosus, handsome.) Goldshrub. Hab. Brazil. 
Used as an antisyphilitic ; in large doses, poi- 


P. strepons. Mart. (L. strcpo, to make 
a noise.) Used as P. officinalis. 

P. sulpbu'rea, Do Cand. Hab. Peru. 
A bitter tonic. 

Palicu rea. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

„ , P '. cro ' cea ' ( L - croceus, saffron-coloured.) 
Jlao. \\ est Indu s. An emetic. 

P. densiflo'ra. (L. densus, crowded.) 
•Said to supply Colo bark. 


P. Marcgraav il, St. Hilaire. Hab. 
Brazil. Poisonous ; used to kill rats. 

Palim bolous. {UaXipjioXo^, reversed ; 
from trdXtv, backwards; /3d\Xio, to cast.) Fre- 
quently changing ; applied to diseases whose 
symptoms are very inconstant. 

Palimpis'sa. (Tla\iniri<r<Ta, reboiled 
pitch; from irdXiv, again ; Trt'cro-a, pitch.) Dry 

Palincote'sis. (riaXtyKo'Ti;<m, the 
breaking out ufresh; from irdXiv; kotos, ran- 
cour.) The relapse of a disease ; the breaking 
out again of a wound. 

Palin drome. {TlaXtuSpop-ri.) The same 
as Palindromia. 

Palindromia. {UaXivSpopiu, a run- 
ning back ; from rrdXiv, back ; Spofios, a course. 
F. palindromic; I. palindromia ; S. palindro- 
mia ; G. Riickfall.) An old term for a supposed 
regurgitation of peccant humours towards the 
internal organs. 

Also, the recurrence of a paroxysm, or the 
relapse of a disease. 

Paling-ene'sia. {UaXiyytvtala, new- 
birth; from TrdXiv, again; •yt'i/Eo-is, an origin. 
F. paling enisie ; I. paling enesia ; S. palin- 
genesia ; G. Wiedergeburt.) Kegeneration. 

Palingenesis. {UuXlv ; yivtens.) The 
same as Paling enesia. 

Palinod ia. {TlaXivo&ia, a retracing one's 
path ; from irdXiv ; oo'ds, a way. F. palinodie.) 
A return or relapse of a disease. 

Palinu'rus vulgaris. See under 

Palirrhoe'a. {TluXippoLu, a reflux ; from 
ir&Xiv; poia, a flow.) The relapse of a dis- 

Paliu'rus. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

P. aculea'tus. (L. aculeatus, furnished 
with prickles.) Hab. South Europe. Root and 
leaves astringent; seeds diuretic. 

Palla dium. {Pallas, the Planet. F. 
palladium; I. palladia ; S.paladio; G. Palla- 
dium.) Symbol Pd; atomic weight 106-2. A 
metal discovered by Wollaston in 1803 in pla- 
tinum ore ; it is also found in gold alloys. It is 
a whitish, hard, very malleable, ductile metal, 
having a sp. gr. of 11-4 at 22-5° C. (72'5° F.) 
It is dimorphous, occurring native in the form of 
small regular octahedrons and in small hexa- 
gonal tables. It does not oxidise in the air. It 
is used for the graduated surfaces of astronomical 
instruments, and as a substitute for gold in 

Pal leal. See Pallial. 

Palle'niS. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

P. splno'sa, Cass. (L. spina, a thorn.) 
Yellow starwort. Used as a vulnerary in buboes 
and other inguinal swellings. 

Pallial. (F. palliate.) Relating to the 
Pallium or Mantle. 

P. cav'ity. The space enclosed between 
the lobes of the mantle of Mollusca, divided 
in some animals into a larger, branchial and a 
smaller, supra-branchial chamber. 

P. impres sion. (L. impressio, a pressing 
into. F. impression palleale.) The same as P. line. 

P. line. (F. ligne palleale^ The impres- 
sion made by the attachment of the muscular 
fibres of the mantle or pallium to the shell of 

P. sinus. (L. sinus, a gulf.) A deep 

indentation of the hinder edge of the pallial line 
to receive the siphon. 

Palliate. (L. palliatus, cloaked; from 
pallium, a mantle. F.pallier; I. palliare ; S. 
paliar ; G. bemanteln.) To cloak ; to mitigate. 

Pallia'tion. {Palliate. F. palliation ; 
I. palliamento ; S. paliacion ; G. Bemantelung.) 
Mitigation ; alleviation. 

Palliative. {Palliate. F.palliatif; I. 
palliativo ; S.paliativo ; G. bemcintelnd.) Cloak- 
ing, relieving, or alleviating, as distinct from 

Also (G. Palliativmittel), a substance which 
is able to alleviate or mitigate disease or pain. 

P. treat ment. (F. traitement patliatif.) 
That treatment of an incurable disease which 
attempts relief of pain and moderation of dis- 
tressing 83Tnptoms. 

Pallidiflo'rous. (L. pallidus, pale; 
fios, a flower. F '. pallidiflore ; G. bleichblumig.) 
Having pale flowers. 

Palliobranch'iate. (L. pallium, a 
mantle ; Gr. ppdyxi-a. the gills. F. pallio- 
branchie.) De Blainville's term for those Mol- 
luscs which have the branchiae applied to the 
inner surface of the lobes of the mantle or 

Pallium. (L. pallium, a Greek cloak. 

F. manteau ; I. mantello ; G. Mantel.) The 
Mantle of Mollusca. 

Also, the upper point of the feathers of Aves. 
P. cer'ebri. (L. cerebrum, the brain.) 
The Mantle of the hemisphere vesicle. 

Pallor. (L. pallor, paleness ; from palleo, 
to be pale. F.pulcur; l.pallore; S. pallidez ; 

G. Bliisse.) Paleness. 

P. lu'teus. (L. luteus, yellow.) The same 
as Chlorosis. 

P. vir'g-inum. (L. virgo, a virgin.) The 
same as Chlorosis. 

Palm. (Mid. E. paume ; from L. palma ; 
Gr.TraXdp.-i}. F. paume; I. palma ; S. palma ; 
G. Handteller, Handfliiche.) The flat inner 
surface of the hand, having the thenar and hypo- 
thenar eminences on either side, and the fingers 
and wrist-joint below and above. 

Also (Sax. palm; from L. palma. F. palmier; 
I. palmizio ; S. palmer a; G. Palmbaum), the 
plants of the Nat. Order Palmacea, so-called 
from their flat, palmate leaves. 

P. but'ter. Same as P. oil. 

P. cab bage. The Areca oleracea. 

P. carnau'ba. The Corypha cerifera. 

P., Doum, The Hyphmne thebaica. 

P., gomut'to. The Arenga saccharifera. 

P., gruln'ea. The Elais guineensis. 

P., oil. The Elais guineensis. 

P. oil. (F. huile de palme ; I. olio di 
palma; G. Palmol.) An oil obtained from the 
seeds of Cocos butyracea, Elais guineensis, and 
other species. 

P., sa'g-o. The Sagus vinifera. 

P. sugar. See Jaggery. 

P. tree. Any tree of the Nat. Order PaU 

P. wax. The product of the species of 

P. wine. The fermented juice of the 
Caryota urens, Elais guineensis, and other palms. 

Pal 'ma. (L. palma, a palm-tree.) A 
Genus of the Nat. Order Palmacea. 

P. a'dy. Sec A<h/. 

P. Chris'tl. (L.' Christus, Christ.) The 
Ricinus communis. 


P. oo'cos. The Cocos nucifera. 

P. dactyli'fera. The Phmnix dactylifera. 

P. humilis. (L. humilis, lowly.) The 
Musa paradisaica. 

P. ln'dica vlna'rla secun'da. (L. indi- 
cus, Indian ; vinarius, belonging to wine ; secun- 
dus, next.) The Arenga saccharifera. 

P. oleo sa. (L. oleum, oil.) The Elais 

P. pruni'fera. (L. prunus, a plum ; fero, 
to bear.) The Chanuerops humilis. 

P. ung-uentario'rum. (L. unguentarius, 
a perfumer.) The same as Myrobalan. 

Pal ma. (L. palma.) The Palm of the 
hand ; also, a branch of a tree. 

P. ma dus. (L. mamcs, the hand.) The 
Palm of the hand. 

Palma ceae. (L. palma, a palm tree.) A 
Nat. Order of the Cohort Palmates, being un- 
branched or, rarely, dichotomously branched 
trees or shrubs, with terminal leaves having 
sheathing stalks, hermaphrodite or unisexual 
flowers on a branched spadix, inferior perianth 
of the whorls, each with three parts ; 1 to 3 
carpels usually united, superior ovary, solitary 
ovule, sometimes two, and minute embryo in a 
depression in the fleshy or horn}' albumen. 

Pal mae. Nominative plural of L. palma, 
a branch of a tree. 

P. u'teri plica'tae. (L. uterus, the' womb; 
plicatus, folded.) The branched striae on the 
inner surface of the neck of the womb. 

Palma les. (L. palma, a palm tree.) A 
Cohort of the Sub-series Synearpce, being mono- 
cotyledonous shrubs or trees, with unisexual or 
hermaphrodite flowers on a branched spadix en- 
closed in a spathe ; two-whorled perianth in 
three segments, usually green ; indehescent, 1 — 2 
seeded fruit, and albuminous seed. 

Pal mar. (L.palmaris; from palma, the 
palm of the hand. F. palmaire ; I. palmare ; 
S. palmar ; G. hohlhandig, zu Palme gehorig.) 
Relating to the Palm of the hand ; relating to a 
Palm tree. 

P. aponeuro sis. ('Attodeu/xoo-19, the end 
of a muscle. P. aponevrose palmaire.) The 
Fascia, palmar. 

P. arch, cu'bital. {Cubit, the ulna. F. 
arcade palmaire cubitale.) The P. arch, super- 

P. arch, deep. (F. arcade palmaire pro- 
fonde, petite arcade palmaire, Chaussier ; G. 
tiefer Mohlhandbogen.) The palmar termination 
of the radial artery, commencing at the upper 
end of the first interosseous space, crossing the 
palm between the flexor tendons and the inter- 
ossei muscles, and joining the deep branch of 
the ulnar artery. It gives off recurrent branches 
which anastomose with those of the anterior 
carpal arch, descending branches, the palmar in- 
terosseous arteries, and the superior perforating 

P. arch, ra dial. (Radius. F. arcade 
palmaire radiate.) The Palmar arch, deep. 

P. arch, superficial. (L. superficies, 
the surface of a thing. F. arcade palmaire 
superficxelle ; G. Oberfiachlicherhohlhandbogen.) 
The palmar termination of the ulnar artery 
commencing at the distal border of the anterior 
annular ligament of the wrist, crossing the palm 
between the palmar fascia and the flexor tendons 
towards the middle of the thenar eminence and 
joining the superficialia vote, or the radialis 
indicis, or both. It gives off twigs to the super- 

ficial muscles, the integument of the palm, and 
the digital arteries. 

P. ar tery, deep. The P. arch, deep. 

P. ar'tery, superfic'ial. The P. arch, 

P. cuta neous nerve of me'dlan. (L. 

cutis, the skin ; medius, middle. F. nerf pal- 
maire cutanee ; I. nervo palmare cutaneo.) This 
branch pierces the fascia close to the anterior 
annular ligament of the wrist, and ends in the 
palmar integument, communicating with the 
corresponding branch of the ulnar. 

P. cuta neous nerve of ul'nar. It 
lies on the ulnar artery and passes with it to the 
hand, where it supplies part of the integument, 
joining with the corresponding branch of the 

P. digital ar'terles. See Digital arteries 
of hand, palmar. 

P. fas'cia. See Fascia, palmar. 

P. folds. (F. folis de locomotion.) See 
Palm, lines of. 

P. Interos'seous ar'terles. See Inter- 
osseous arteries of hand, deep palmar and super- 
ficial palmar. 

P. Interos'seous mus'cles. See Inter- 
osseous muscles of hand, palmar. 

P. ligaments. See Ligaments, palmar. 

P. nerves. See P. cutaneous nerve. 

P. re'glon. (F. region palmaire.) The 
region of the palm of the hand. 

P. veins. These form a fine plexus in the 
palm, giving rise to the median and anterior 
ulnar veins of the forearm. 
Falma'ris. See Palmar. 

P. anti'cus. (L. anticus, in front.) The 
Flexor carpi radialis. 

P. brev'is. (L. brevis, short. F. petit 
palmaire, palmaire cutane; G. kleiner Hohl- 
handmuskel.) A thin, flat, rectangular, sub- 
cutaneous muscle arising from the anterior 
annular ligament of the wrist and from the 
inner margin of the palmar fascia by six or 
eight long slender tendons, from which muscular 
fasciculi proceed transversely across the hand to 
be inserted into the deep surface of the skin at 
the inner border of the palm. 

P. cuta'neus. (L. cutancus, belonging 
to the skin. F. palmaire cutane.) The P. 

P. gracilis. (L. gracilis, slender. F. 
palmaire grille.) The P. longus. 

P. gran'dis. (L. grandis, great. F. grand 
palmaire ; I. palmare grande.) The P. longus. 

P. lnter'nus. (L. interims, within.) The 
Flexor carpi radialis. 

P. longus. (L. longus, long. F. long 
palmaire, petit palmaire, epitrochlo-metacarpien, 
Chaussier ; I. piccolo palmare ; G. Handsehnen- 
spanner.) A small, short muscle with a long 
tendon, arising from the internal condyle of the 
humerus and the intermuscular septum, and in- 
serted into the palmar fascia at the front of the 
wrist. It sometimes sends a slip to the small 
thumb muscles. 

P. longus bicauda'tus. (L. longus; 
**» i twice ; cauda, a tail.) A variation of the 
P. longus described by Gruber, which is inserted 
by two tendons. 

P. mag'nug, (L. tnagnus, great. I. pal- 
mare grandc.) The Flexor carpi radialis. 
Palmate. (L. palmatns, from palma. 
palme; 1. palmato ; S. palmado ; G. gefingert, 
handjormig.) Shaped like the hand. 


In Botany, applied to leaves or other parts 
which are more or less cleft between the nerves 
so as to resemble the hand with palm and 

In Zoology, applied to animals which have 
the digits connected by a membrane. 

Palma'tifid. (L. palma, the palm of the 
hand ; Jindo, to cleave. F. palmatiftde ; G. 
handspaltig .) De Candolle's term for leaves 
which are deeply cleft to half their depth. 

Palmatiflo rous. (L. palmatus; flos, 
a flower. F. palmatiflore ; G. handblumig.) 
Cassini's term for capitula composed of flowers 
with palmate corollae. 

Palmatifo'lious. (L.palmatus ; folium, 
a leaf. F. pa/matifolie ; G. handblatterig .) 
Having palmate leaves. 

Palma tiform. (L. palmatus ; forma, 
shape. F. palmatiforme ; G. handformig.) 
Somewhat palmate. 

Palmatilo bate. (L. palmatus ; lobate. 
F '. palmatilobe ; G. handlappig.) De Candolle's 
term for leaves the lobes of which are palmate. 

Palmatinerv'ate. (L. palmatus ; 
nervus, a nerve. F. palmatinerve.) Applied to 
a leaf the nervures of which are palmate. 

Palmatipart ite. (L. palmatus ; par- 
titas, divided. F. palmatipartite ; G. hand- 
theilig.) De Candolle's term for a leaf divided 
by palmate lobes. 

Palmatisect'ed. (L. palmatus; see- 
tus, cut. F. palmatiseque ; G. handschnittig .) 
De Candolle's term for a leaf which is divided 
into palmate lobes. 

Pal mature. (L. palma, the palm of the 
hand.) The condition of being Palmate. 

P. of fingers. Adhesion of the fingers to 
each other. See Web-fingers. 

Palmet'tO, saw. The Chamwrops ser- 

Pal'mlc. (HaX/xos, a quivering motion.) 
Kelating to Palpitation. 

Pal mic. (L. palma, a palm.) Eelating 
to a Palm tree. 

P. ac'id. (F. acide palmique.) A colour- 
less, crystallisable acid, solid at ordinary tem- 
peratures, meltiug at 50° C, prepared by saponi- 
fication of Palmin or of castor-oil (Littre.) 

Palmi colous. (L. palma, a palm tree ; 
eolo, to inhabit. F. palmicole ; G. palmbe- 
wohnend.) Living upon palm trees. 

Palmicorn'ate. (L. palma ; cornu, a 
horn. F . palmicorne ; G. handgehornt.) Having 
a palmate horn, or antenna, or filament. 

Palmifo lious. (L. palma, a palm tree ; 
folium, a leaf. F. palmifolie ; G. handblatterig.) 
Having palmate leaves. 

Pal'miform. (L. palma, the palm of 
the hand; forma, shape. F. palmiforme ; I. 
palmiforme; S. palmiforme; G. handformig, 
palmformig.) Having the shape of the palm of 
the band. 

Pal mm. (F. palmin ; I. palmina ; S. 
palmina ; G. Palmin.) A solid substance ob- 
tained by Boudet on heating castor oil with hypo- 
nitric acid. 

Palminerv'ate. (L. palma, the palm 
of the hand ; nervus, a nerve. F. palminerve ; 
G. handnervig.) Applied to a leaf the nerves 
of which radiate like the fingers of a hand. 
Pal mipede. (L. palma ; pes, a foot. F. 
abnipjde ; I. palmipede ; S. palmipedo ; G. 
andfiisdg.) Having a palmate or webbed foot. 
Palmipedes. (L. palma; pes. F. 

palmipedes ; G. Sckwimmvogel.) An Order of 
the Class Aves having webbed feet, and other- 
wise fitted for an aquatic life. 

Palmiphalan'gli. (L. palma ; pha- 
lanx. F. palmi-phalangiens.) The Luinbri- 
cales manus. 

Pal mistry. (L. palma, the palm of the 
hand.) Fortune-telling, from a consideration of 
the lines and elevations on the palm of the hand. 

Pal'mitate. A salt of Palmitic acid. 

Palmi'tes. (L. palma, a palm tree.) 
Wine in which dates have been infused. 

Palmit ic. (L. palma, a palm tree. F. 
palmitique.) Relating to the Palm tree or to 

P. ac'id. (F. acide palmitique ; I. acido 
palmitico ; G. Palmitinsaure.) Cj 0 A 3 2O 2 . A 
substance discovered by Fremy in palm oil. It 
occurs in nacreous scales. 

Pal mitin. (L. palma, a palm tree. 
F. palmitine ; I. palmitina ; G. Palmitin.) 
C3H5(C ]6 H 31 0 2 l3. Tripalmitate of glyceryl. 

Pal'mityl. ("Y\>;, the stuff of which a 
thing is made.) The hypothetical radical of 
Palmitic acid. 

Palmomantei'a. (ria\/uos, a quivering 
motion ; /lav-re'ia, prophesying.) Divination 
from observation of pulsations of the heart and 
arteries, of quivering of muscles, and of move- 
ments of the intestines. 

Palmoplan tar. (L. palma, the palm 
of the hand ; planta, the sole of the foot. F. 
palmoplantaire.) Storr's term for those mammals 
that have the extremities of the hind limbs 
formed like hands. 

Pal'mos. (ElaX^os.) An old term for 

Also, a synonym of Subsultus. 

Palmo scopy. (na\,uos ; o-kotteco, to 
observe. F. palmoscopie.) The investigation of 
the beating of the heart and pulse. 

Also, the foretelling of events from observa- 
tion of the heart and pulse beats. 

Pal'mula. (Dim. of L. palma, the palm 
of the hand. F. palmule.) A little hand ; a 
small organ having a palmate shape. 

Also (L. palma, a palm tree), a term for the 
fruit of the date-palm. 

Pal mulate. (F. palmule.) Having a 

Pal mule. The same as Palmula. 
Pal'mus. The same as Palmos. 
P. cor dis. (L. cor, the heart.) Palpita- 
tion of the heart. 

P. plumbar'ius. (L. plumbum, lead.) 
Tremors produced by chronic lead poisoning. 

P. vom'itus. (L. vomitus, a vomiting.) 

Palmy ra spring's. United States of 
America, Wisconsin, Jefferson County. An 
alkaline water from twenty-five sources ; the 
springs used have much the same composition ; 
the one called Zenobia's Fountain contains cal- 
cium bicarbonate 12-85 grains, and magnesium 
bicarbonate 10 - 14 grains in a gallon ; the others 
contain less magnesium bicarbonate ; the amount 
of sodium bicarbonate does not exceed l - 5 grain 
in any of them. 

Palmy'ra tree. The Borassus flabelli- 
for mis. 

Palo. (S. palo, a stick.) The stem or root 
of a plant. 

P. de calentu'ras. (§. de, of; calcnturas, 
chills and fever.) The Cinchona tree. 


P. de va'ca. (S. de ; vaca, a cow.) Tho 
flrosimum galactodendron. 

P. de ve las. (S. de; velas, a watch ; from 
i he ancient use of candles as time-pieces.) The 
o.indle tree, Parmentiera cerifera. 

Palo Pin to min'eral well. United 
States of America, Texas, Palo Pinto Count}'. 
One of about 140 different springs in the same 
neighbourhood containing calcium carbonate 2-08 
grains, magnesium carbonate 4-66, sodium sul- 
phate 150-05, calcium sulphate 6-55, magnesium 
sulphate 18-84, sodium chloride 23 98, potassium 
chloride 1-28, calcium chloride 5 5S, aluminium 
oxide P54, and silica P86 grains in a gallon. 

Pal pate. Possessing a Palpus. 

Also (L. palpo), to employ Palpation. 

Palpation. (L. palpatio, a broking; 
from palpo, for spalpo, to touch softly ; from 
Arvan root spar, to quiver. F. palpation; I. 
palpazione; S. palpamiento ; G. Betastttng.) 
The gentle feeling, by means of the fingers, of an 
internal organ through the integument, for the 
purpose of ascertaining its size, form, and con- 

Palpatom'etry. (L. palpatio ; Gr. 
fiirpov, a measure.) Estimation of the tender- 
ness produced by palpation, by means of an in- 
strument with a graduated scale recording the 
amount of pressure. 

Pal'pebra. (L. palpebra, an eyelid ; from 
palpo, to touch softly. P. paupiere ; l.palpebra ; 
S. palpado ; G. Augenlicd.) An Eyelid. 

P. fico'sa. (L.jicus, a fig.) A synonym 
of Trachoma. 

P. infe rior. (L. inferior, lower.) The 
lower Eyelid. 

P. infe rior extror'sum flex' a. (L. 
inferior ; extrorsum, outward ; Jlexus, bent.) A 
synonym of Ectropium. 

P. ma jor. (L. major, greater.) The 
upper Eyelid. 

P. minor. (L. minor, less.) The lower 

P. supe rior. (L. superior, upper.) The 
upper Eyelid. 

P. ter'tia. (L. tertius, third.) The Plica 

Palpebral superio'ris primus. 
(L. palpebra ; superior, upper ; primus, first.) 
The Levator palpebrce superioris. 

Palpebral. (L palpebralis, of the eye- 
lids. P. palpebral ; I. palpebrale ; S. palpebral.) 
Belonging, or relating, to the palpebras or eye- 

P. arch, lnfe'rlor. (L. inferior, lower. 
F. arcade palpebrale infericure.) The arch 
formed by tho inferior palpebral artery in the 
lower eyelid. 

P. arch, supe rior. (L. superior, upper. 
F. arcade palpebrale superieure.) The arch 
formed by the superior palpebral artery in tho 
upper eyelid. 

P. ar tery, lnfe'rlor. (L. inferior, lower. 
V. artere palpebrale infericure ; I. arleria pal- 
pebrale xnefriore ; G. untere Augenlidschlaga- 
tltr.) A branch of the ophthalmic artery arising 
near the pulley of the obliquus superior, de- 
fending vertically behind the tendon of the 
orbicularis palpebrarum, and forming an arch in 
he lower eyelid with the palpebral branch of 
the lacrimal artery immediately below the 
eyelashes and between the tarsal cartilage and 
the orbicularis palpebrarum. From the arch 
anse ascending twigs to supply the skin, the 

orbicularis palpebrarum, the Meibomian glands, 
the ciliary glands, and the conjunctiva ; and 
descending branches which supply the muscles, 
and anastomose with the infraorbital artery, 

P. ar'tery of superficial tem'poral. 
Tho Orbital branch. 

P. ar'tery, supe'rior. (I., superior, 
upper. F. artere palpebrale superieure ; I. 
arteria palpebrale superiore ; G. obere Augenlid- 
schlagader.) A branch of the ophthalmic artery 
arising near to, or by a common trunk with, 
the inferior palpebral artery, descending verti- 
cally for a short distance, and then forming an 
arch in the upper eyelid with the palpebral 
branch of the superficial temporal artery just 
above the eyelashes and between the tarsal 
cartilage and the orbicularis palpebrarum. It 
gives off descending branches to the Meibomian 
glands, the tarsal conjunctiva, and the skin, 
and ascending branches to the substance of the 

P. car'tilage. The 6ame as Tarsal car- 

P. conjunctiva. The Conjunctiva pal- 

P. fas'cia. (L. fascia, a band. F. ligament 
palpebral.) The Ligament, tarsal, of eyelids. 
P. lis sure. See Fissure, palpebral. 
P. fold. The Conjunctival fold. 
P. fol'licles. (L. folliculus, a small bag. 

F. follicules palpebraux.) The Meibomian 

P. flux, pu'rlform. (L. flux, a flow; 
pus, matter ; forma, likeness.) A puriform dis- 
charge from inflamed Meibomian glands. 

P. lig aments. See Ligamenta palpe- 

Also, see Ligament, tarsal, of eyelids. 

P. mus'cle. (F. muscle palpebral; G. 
Augenlidmuskel.) The Orbicularis palpebrarum. 

P. mus'cle, lnfe'rlor. (L. inferior, 
lower.) 1 he thin, non-striated edge of the or- 
bicularis, inserted into the tarsal cartilage and 
connected with the fascia of the inferior rectus. 

P. mus'cle, supe'rior. (L. superior, 
upper.) The Orbito-palpebralis. 

P. nerves, infe'rior. (L. inferior, lower.) 
Two small twigs, an inner and an outer, arising 
from the superior maxillary nerve. 

P. nerves, supe'rior. (L. superior, 
upper.) Small twigs from the supratrochlear 
and supraorbital branches of the frontal nerve. 

P. re gion. The region of the Palpebra 
or eyelids. 

P. veins, exter'nal. Small veins joining 
the orbital branch of the temporal vein. 

P. veins, infe'rior. (L. inferior, lower. 

G. untere Augenlidblutader.) Two or three 
small veins collecting blood from the lower eye- 
lid and the adjacent cheek, and emptying into 
the facial vein below the orbit. 

P. veins, supe'rior. (L. superior, upper. 
G. obere Augenlidblutader.) Small veins collect- 
ing blood from the upper eyelid, and emptying 
into the angular vein. 

Palpebra lis. The Orbicularis palpe- 

P. lnfe'rlor. See Palpebral mmcle, in- 

P. supe'rior. Sec Palpebral mmcle, su- 

Palpebrarum ape riens rectus. 

(L. palpebra, an eyelid ; aperio, to open ; rectus, 
straight.) The Levator palpebra; superioris. 



P. duo mus'cull. (L. duo, two ; muscu- 
lus, a muscle.) The Orbicularis palpebrarum. 

Palpebrate. (L. palpebratus, part, of 
palpebro, to wink frequently.) Having eyelids ; 
also, to wink. 

Falpebra'tion. (L- palpebratio, a 
blinking.) The act of winking; the same as 

Falpebrofron'tal. (L. palpebrum, an 
eyelid ; frons, the forehead. F . palpebrofrontal, 
Chaussier.) The Frontal nerve. 

Also, the Frontal muscle. 

Pal pebrum. Same as Palpebra. 

Pal pi. Nom. plural of Palpus. 

Palp if erous. {Palpus ; L.fero, to bear. 
F. palpifere ; G. fressspitzetragend.) Bearing, 
or possessing, a Palpus. 

PaTpiform. {Palpus; L. forma, shape. 
F.palpiform; G. fressspitzefbrmig.) Having 
the form of a Palpus. 

Palpigr'eroilS. {Palpus; L. gero, to bear. 
F. palpigere ; G. fressspitzetragend.) Bearing 
a Palpus. 

Pal'pitate. (L. palpito, to move fre- 
quently and quickly ; from palpo, to move quickly. 
F. palpiter ; I. palpitare ; S. palpitar ; G. 
hlopfen, palpitiren.) To throb. 

Palpita'tio. The same as Palpitation. 

P. arteriar'um. (L. arteria, an artery.) 
Throbbing of the arteries. 

P. cor dis trep idans. (L. cor, the 
heart; trepidans, trembling. ) Rapid and feeble 
throbbing of the heart. 

P. membro'rum. (L. membra, the limbs.) 
Gaubius's term for involuntary sli aking of the legs. 

Palpita tion. (F. palpitation ; from L. 
valpitatio ; from palpito. I. palpitazione ; S. 
palpitacion ; G. Herzklopfen.) Throbbing of 
the heart, from increased force of the beats ; the 
frequency is also increased. It occurs in many 
affections, and may be either reflex or due to 
disease of the heart. 

Pal'pus. (L. palpus, a stroking; from 
palpo, for spalpo, to touch softly ; from Aryan 
root spar, to quiver. F. palpe ; 1. palpo ; S. 
palpo ; G. Palpe, Fiihler.) An articulated, mo- 
bile filament attached to the jaws of Crustacea, 
Arachnida, and Insecta. 

P. la'bial. The palpus affixed to the 
labium in Insecta. 

P. maxillary. The palpus attached to 
the maxilla in Arthropods. 

Pal sy. (Mid. E. palesy, parlesy ; F. 
paralysie ; from L. paralysis ; from Gr. irapa- 
Auo-is, palsy.) The same as Paralysis. 

P., Bell's. (Sir Charles Bell.) See Bell's 

P., creep ing-. A term for Atrophy, pro- 
gressive muscular. 

P., cros'sed. See Hemiplegia, crossed. 

P., crutch. Seo Crutch palsy. 

P., fa'cial. (L. fades, the face.) See 
Paralysis, facial. 

P., fa'cial, mimic. See Mimic facial 

P., hammer. Paralysis of the muscles 
of the arm and shoulder caused by excessive 
use of the hammer. 

P., hlstrlon'ic. See Paralysis, histrionic. 

P., hysterical. See Paralysis, hysterical. 

P., lead. See Lead palsy. 

P., mercurial. See Mercurial paralysis. 

P., metallic. See Lead palsy and Mer- 
curial paralysis. 

P., painter's. The snme as Lead palsy. 

P., pen. See Scrivener' s palsy. 

P., psy'chical. {¥vkik6s, Ijelonging to 
the soul.) The same as Paralysis, hysterical. 

P., scribe. (L. scribo, to write.) The 
same as Scrivener' s palsy. 

P., semp'stress's. See Sempstress's 

P., sha king. See Paralysis agitans. 
P., sha king mercu rial. See Mercurial 


P., trans'verse. (L. transversus, turned 
across.) The same as Hemiplegia, crossed. 

P., trem bling-. The same as Paralysis 

P., wasting:. The same as Atrophy, pro- 
gressive muscular. 

P. -wort. The Primula veris. 

Also, the Caltha palustris. 
P., writer's. See Scrivener's palsy. 

Pal ta tree. The Persea gratissima. 

Palu dal. (L. palus, a swamp. F. palu- 
deen ; I. paludale ; S. paludoso ; G. sumpfig.) 
Relating to a swamp or marsh. 

P. fe'ver. See Fever, paludal. 

Paludapium. (L. palus; opium, 
parsley.) The Apium graveolens. 

Paludeln. (F. paludeine.) The mucus 
of the snail, Paludina vivipara, which is made 
into a soothing pectoral syrup. 

Palu'dic. (L. palus, a swamp. F. palu- 
dique.) The same as Paludal. 

Paludic'olous. (L. palus ; colo, to in- 
habit. F. paludicole; G. sumpfbewohnend.) 
Inhabiting, or growing in, a marsh. 

Paludi na. (L. palus, a swamp. F. palu- 
dine.) A Genus of the Order Prosobranchiata, 
Class Mollusca. 

P. vivipara, Linn. (L. vivus, living; 
pario, to bring forth.) A fresh-water snail, the 
mucus of whieh has been used to make a sooth- 
ing syrup. 

Paludism. (F. paludisme; from L. 
palus, a marsh.) The condition of ill-health 
produced by exposure to marsh miasmata. 

Pal'udose. (L. palus. F. paludeux ; I. 
paludoso.) The same as Paludal. 

Palus. (L. palus, a marsh.) A swamp ; 
a marsh . 

Also (L. palus, a stake), the Penis. 
P. sanc'tus. (L. sanctus, holy.) Guaia- 
cum wood. 

Palu'stral. The same as Paludal. 

Pambio'ma. See Panbioma. 

Pam pathes. {Ua^iraQM, all-suffering.) 
An old term for a compound plaster of cinnabar 
for scirrhous tumours. 

Pampel'mus. The shaddock, Citrus 

Pamphil ion. (n^wuXios, beloved of 
all.) The name of a white plaster described by 

Pamphob'ia. Same as Panophobia or 
as Pantophobia. 

Pampiniform. (L. pampinus, a ten- 
dril ; forma, shape. F. pampinU'orme ; I. pam- 
piniforme ; S. pampiniforme ; G. rankenartiy .) 

P. bod'y. The Plexus pampiniforme. 
P. plex'us. See Plexus pampiniforme. 

Pam pinus. (L. pampinus.) 'The ten- 
dril of a vine. 

Pample'gla. (IIas,all; -TrXvyv, a stroke.) 
General paralysis. 


Pampo'ra. The thick vanilla of the 
Spanish colonies. 

Panace a. (L. panacea ; Gr. iravaKiia, 
a universal remedy ; from iravaKiU, all-healing; 
from iros, all; &koi, a cure. F. panacee ; I. 
panacea; S. panacea; G. Panacee, Allgemein- 
mittel.) A remedy for all ills. 

P. an g-Hca. (Mod. L. anglicus, English. 
F. panacee anglaise.) Carbonate of magnesia 
mixed with carbonate of lime. 

P. du'cis holsa'tiae. (L. dux, a duke; 
Mod. L. Molsatia, Holstein.) Sulphate of potash. 

P. duplica'ta. (L. duplicatus, two-fold.) 
Sulphate of potash. 

P. Glaube'ri. (Glauber.) Sulphate of 

P. holsat'ica. (Mod. L. Holsatia, Hol- 
stein.) Sulphate of potash. 

P. lapso rum. (L. lapsus, a fall.) The 
Arnica montana. 

P. mercuria'lls. {Mercury.) Calomel 
nine times sublimed. 

P. mercu'rii ru'bri. {Mercury; L. ruber, 
red.) Nitric oxide of mercury. 

P. mineralis specificum vlr- 
u in eum. {Mineral ; L. specificus, particular ; 
virgo, a virgin.) The Pulvis Viennensis albus 

P. of the moun tain. The Heracleum 

P. pec'toris. (L. pectus, the chest.) The 
Glechoma hederacea. 

P. soluti'va. (L. solutus, loose.) Mag- 

P. spring's. United States of America, 
North Carolina, Halifax County. A weak chalyb- 
eate water. 

P. vegetab ilis. {Vegetable.) Saffron. 

Pan aeon. C 2 2Hi 9 0 8 . A substance formed 
by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on 
Panaquilon, which then, with the formation of a 
purple colour, breaks up into a carbonate, pan- 
acon, and water. 

Pana da. (S. panado, bread macerated in 
water, for sick persons; from pan, bread. F. 
panade; l.panata; G. Panade.) Bread soaked 
or boiled with water to a pulpy consistence. 

Pana'do. See Panada. 

Panalethes. (IIf<£/«\)j6>ie, all-true.) A 
black cephalic plaster mentioned by Aetius. 

Pan'ama bark. The same as Quillaja 

P. fe'ver. Term used in Panama, some- 
times for Malarial fever, sometimes for Yellow 
fever, both of them occurring there. 

P. paral'ysls. {TlapdXvo-is, palsy. G. 
Panamalahmung.) A term for Beriberi. 

Panaquilon. (F. panaquilone.) 
C 24 H o 0| 8 . An amorphous, sweet substance, found 
in ginseng by Garngues (1864). 

Panaricium. (L. panaritium; cor- 
rupted from paronychia; Gr. Trapwvvyla, a 
whitlow.) A Whitlow. 

P. t en din o'sum. The same as Paronychia 

Pan'aris. (F. panaris; from L. panari- 
cium, corrupted from paronychia. I. patercccio.) 
A Whitlow. 

P. analge'sica. («. negative ; lAy^ait, 
the sense of pain. F. maladie de Morvan } panaris 
analgesique!) Morvan's disease. A disease of 
the central nervous system, characterised by 
analgesia and partial paralysis, accompanied by 
trophic changes, of the upper limb (Billings). 


Panarit'ium. See Panaritium. 

Panar ium. The same as Panaritium, 

Panarthritis. (lias; Arthritis.) In- 
flammation of all the tissues of a joint. 

Pa'nary. (L. panis, bread. P. panaire.) 
Relating to bread. 

P. fermentation. The fermentation 
which takes place in dough during the making 
of bread. 

Panatel la. The same as Panada. 
Panax. {Iluvaf, the plant which sup- 
plies opoponax.) A Genus of the Nat. Order 


P. ani'sum, (^Avicrov, anise.) Used as 
an aromatic. 

P. cocblea turn. (L. cochlea, a snail- 
shell.) An aromatic. 

P. co'lonl. The same as Stachys palus- 


P. costi'num. (Koo-tos, a root used as 
spice.) The Pastinaca opoponax. 

P. frutico'sum, Linn. (L. frutex, a 
shrub.) Hab. Java. A diuretic. 

P. gin seng, (Ginseng, a Chinese word 
signifying wonder of the world.) The P. quinque- 

P. heracleum. (L. Heracleum, a town 
of Macedonia.) The Pastinaca opoponax. 

P. pastina'cea. The Pastinaca op- 

P. morotot ani, Aubl. Hab. Cayenne. 
The whole plant is aromatic. 

P. quinquefol ium, Linn. (L. quinque, 
five ; folium, a leaf.) Hab. North America. 
Exported to China as ginseng. Root sweet, and 
slightly aromatic. Employed as a cordial, alexi- 
teric, and aphrodisiac. 

P. schin'seng, Nees. The P. ginseng. 
P. undula'ta, Pers. The P. morototani. 

Panbio'ma. (nSs, all ; /3ios, life.) The 
general principle of life. 

Panblas tic. (n5s ; /3)Wtos, a shoot.) 
Arising in, or connected with, all the layers of 
the blastoderm. 

Panca'g'a. The Hydrocolyle asialica. 

Panchres'ton, {H&yxpncrTo?, good for 
all work. F. panchreste ; I. pancresto ; S. pan- 
cresto ; G. Panchrestum.) A panacea. 

Panchres'tOUS. (Jlayxpnv-ro?.) Uni- 
versally useful. 

Panchres tum chi nae. Labarraque's 
term for a preparation of cinchona bark contain- 
ing both quinine and cinchonine. 

Fanchry sos. {Uayxpbatos, all-golden.) 
A collyrium mentioned by Paulus -ZEgineta. 

Fanchy magogue. (nae, all; x"^j 
juice ; ayw, to drive out. F. panchymagogue ; 
I. panchimagogo ; S. panchimagogo ; G. Pan- 
chymagogum.) A medicine anciently believed 
to drive out all peccant humours. 

Fanchymag-o'g-um. A Panchyma- 

P. mlnera'le. {Mineral.) Calomel. 
Fancoenon osus. (lias, ail; mhvos, 
common to ; voaov, disease.) An epidemic dis- 

Fancocnon'usos. (Has; 
disease.) An epidemic disease. 

Pancoe'nous. {Ilaf, koivo*.) Epi- 

Pancrat'ic. (nayK/xmjs, all powerful.) 
Very powerful. 

P. mi croscope. See Microscope, pan- 


Pancratium. {TlayKpuTiov; from 
Tray/c/oaTr/s, all-powerful.) An exercise of the 
Greek youths, whioh combined wrestling and 

Also, a Genus of the Nat. Order Amaryllid- 

Also, the Scilla maritima or S. pancra- 

P. cicbo'rium. The Cichorium intybus. 

P. mariflmum, Linn. (L. maritimus, 
belonging to the sea.) Said to be emetic. 

Pan creas. (Tldyicptus, the sweetbread ; 
from Tray, all; Kpias, flesh. F. pancreas; I. 
pancreas ; S. pancreas ; G. Pankreas, Bauch- 
speicheldriise, Oekrosdriise, JSfagendriise.) A 
long, flat, compound racemose gland, of reddish- 
cream colour, lying across the hinder wall of the 
abdomen in front of the first lumbar vertebra, 
behind the stomach, above the superior mesen- 
teric artery, and below the cceliac axis. It is 15 
to 16 or 18 cm. long, and l'fi to l - 8 cm. thick ; it 
is very variable in weight, averaging 70 grammes 
in the male and 60 grammes in the female, but 
in some cases reaching 80 or 90 grammes or 
more. Its right end, the head, is embraced by 
the duodenum ; its left end, the tail, is in con- 
tact with the spleen ; the intermediate part, or 
body, connecting the two, is constricted at its 
junction with the head by a furrow on the pos- 
terior surface and the inferior border, for the 
vena porta? and the superior mesenteric vessels. 
The anterior surface of the head, somewhat con- 
cave, is in contact with the stomach and with 
the first portion of the duodenum ; the posterior 
surface lies on the vena cava inferior and on 
the vena portse, which separate it from the 
right pillar of the diaphragm and the vertebral 
column ; it presents a furrow for the ductus 
communis choledochus above and on the right. 
The body lies on the mesenteric vessels, the 
aorta, the left pillar of the diaphragm, the left 
adrenal, and the splenic vein ; the tail lies on 
the left kidney and touches the spleen. The 
upper border is furrowed for the splenic artery, 
and at the neck is in contact with the cceliac 
axis and the solar plexus. The lower border 
corresponds to the third part of the duodenum, 
the superior mesenteric vessels, and the inferior 
mesenteric vein. The gland discharges its secre- 
tion by means of the Pancreatic duct into the 
duodenum. It receives its blood supply from 
the splenic artery, the hepatic artery, and the 
superior mesenteric artery ; its veins open into 
the splenic and the superior mesenteric veins ; 
its lymphatics empty into the lumbar lymphatics, 
and its nerve supply is derived from the solar 
plexus. It consists of cells forming tubular 
alveoli, which are collected into lobules and then 
into lobes separated by connective tissue derived 
from a somewhat indistinct capsule. Its secre- 
tion is the Pancreatic juice. 

P., acces'sory duct of. (L. accessus, an 
approach. G. Nebenpancreas?) An accessory 
duct sometimes present, passing from the head of 
the gland and opening separately into the duo- 

P., an'imal mat'ter of. (F. matiere 
animale du pancreas, Leuret.) The same as 

P., bod'y of. (F. corps du pancreas.) See 

P., fat'ty degeneration of. This occurs 
occasionally, but is not of clinical interest. 

P., bead of. (F. Ute du pancreas ; G. 

Kopf der Bauchspeicheldriise.) The enlarged 
right extremity of the pancreas. 

P., lobes of. The pancreas is similar in 
structure to the salivary glands, but its lobes 
and lobules are less compact. 

P., lympbat'les of. These join the 
lumbar lymphatics and glands. 

P. minus. (L. minus, less.) The same 
as Aselli, pancreas of. 

P., neck of. (F. col du pancreas.) San- 
torini's term for the constricted portion of the 
pancreas between the head and the body, the 
constriction being produced by the furrows for 
the vena portae and the mesenteric vessels. 

P. of Aselli. See Aselli, pancreas of. 

P. par'vum. (L. parvus, small.) The 
same as Aselli, pancreas of. 

P. par'vum Winslow'ii. In some cases 
the lower part of the head of the pancreas, 
which curves round behind and partially em- 
braces the superior mesenteric artery and vein, 
is marked off from the rest of the gland. This 
separated portion was named by Winslow Pan- 
creas parvum. See Aselli, pancreas of. 

P. pty'alin. See under Plyalin. 

P., sec'ond. A synonym of Brunner's 

P. secundar'ium. See P., second. 

P. succenturia'tus. (L. succenturio, to 
receive as a substitute.) A' term for Brunner's 

P., tall of. (F. queue du pancreas ; G. 
Schwanz der Bauchspeicheldriise.) The nar- 
rower or left end of the pancreas. 

P. Winslow'ii. {Winslow.) The same 
as Aselli, pancreas of. 

Pancreatal gia. (UdyKptas; aXyos, 
pain. F '. pancreatalgie ; I. pancreatalgia; S. 
pancreatalgia ; G. Bauehspeieheldriisenschmerz.) 
Fain in the pancreas. 

Pancreatemphrax is. (Jl&yKptas; 
tficppa^is, a stopping. F. pancreatemphraxis ; I. 
pancreatemfrassi ; S. pancreatemfraxis ; G. 
Bauchspeicheldriisenverstopfung.) Obstruction, 
or engorgement, of the pancreas. 

Pancreathelco sis. (JldyKptas; k'X- 
/caxris, ulceration. F.pancreatelcose.) Ulceration 
of the pancreas. 

Pancreat'ic. (JldyKpf.a<s. Y.pancrea- 
tique ; I. pancreatico ; S. pancreatico ; G. pan- 
kreatisch.) Relating to the Pancreas. 

P. ar'teries. Branches of the Splenic 
artery, variable both in number and size, given 
off downwards to the pancreas, and supplying 
its body and tail. There is often one of larger 
size than the rest running in the direction of the 
pancreatic duct, called Arteria pancreatic magna. 

P. canal'. (L. canalis, a pipe. F. canal 
pancreatique.) The P. duct. 

P. di'astase. (Auio-racris, separation.) 
Roberts' term for Amylopsin. 

P. diges tion. See P. juice ; also, Duo- 
denal digestion. 

P. duct. See Ductus pancreatic us. 

P. duct, ac'cessory. See Ductus pan- 
creaticus accessorius. 

P. emul sion. (L. emuhjeo, to milk out.) 
This is prepared from the pig's pancreas by mix- 
ing it with lard and pounding in water, straining, 
and then exhausting with ether. From the 
ethereal solution of pancreatised lard the ether is 
distilled, and the substance is then mixed and 
emulsified by .shaking with rectified spirit and 
water. To flavour it, and also to prevent its de- 


composition, oil of cloves is added. It is given 
in doses of 1 to 3 drachms, in milk and water 
with u little spirit, two hours after meals, in dis- 
eases associated with inability to assimilate oils 
and fats. See under Pancreatin. 

P. juice. (F. sue pancreatique ; I. succo 
pancreatico ; G. Bauchspeichel, Bauchspeichel- 
driisensaft.) The secretion of the Pancreas. It 
is a clear, viscid, alkaline fluid, differing from 
most of the other digestive juices by the com- 
paratively large amount of proteids it contains. 
The constituents of quite fresh pancreatic juice 
are albumin, a proteid allied to myosin, fats and 
soaps in small amount, sodium carbonate (to 
which its alkalinity is due), and water. The 
average amount of solids is probably 2 to 5 
per cent. Pancreatic juice converts starch into 
sugar (chiefly maltose) ; it first dissolves proteids 
and then converts them into peptone ; it emulsi- 
fies fats, and splits up neutral tats into their re- 
spective fatty acids and glycerin ; it also curdles 
milk. The actions on these three classes of food- 
stuffs seem to be due to three separate and dis- 
tinct ferments : amylopsin, acting on starch ; 
trypsin, on proteids ; and steapsin, splitting up 
neutral fats. The emulsifying action appears to 
be due mainly to the presence of alkalies and 
alkali-albumin. The precipitation of the casein, 
causing curdling of milk, is due to a fourth dis- 
tinct ferment. 

P. juice, ac tive mat'ter of. (F. ma- 
tiere active du sue pancreatique, CI. Bernard.) 
The same as Pancreatin. 

P. juice, albu men of. (F. albumine du 
sue pancreatique, Tiedemann and Gmelin.) The 
same as Pancreatin. 

P. juice, salivary mat'ter of. (L. 
saliva, spittle. F. maticrc salivaire du sue pan- 
creatique.) The same as Pancreatin. 

P. lobe of liv'er. (F. lobe pancreatique 
du foie.) The Lobe of liver, Spigelian. 

P. mat'ter. (F. matiere pancreatique.) 
The same as Pancreatin. 

P. mu'eus. (L. mucus, slime. F. mucus 
pancreatique.) The same as Pancreatin. 

P. nerves. See Pancreatic plexus. 

P. plex us. (L. plexus, a weaving. F. 
plexus pancreatique; G. Bauchspeildriisenge- 
flecht.) A subsidiary nerve plexus derived from 
the splenic plexus. 

P. sarco'ma of Abernethy. See Sar- 
coma, pancreatic. 

P. veins. Veins passing upwards from the 
pancreas to open into the Splenic vein. 
Pancreaticoduodenal ar'tery. 
' The same as P. artery, superior. 

P. ar'tery, lnfe'rior. (L. inferior, lower. 
F. artere pancreatico-duodenale inferieure ; G. 
untere Zwoljfingerdarmschlagader .) A branch 
of the first intestinal branch of the superior 
mesenteric, which runs along the concave border 
of the duodenum to anastomose with the superior 
duodenal artery. 

P. ar'tery, supe'rlor. (L. superior, 
upper. F. artere pancreatico-duodenale; G. 
ooere Zw'dlffmgerdarmschlagader.) One of the 
terminal branches of the gastro-duodenal branch 
of the hepatic artery. It runs along the inner 
margin or the duodenum, between it and tho pan- 
creas, both of which it supplies, and anastomoses 
with the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery. 

P. plex'us. (L. plexus, a weaving.) A 
sympathetic nerve plexus lying between the 
pancreas and the duodenum. 

P. vein. A vein receiving factors from the 
pancreas and duodenum, and opening into the 
portal vein. 

Pancreaticosplen'ic. Relating to 
the Pancreas and the Spleen. 

P. lip amcnt. (L. ligamentum, a band.) 
The P. omentum. 

P. omen tum. A fold of peritoneum con- 
necting the tail of the pancreas with the lower 
third of the inner surface of the spleen. 

Pancreatin. (Ud-yapta?. F. pancrea- 
tine ; I. pancreatina ; S. pancreatina ; G. Pan- 
kreatin.) This term has been applied to various 
preparations from the Pancreas. See Pancrea- 

Pancreati'num. An extract of the 
pancreas, containing its active principles, and 
having a digestive action similar to thatof natural 
pancreatic juice. It is prepared as follows: — 
Finely-minced fresh bullock's pancreas is ma- 
cerated for twenty-four hours in water slightly 
acidified by hydrochloric acid. It is then ma- 
cerated in pure water. The liquids are strained, 
filtered, neutralised with calcium carbonate, 
filtered again, and then an equal part of alcohol 
(95 per cent.) is mixed with them. A precipitate 
is formed, which is washed with weak alcohol, 
pressed between sheets of bibulous paper, and 
finally dried without the aid of heat (Professor 
Schetfer, 1875). This extract is a transparent, 
yellow, friable substance, almost entirely soluble 
in water. The solution is a clear, yellowish, 
neutral liquid, forming white precipitates on 
heating, and on the addition of alcohol. Hydro- 
chloric acid also forms with it a precipitate. 
Pancreatinum is given therapeutically in certain 
kinds of dyspepsia. 1. In infants suffering from 
dyspepsia with inability to digest milk. 2. In 
phthisical patients who are unable to digest any 
kind of fat, even cod-liver oil. 3. In cases of 
jaundice in which fat is not digested. 4. In 
cases of intestinal dyspepsia as distinguished 
from gastric dyspepsia, in which pain, flatulence, 
vomiting, and diarrhoea come on two or three 
hours after meals. 5. In those diseases in which 
the imperfect digestion of albuminous foods is 
an essential factor ; rickets, scrofula, diabetes, 
pernicious and simple anaemia, &c. Given either 
by the mouth as an emulsion, or better, by the 
rectum. See Leube's nutrient enema. 

Pan'creatised farinaceous 
food. Benger's food. It is made of wheat 
flour which is first partly converted into dextrin 
by dry cooking, and then mixed with a pan- 
creatic extract. Mixed with milk it is used for 
infants and invalids ; artificial digestion of both 
the food and the milk takes place, and can be 
stopped at the required stage by boiling the 

Pancreati tis. {UdyKpeat. F. pan- 
creatite ; I. pancreatite ; S. pancreatitis; G. 
Bauchspeichcldrusenenlzundung .) Inflammation 
of the pancreas. 

Pancr eato -dodecadactyliae'us. 
(TldyKpias; Su'StKii, twelve; S6ktv\os, a finger.) 
The same as Pancreatico-duodenal. 

Pan creatoid. (Jldyhpia?; etiot, like- 
ness. F. pancreatoide ; G. bauchspeicheldrii- 
senuhnlich.) Resembling tho pancreas in appear- 

Pancreat'omy. (HdyKptas ; Top>), 
section.) Extirpation of the pmicreas. 

Pancreaton'cus. (Fldyiv-ptas; oyKos, 
mass. F. pancreatoncie ; G. Bauchspeichel- 


drusengeschwulst.) A hard tumour of the pan- 

Pancreatorrhag'ia. (Tlay/c^os; 
pnyvvpi, to burst forth. F. pancreatorrhagie.) 
A sudden discharge, for example, of blood, from 
the pancreas. 

Pancreec toniy. (JldyKpta^ ; iK-ropv, 
a cutting out.) Extirpation of the pancreas. 

Pancre'ne. (Has, all ; Kjoifrtj, a well.) 
" Pancreas Pancrene " is the title of a work on 
the pancreas by Bernhard Swalbe or Swalwe, in 
which he opposed the idea that Intermittent 
Fever had its seat in that organ. (Amsterdam, 

Pancreopathi'a. (ndy/v-peas; irados, 
disease.) Disease of the pancreas. 

Pan creum. The same as Pancreas. 

Pandalit ium. A corruption of Panari- 

Panda lium. An old term for a kind of 
soothing pectoral lozenge. 

Paudanaceae. A Nat. Order of the 
Cohort Avales, being the Screw-pine order. 
They are palm-like trees or shrubs, with am- 
plexicaul leaves, numerous unisexual or poly- 
gamous flowers on a spadix, numerous stamens 
with two- to four-celled anthers, one-celled ovary 
with parietal placentae and minute embryo. 

Panda nus. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

P. odoratis simus, Willd. (L. odoratus, 
fragrant.) Hab. India. A distilled water obtained 
from the perfumed flowers of this species is used 
as a stimulant and diaphoretic. 

Pandarit'ium. The saraeas Pandalitium. 

Pandemia. (F. pandemie; from iras, 
all; (5f;/jos, the people. I. pandemia ; S. pan- 
demia; G. Pandemie.) A disease which attacks 
a large number of people at the same time over 
an extended area. 

Pandem'ic. (lias ; Sr/pos. F. pande- 
mique ; I. pandemico ; G. pandemisch.) Attack- 
ing a large number of people over a large area at 
one time. 

Pande mious. The same as Pandemic. 
Pan demy. The same as Pandemia. 
Pander, Heinrich Christian 

von. A Russian anatomist, born at Riga in 
1794, died in 1865. 

P.'s lay'ers. (F. feuillets de Pander.) 
The layers of the blastoderm, which he discovered 
in 1817- 

P.'s nu cleus. (L. nucleus, a kernel. G. 
Pander' 1 scher Kern.) See under Nucleus. 

Pander'mite. A mineral found at Pan- 
derma, on the Black Sea. It occurs in snow- 
whitefine-grained fragments, enclosed in gypsum, 
lying under a formation consisting of alternating 
layers of brown clay and calcareous slate. Its 
composition is represented by the formula 2CaO. 
3B 3 0 3 +3H 2 0. 

Pandiculation. (L. pandiculor, to 
stretch onesself. F . pandiculation ; l.pandicu- 
lazione ; S. pandiculacion ; G. Dehnen, Mechen.) 
An automatic movement of the body, consisting 
of the extension of the legs, the elevation and 
stretching of the arms, and the drawing back of 
the head and trunk accompanied by yawning. 
Such movements occur before and after sleeping ; 
in some nervous affections ; and at the accession 
of a paroxysm of ague. 

Pandocei'um. (ITai/fioK-etoi^ahouse for 
the reception of strangers.) A general hospital 
for all kinds of cases. 

Pandoce um. See Pandoccinm. 

Pandochium. (UavSox^ov.) The same 
as Pandoceium. 

Pan durate. (F. pandure.) The same 
as Panduriform. 

Pandurifo'liate. (L. pandura; from 
Gr. iravSovpa, a musical instrument with three 
strings, of the nature of a fiddle; L. folium, a 
leaf. F. pandurifolie.) Having fiddle-shaped 

Panduriform. (L. pandura; forma, 
shape. F. panduriforme ; I. panduriforme ; S. 
panduriforme ; G. geigenformig.) Fiddle- 

In Botany, applied to an oblong leaf which is 
contracted in the middle and rounded at the 
base and apex. 

Pan'duroid. (TJavSoupa, a musical in- 
strument with three strings ; tlfios, likeness. 
F. panduro'ide ; G. geigendhnlich.) Resem- 
bling a fiddle in shape. 

Pang". (Probably a Celtic word, and ori- 
ginally prang, or prong. F.angoisse; I. angoscia; 
S. angustia ; G. Pein, Schmerz.) A very sharp 
and acute pain. 

P., breast. A synonym of Angina pectoris. 
P., breast, suffocative. (L. suffoco, 
to choke.) A synonym of Angina pectoris. 
P., brow. A synonym of Kemicrania. 

Pangenesis, (lias, all; yLvtais, gene- 
ration. F. pangenese ; I. pangenesi.) Darwin's 
term for the theory that within the germ of 
every living organism are contained the germs 
of all its future parts, and also the germs of all 
its descendants. 

Pangia'cese. Blume's term for a part of 
the BixacecB. 

Panhidro sis. (lias ; ISpw's, sweating.) 
General sweating over the whole body. 

Panhistophy'ton. (ITas, ail; io-Tos,a 
tissue ; <j>vTov, a plant.) A Genus of schizo- 
mycetous Fungi. 

P. ova'tum, Lebert. The Micrococcus 

Panhydro meter. (lias; lidwp, water; 
pi-rpov, a measure.) Hester's term for an instru- 
ment for measuring the specific gravity of any 

Panhy'grous. (ITas ; vypoi, moist.) 
Moistness or dampness of the whole surface. 

Panhyperemia. (ITas ; unrip, above ; 
alpa, blood.) Plethora, fulness of blood. 

Panhysterectomy. (lias; vo-rlpu, 
the womb ; iK-ropv, a cutting out.) The re- 
moval of the entire womb. 

Panic. (TlaviKov, panic; from -kuviko^, 
of or for the god Ildv, Pan, who was supposed 
to inspire the sounds heard by night in moun- 
tains and valleys, and hence to be the cause 
of sudden and groundless fear; Udv probably 
originally meant protector, and was derived 
from the Aryan root pa, to protect. F. panique ; 
I. panico ; S. miedo panico ; G. panischer 
Schrecken.) Sudden, overpowering fear, occur- 
ring without known, or from insufficient, cause; 
it affects animals as well as men. 

Panic. The name of the plants of the 
Genus Panicum, especially the P. glaucum. 

P. grass, Ital ian. (F. panic d' Italic.) 
The Panicum italicum. 

Pan'icle. (L. panicula, a tuft; from 
panus, an ear of millet. F.panicule ; l.panieo/o, 
panocha ; S. panicula ; G.Rispe.) The form of 
inflorescence in which the secondary axes of a 



raceme produce tortiary axes, and so on till 
the ultimate subdivisions bear the flowers, as in 
Yucca gloriosa. 
Pan'icled. The same as Paniculate. 
P. wolfsbane. The Aconitum panicu- 

Panic ulate. (F. panicule; I. panicu- 
late ; S. paniculado ; G.rispenformig.) Having 
the flowers disposed in a Panicle. 

Panic uliform. (L. panicula; forma, 
shape. F. paniculiforme ; G. rispenformig.) 
Having the form of a Panicle. 

Fan'icum. (L. panicum, a kind of millet.) 
A Genus of the Nat. Order Graminacece. 

P. amerlca'num. The Penicillaria 

P. dac tylon. The Cynodon dactylon. 
P. dicho'tomum. The Pennisetum dichot- 

P. frumenta'ceum, Linn. (L.frumen- 
tum, grain.) Hab. India. Seeds used for food. 

P. glau'cum, Linn. {Panic.) Hab. 
Europe. Seeds used as food. 

P. ital'lcum, Linn. (F. panic d'ltalie, 
millet a grappe, setaire.) The Setaria italica. 

P. jumento'rum, Linn. (L.jumentum, 
a beast of burden, especially a mule or an ass. 
F. grand panic.) Guinea grass. Used as fodder 
for cattle. • 

P. milia'ceum, Linn. (L. milium, millet. 

F. millet ordinaire.) Indian millet. Hab. India. 
Husked seeds used as food. 

P. mil ium. The same as P. miliaceum. 
P. pilo sum, Linn. (L. pilosus, shaggy.) 
Hab. India. Seeds used as food. 
Panidro sis. See Panhidrosis. 
Faninca tion. (L. panis ; facio, to 
make. F. panification ; I. panificazione ; G. 
Brodbereitung .) The making of bread. 

Pa'nis. (L. panis, bread ; from Aryan 
root ^a, to feed. i\pain; I. pane; S. pan ; 

G. Prod.) Bread. 

P. biscoc'tus. (L. biscoctus, twice 
cooked.) Biscuit. 

P. canica'ceus. The same as Canicce. 

P. cibar ius. (L. ciba, food.) Bread 
made from unsifted flour. 

P. cu'culi. (L. cuculus, the cuckoo.) The 
Oxalis acetosella. 

P. domes'ticus. (L. domesticus, pertain- 
ing to the house.) Bread made from unsifted 

P. furfura'ceus. Brown or bran bread. 

P. lo'tus. {Lotus, the Egyptian plant 
from the seed of which bread was made.) A 
kind of bread recommended by Galen and Ori- 
bosius as a diet in fevers. 

P. mas'sa. Sugar-cake. 

P. mi ca. Bread crumb. 

P. naut icus. Sea biscuit. 

P. porci'nus. (L. porcinus, relating to 
swine. F. pain de pourceau ; I. pane porcino ; 
G. Schweinsbrod.) The Cyclamen europasum. 

P. Sancti Mar'ci. (L. sanctus, holy; 
Marcus, Mark.) St. Mark's bread; made of 
decorticated almonds, sugar, and rose-water. 

P. secundar'ius. (L. secundarius, be- 
longing to the second class.) Bread made of 
unsifted flour. 

P. tos'tus. Toast. 

P. trlti ecus. Wheaten bread. 
Pani vorous. (L. panis; voro, to de- 
vour.) Subsisting on bread. 
Panmiz'ia. (n5 s , all ; /ui'£i5, a mingling ; 

from fiiyvvftt, to mix.) A term introduced by 
Weissmann to describe the degeneration of organs 
that have become useless to the species, owiug to 
altered external circumstances. He considers 
that this degeneration is not due to disease ; but 
to the fact that natural selection exerts no in- 
fluence upon the organ. 

Pan'na. The Aspedium athamanticum. 
A fern used in South Africa as an anthelmintic. 
P. africa'na. Syn. for Panna. 

Pannecrotomy. (Hat; vtKpov, a dea 1 
body ; toju»}, section.) Dissection of the whole 

Panneuritis. (n£s, all ; vtvpov, a 
nerve.) A general inflammation of the nerves. 

P. epidem'ica. ('Eirt<5ij/uta, an epidemic.) 
A synonym of Beriberi. 

Pann externe. (F '. pannexterne ; from 
L. pannus, a piece of cloth ; externus, outward.) 
Mirbel's term for the outer layer of the pericarp. 

Pan'ni. (L. pannus.) The old 6wathing 
clothes of a new-born child. 

Pan'nicle. The same as Panniculus. 

Pannic'ula. (L. panniculus, a small 
garment.) Illiger's term for the velvety cover- 
ing of the growing horn of a stag. 

Pan'nicule. The same as Panniculus. 

Pannic ulus. (L. panniculus, a small 
garment ; dim. of pannus, a piece of cloth. F. 
pannicule; l.pannicolo ; S.panicolo; (j.Fleisch- 
haut.) A membrane. 

Also, a synonym of Pterygium. 
P. adlpo'sus. (L. adiposus, fatty. F. 
pannicule adipeux, p. graisseux; l.pannicolo 
adiposo.) The subcutaneous areolar tissue, which 
contains fat. 

P. carno'sus. (L. carnosus, fleshy. F. 
pannicule charnu ; I. pannicolo carnoso ; G. 
Fleischhaut.) A thin, subcutaneous layer of 
striated muscular fibres, found more or le>s ex- 
tensively in many mammals, especially on the 
ventral surface, and attached to the subcutaneous 
areolar tissue. 

P. cor'dis. (L. cor, the heart.) The 

P. bymense'us. The Hymen. 
P. vir'ginis. (L. virgo, a virgin.) The 

Pan'niform. (L. pannus ; forma, shape. 
F. panniforme ; G. tuchahnlich.) Having the 
appearance of cloth. 

Applied by Desvaux to the structure of some 

Pann'interne. (L. pannus; internus, 
within.) Mirbel's term for the internal layer of 
the pericarp. 

Pannos'ity. (F. pannosite; from L. 
pannus.) Softness of skin, such that it resembles 
a very soft piece of thickish cloth. 

Pan'nus. (L. pannus, a piece of cloth. 
F. pannus, panne ; I. panno ; G. Augenfell.) 
A vascular condition of the anterior layers of 
the cornea, with infiltration and thickening of 
the same, due partly to mechanical irritation 
caused by granular lids, and partly to infiltra- 
tion, the result of direct infection. 

Also, an irregular mark on the skin. 

Also, a tent m a wound. 

Also, a pledget of lint for a wound. 

P. eras sus. (L. crassus, thick.) A very 
vascular and opaque pannus. 

P. bepat'lcus. (JWirap, the liver.) A 
synonym of Chloasma. 

P.nerpet'lcus. Phlyctenular ophthalmia 


in which there are numerous vesicles which be- 
come pustular. 

P. lenticular is. (L. lens, a lentil.) A 
synonym of Ephelis. 

P . . p lily c t en ular. (*Xi5«:Tn(vo,a blister.) 
The vascularisation of the cornea by an irrogular, 
superficial network of vessels on a hazy surface, 
secondary to the recurrence of multiple vascular 
corneal ulcers in Phlyctenular ophthalmia. 

P. scrofulo sus. (Scrofula.) Herpes 
cornece in which the vesicles are very numerous. 

P. ten uis. (L. tenuis, thin.) A thin, 
non-vascular pannus. 

P. trachomato'sus. Pannus consequent 
upon granular ophthalmia, or Trachoma. 

P.,traumat ic. (TpavpaTiKos, of wounds.) 
Pannus caused by external injury. 

Fanochia. Term for inguinal bubo, 
used by Fallopius, de Morb. Gall., i, 90, p. 758. 

Panod ic. (lids, all ; 6<5o's, a way.) 
Marshall Hall's term for the capacity of nerve- 
force to act from any one point of the diastaltic 
or spinal nervous system to every other point in 
all directions. 

Panophobia. (ITdy, the god Pan; 
<j)d/3os, fear. F. Panophobie.) Sudden fear or 
panic, which was supposed to be inspired by Pan. 

Also, the same as Pantophobia. 

Panophthalmia. (F. panophtalmie.) 
The same as Panophthalmitis. 

Panophthalmitis. (lias, all; 6<p- 
0a\/uos, the eye. F . panophtalmie ; I. panot- 
talmittide ; G. Panophthalmie.) An inflam- 
mation of the whole of the structures of the eye- 

P., pur'ulent. (L. pus.) An acute, de- 
structive, suppurative inflammation of the eye- 
ball. Two varieties. (1) It occurs in pyaemia, and, 
apparently without cause, in eyes that have been 
blind for a long time from glaucoma or disease 
of the cornea. (2) It occurs as Traumatic pan- 

P., traumat'lc. A form of P., purulent 
secondary to penetrating wounds of the eyeball, 
especially those involving the ciliary region. 

Panoti tis. (lids ; ous, the ear.) In- 
flammation of the middle and internal ear simul- 

Panpho bia. See Panophobia. 

Panple gia, (flat, all ; Tr\vyv, a stroke.) 
General paralysis. 

Pansclero'sis. (ITds ; o-/cX?}peocrts, an 
induration.) Complete induration of a part. 

Pansper mia. (Ms; atrtppa, seed. F. 
panspermxe ; I. panspermia; S. panspermia; 
G. Panspermie.) The physiological system ac- 
cording to which there are germs disseminated 
through all space which develop when they 
encounter a suitable soil. 

P., atmospher ic. (F. panspermie atmo- 
sphvrique.) The pathological system according 
to which there are morbid germs disseminated 
through the atmosphere which are the origin 
of many diseases in living beings, and of all 

Pansper mie. Relating to Panspermia. 
' Pansper'mist. A believer in the doc- 
trine of Panspermia. 

Pansper'mium. (nds; oTrtppa.) The 
chief or elementary principle of matter. 

Panspcr my. See Panspermia. 

Pansphyg- mograph. (lias ; 
fi6<s, the pulse ; ypd<pa>, to write.) An instru- 
ment devised by Brondgeest, consisting of two 

pairs of Mareu's tambours. One receiving tam- 
bour is placed over the spot where the heart's, 
impulse is felt, and the other, over a distant) 
artery, and thus a cardiogram and sphygmo- 
gram are obtained simultaneously. 

Pan'sy. (F. pensee, a thought; from L. 
penso, to ponder. 1. viola del pensiero ; S. pen- 
samiento; G. Stiefmiitterchen.) The Viola tri- 

Pansymmet'ria. (lias, all; vvp.- 
ptTpia, due proportion. F. pansy mmetrie.) 
Universal symmetry. 

Pant'ag-Og-ue. (lias; dyai, to drive 
out. F. pantagogue ; I. pantagogo ; S. panta- 
gogo.) The same as Panchymagogue. 

Pantamorphia. (lias; a, neg; pop<j>i'i, 
form. F. pantamorphic.) Universal asymmetry ; 
complete deformity. 

Pantamorphic. (lias; d; p.opil>v.) 
Generally deformed. 

Pantanencepha'lia. (nds; di/,neg. ; 
lyKt(pa\os, the brain.) The complete absence 
of' the brain in a monstrosity. 

Pantankylobleph'aron. (lias; 
ayKv\i], a thong; fi\i<papov, , the eyelid.) Com- 
plete ankyloblepharon ; entire adhesion of the 
eyelids to each other and to the eyeball. 

Pantaphobia. (lias; a, neg. ; <£u'/3os, 
fear.) Absolute fearlessness. 

Panta'scia. (lias; d; o-nia, a shadow.) 
Complete absence of shadow. 

Pantatrophia. (nds; d; Tpo<j>n, 
nourishment. F. pantatrophie.) Complete in- 
nutrition ; general atrophy. 

Panta'trophous. (nds; d; n-po<pi'i.) 

Without nutrition. 

Panthod'ic. The same as Panodic. 

Pan'tices. (L.pantex.) The bowels. 

Fantico'sa. A health resort on the 
Spanish side of the Pyrenees, 5,800 feet above the 
sea-level. Noted for its thermal sulphur springs. 

Panting 1 . (Part, of E.pant, M. E. pan- 
ten, of uncertain origin. F. pantelant ; I. ane- 
lito ; G. keichend.) Breathing quickly and with 
some difficulty. 

Pantoeoperitto ma. (nam-olos, of 
all sorts ; irtpiTTuipa, that which is over and 
above.) General overgrowth. 

Panto'g-amy. (lids; ydyaos, marriage. 

F. pantogamie ; I. pantogamia ; S. pantogamia ; 

G. ungebundene Geschlechtsbefriedigung .) The 
social condition in which each member of one 
sex may have sexual intercourse with anyone of 
the other promiscuously. 

Pantog-anglii'tis. (nds, all; ydy- 
y\wv, a nerve-knot.) A term for malignant 
cholera, introduced on the assump lion that it was 
caused by inflammation of all the sympathetic 

Pantol'mius. (Jliw-oXpov, all-daring.) 
A substance, mentioned by Paulus iEgineta, 
which destroyed fleshy excrescences, without paiii . 

Pantomor phia. (Dos; popcjWi, form.) 
General symmetry. 

Fantopela'g'ian. (fids ; irtAayos, the 
sea. F. panlopclagien.) Frequenting all seas, 
or the whole sea ; applied by Flcurien to such 
birds as the albatross and the stormy petrel. 

FantoperittO'Sis. The same as Pun- 

Panto'phagous. (Uds; </>«y<o. F. 
pantophage ; G. allesfrcsscnd.) Using indis- 
criminately all kinds of food. 

Panto'phag'y. (lids ; </>«yui, to eat. 


F. pantophagie.) The capacity of eating and 
enjoying all sorts of food. 

Pantopho bia. (navTo<j>6(3os, all- fear- 
ing ; from 7rfis ; f/>o'j3os, fear. F. pantophobie ; 
I. pantofobia ; S. pantofobia ; G. Furchtsamkeit.) 
A form of monomania characterised by causeless 
or excessive terror. 

Also, a synonym of Hydrophobia. 

Pantophobie. (Has; cfw'/Jos. F. pan- 
tophobiqite.) Relating to Pantophobia. 

Panto'phobous. (riui>T<></>d/3os, all- 
fearing.) Afflicted with Pantophobia. 

Pantopletho ra. ttX^^pv, 
fulness.) General fuluess of the blood-vessels. 

Pantozob'tia. See Panzootia. 

Pa'nus. (L. panus, the thread wound 
upon a shuttle, a swelling.) A non-suppurating, 
but inflamed, subcutaneous lymphatic glaud. 

P. fau'eium. (L. fauces, the throat.) In- 
flamed and swollen glands in the mouth and throat. 

P. inguinaiis. (L. inguen, the groin.) 
The same as Bubo. 

Pan yg'rous. (II«9, all; vypot, moist. 
F. panggre.) Universally perspiring. 

Panzoot ia. (IIa9 ; £«>oi>, an animal.) 
A disease aftecting a large number of animals 
over a considerable tract of country. 

Panzoot ic- Relating to Panzootia. 

Also, the same as Panzootia. 

Pa'o perei'ro. The Geissospermum Vel- 
losii. See Pereiro bark. 

Pap. (Mid. E. pappe ; Old Swed. pap, the 
breast. F. mamelle ; G. Brustwarze.) The 
nipple of the female breast or udder, or any- 
thing resembling it. 

Also (F. bouillie ; G. Brei, Kinderbrei), soft, 
pulpy food for children. 

P. of tlie throat. The Uvula. 

Papa'in. (F.papa'ine; I. papaxna.) A 
preparation from the juice of the Papaw. A 
whitish, amorphous powder, containing a pro- 
teolytic ferment, which differs from Pepsin iu 
being active in an alkaline or neutral as well 
as in an acid solution. Used in dyspepsia with 
gastric fermentation. It is given in doses of 1 
to 8 grains, suspended in water. 

P. elix'ir. Extra Pharm. Given in doses 
of 1 drachm with meals. 

P. et cocai'nae trochis'ci. Extra Pharm. 
Each containing one fifth grain of Papain and 
one tenth grain of Cocain. 

P. glyceri'num. Extra Pharm. Papain 
dissolved in glycerin, slightly acidulated with 
hydrochloric acid. Dose, 1 drachm. 

P., pig ment of. Extra Pharm. Has been 
used mixed with borax and water, in the propor- 
tion 12 grains of the pigment, 5 grains of borax, 
and 2 drachms of water, for the removal of warts, 
and also to dissolve false membrano in diphtheria. 

P. trochis'ci. Extra Pharm. Dose, half 
a grain. 

Pap'arch. The Momordica charantia. 
Pa'pas america'nus. The Solanum 

Papa ver. (L. papaver, tho poppy.) A 
Genus of the Nat. Order Papaveraccm. 

P. album, Linn. (L. albus, white.) A 
variety of P. somniferum with white seeds. 

P. argemo'ne, Linn. (A.pyt/xwvit, a kind 
of poppy .) Long-headed bastard poppy. Hab. 
Europe. Leaves applied to inflamed parts ; yellow 
juice used in the treatment of corneal opacities. 

P. cerea'le. (L. cerealis, relating to corn.) 
The P "hatas. 

P. cornicula'tum. (L. cornivulum, a 
little horn.) The Chelidonium tnajus, 

P. errat'icum. The P. rhi 

P. errat'icum cap ite oblon'go his - 
pldo. (L. erraticus, wandering ; caput, tiie 
head; oblongus, oblong; hispidus, shaggy.) 
The P. argemone. 

P. errat'icum ma'jus. (L. erraticus; 
major, greater.) The P. rhocas. 

P. horten'se, Bauhin. (L. hortensis, 
belonging to a garden.) The P. somniferum 

P. lu'teum. (L. luteus, yellow.) The 
Chelidonium majus. 

P. ni grum. (L. niger, black.) A variety 
of the P. somniferum with black seeds. 

P. officinale, Gmelin. (L. officina, a 
shop.) The P. somniferum. 

P. rhos'as, Linn. ('Potas, a kind of poppy. 

F. coquclicot; I. papaver v selvatico ; S. ababol; 

G. Klatschrose.) The red poppy or corn rose. 
Hab. Europe. Petals, said to oe slightly auo- 
dyne, used as a colouring agent in medicine. 

P. ru'brum. (L. ruber, red.) The P. 

P. somni ferum, Linn. (L. somnus, 
sleep ; fero, to bear. F. pavot blanc, p. dts 
jardins ; I. papavero ; S. adormidera ; G. Mohn, 
Gartenmohn.) The white poppy. Hab. Europe, 
originally, Asia. Supplies Opium. 

Papavera'ceae. (L. papaver, a poppy.) 
A Natural Order of the flowering plants in the 
division Thalamiflora?. They are herbs, with 
regular flowers having two sepals, and, usually 
4, hypogynous, free petals. The stamens are 
hypogynous, free, and indefinite. The carpels 
are united, and the ovules have a parietal pla- 
centation. Fruit, a capsule, and generally open- 
ing by valves. 

Papavera'ceous. (L. papaver. F. 
papaverace ; G. mohnarlig.) Relating to, or 
like, the Papavcracece. 

Papavera ceum. (L. papaver.) An 

Papaver'culum. (L. papaver.) A 
synonym of Meconin. 

Papaver ic. (L. papaver. F. papave- 
rique.) Relating to the Papaver.'id. (F.acidepapaveriqtte.) C^H^NO,. 
An acid obtained by oxidation of Papavcrin by 
means of potassium permanganate. It occurs in 
microscopic crystals, melting at 233° F., and 
breaking up into carbonic acid and pyropapaveric 
acid. These crystals are soluble in strong tar- 
taric acid, amyl alcohol, and very dilute hydro- 
chloric acid. 

Papaverine. C 2 oH sl N04. (F. papave- 
rine; I. papaverine.) One of the alkaloids 
present in Opium. Discovered by von Merck in 
1848. It possibly acts like Morphine. 

Also, the name was formerly given to what is 
now known as Codein. 

Papa'veris cap'sulae. B. Ph. (L. 
capsula, a small box.) The capsules, gathered 
when nearly ripe, and dried, of the Papaver som- 
niferum, grown in Britain. Globular or some- 
wnat oblong capsules, yellowish-brown, some- 
times with black spots. The stigmata are set 
upon them in a stellate manner. Internally are 
arranged the thin parietal placenta). The seeds, 
many in number, are small and reniform, and 
vary in colour from light grey to nearly black. 
The capsules contain a small quantity of opium. 
Preparations: Dccoetum, Extractum, and Sg- 
rupus (q. v.). 


Papaw . The fruit of the Car ica papaya. 

P. tree. The Car ica papaya. 
Papaya. See Carica papaya. 
Papaya ceoc. A Tribe of the Passi- 

floracece, containing the Genera Carica and 

Pa'per, ac'etate of lead. Filter 
paper soaked in a solution of acetate of lead, and 
dried. Used in chemical testing. 

P., antirheumat ic. See Charta anti- 

P., arsen'ical. Arsenical cigarettes. 
Prepared by soaking a sheet of white paper in 
sodium arseniate, 1 part ; distilled water, 30 
parts. This sheet of paper is then dried, and 
divided into 20 equal parts, each of which is to 
contain 5 centigrammes of the arseniate (Fr. 

P., bib'ulous. See Bibulous paper. 

P. birch. The Betula papyracea. 

P., blis teringr. The Charta cantharidis, 
C. epispaslica, B. Ph. 

P., caut erizing. (F. papier a cauteres.) 
Charta ad cauteres. Paper spread over with a 
mixture of Venice turpentine, Burgundy pitch, 
and wax (Fr. Codex). 

P., chemical. (F. papier ehemique.) 
Charta chetnica. Tissue-paper that has been 
rendered impermeable by a mixture of 100 parts 
of linseed oil, 10 of garlic, 80 of oil of turpen- 
tine, 40 of ferric oxide, and 15 of lead carbonate 
that has been pounded up with oil. Over the 
paper thus prepared a plaster is then spread, 
composed of 200 parts of olive oil, 100 of red 
lead, and 6 of yellow wax (Fr. Codex). 

P., filter. See Filter paper. 

P., hygromet'ric. (G. Papierhygro- 
meter.) Blotting-paper, soaked in an aqueous 
solution of cobalt chloride, sodium chloride, gum 
arabic, and glycerin or calcium chloride, and 
afterwards dried. In damp air this paper appears 
pink, in very dry air blue, and in intermediate 
conditions of the air as regards moisture, some 
intermediate colour. 

P., lit'mus. (F. papier Joseph.) See 
Litmus paper. 

P., med'icated. See P., arsenical, p., 
nitre, and p., ozone. 

P., mustard. The Charta sinapis, 

P., nitre. (F. papier nitre.) Charta 
nitrata. Prepared by saturating blotting-paper 
with a solution of nitre, and afterwards drying 
it. Made of three strengths : 30, 40, and 60 
grains to the ounce. Used in asthma. The 
papers are burnt, and the fumes inhaled. 

P., o zone. Paper saturated with a mixture 
of chlorate and nitrate of potassium. Used in 
the same way as P., nitre. 

P., ozonomet'ric. See Ozonometer. 

P., parch ment. Prepared by immersing 
unsized paper in a cold mixture of 2 parts of 
strong sulphuric acid to 1 of water, by which it is 
converted into amyloid material, then thoroughly 
washing in water, and finally, in weak ammonia. 
Parchment paper is translucent and waterproof ; 
it may be boiled in water without disintegration, 
and it is much stronger than ordinary paper. 
It is used for tying over preserves, for luggage 
labels, and for making dialysers. 

P., sen'sitized. Paper that has acquired 
the property of becoming readily changed in 
•olour under certain conditions, or by the action 
of certain reagents, by being previously satu- 

rated with a solution of a salt of silver, gold, 
platinum, palladium, or iridium. 

P., sin'aplsed. The Charta sinapis, B. Ph. 
P., tur'merlc. See Turmeric paper. 

Papiliona'ceae. (L. papilio, a butter- 
fly.) A Sub-order of the Leguminosic. Leaves 
stipulate, often terminating in tendrils ; flower 
perfect, some species have a resemblance to a 
butterfly; calyx five-toothed, corolla composed 
of five petals inserted in the base of the calyx, 
free, the posterior called the standard, embracing 
the two alse or wings, within which are the two 
adnate anterior petals forming the keel. Stamens 
ten. Fruit, a pod, opening in two valves. 

Papiliona'ceous. (L. papilio. F. 
papilionace ; I. papilionaceo ; S. papilonaceo ; 
G. schmetter ling sar tig.) Resembling a plant of 
the Papilionacece. Also, resembling a butterfly. 

Papilla. (L. papilla, a nipple. F. pa- 
pille;l. papilla; S. papila; G. Warzc.) The 

Also, anything resembling a nipple, as the 
papilla? of the tongue, or the conical projections 
on the pollen-grains of plants. 
Also, a diminutive of Papula. 

P. acus'tica basilar' is. The same as 
Corti, organ of. 

P. basilar is. The same as Corti, organ of. 

P., congestion. (Also called Choked disc 
and Engorged papilla. F. papille engorgee ; I. 
papilla delli stasi ; G. Stauungspapille.) A 
term less used now than formerly to indicate 
a Papillitis or Optic neuritis, in which there is 
great congestion and oedema of the disc. All 
cases of inflammation of the Optic disc are now 
usually designated Papillitis. 

P., denti nal. See Papillce, dental. 

P. duode'nl. Situated about four inches 
below the pylorus, on the inner and posterior part 
of the duodenum, and immediately below one of 
the valvulae conniventes. At its apex is the com- 
mon orifice of the biliary and pancreatic ducts. 

P., engorged'. The same as P., conges- 

P., hair. See Hair papilla. 

P., lachrymal. See Lacrimal papilla. 

P. mam mae. (L. mamma, the female 
breast.) The nipple. 

P. ner'vl op'tici. The Disc, optic. 

P., op'tic. The Disc, optic. 

P. palati'na. (L. palatum, the palate.) 
An eminence on the palate immediately behind 
the anterior palatine foramen. 

P. pill. (L. pilus, a hair.) The Hair 

P. re'nls. (L. ren, the kidney.) See 
Kidney, papilla of. 

P. saliva lis buccalis. (L. saliva; 
bucca, the cheek.) An eminence upon the inner 
side of the cheek opposite the second molar 
tooth, at the apex or which Stenson'a duct 

P. saliva lis lnfe'rior. The sublingual 

P. saliva'lis supe rior. The P. sali- 
valis buccalis. 

P. semilunaris. (L. semi, half; luna, 
the moon.) The Crista acustica. 

P. sublingualis. (L. sub, under ; lingua, 
the tongue.) The sublingual caruncle. 

P. umbilica lis. (L. umbilicus, the 
navel.) The stump of the umbilical cord at the 
bottom of the navel. 

Papillae. Nominative plural of Pupi/la. 



P. arcua'tee. (L. arcuatus, bent; from 
arcus, a bow.) The samo as Papilla Jiliformea. 

P. calyclfor'mes. (L. calyx, a cup; 
forma, likeness.) The P. circumvallata. 

P. caplta'tae. (L. caput, the head.) The 
P. circumvallata. 

P. circumvalla tee. (L. circum, around ; 
vallum, a rampart.) The circumvallate papilla) 
of the tongue. They are a series of elevations 
of the mucous membrane of the tongue arranged 
in a row on the dorsum, forming a V-shaped 
figure at the apex of which is the foramen 
caecum. Each elevation is surrounded by a cir- 
cular depression or trench, around which there 
is an annular elevation. Taste-buds are abun- 
dant on the adjacent sides of the trench, and 
the ducts of glands frequently open into it. 

P. clava tae. (L. clavus, a club.) The 
fungiform papillae of tne tongue. 

P. co nicae. (Kwi/os, a cone.) The 
conical papilloe of the tongue. These are the 
most numerous, and are arranged in rows cover- 
ing the whole of the dorsum of the tongue, ex- 
cept where circumvallate or fungiform papillae 
occur. They are conical or cylindrical processes 
of mucous membrane. The secondary papillae 
are often elongated, with the epithelium over 
them much thickened, so that the summit of the 
papillae is beset by thread-like processes. These 
are often called filiform papillae. 

P. corallifor'mes. (L. corallum, red 
coral; forma, likeness.) The filiform papillae. 

P. cor'ii. (L. corium, skin.) The papillae 
of the corium. See Skin, papilla: of. 

P. cutis. (L. cutis, ihe skin.) The 
papillae of the skin. See Skin, papilla of. 

P., dental. (L. dens, a tooth.) Small 
elevations of vascular embryonic tissue appear- 
ing about the eighth week of intra-uterine life, 
which are surrounded by the enamel organ. 
The papillae and the enamel organs in relation 
with them develop into the temporary teeth. 
See Teeth. 

P. filifor'mes. (L. filum, a thread ; 
forma, likeness.) The filiform papillae of the 
tongue. They are a variety of the Papilla; 

P. folia'tse. (L. folium, a leaf.) An or- 
gan found at each side of the base of the tongue 
in the rabbit and kindred species, consisting of 
folds of mucous membrane, on the adjacent sides 
of which taste-buds are very numerous. In 
man, an area presenting five longitudinal folds 
also containing taste-buds, situated in front of 
the anterior pillar of the fauces, is considered to 
be homologous with the papillae foliatae of the 

P. fangifor'mes. (L. fungus ; forma, a 
likeness.) The fungiform papillae of the tongue. 
They are round or club-shaped elevations of a 
deep red colour, which are most abundant at the 
tip and sides of the tongue. Many of them 
possess taste- buds. 

P. gus'tus. (L. austus, a tasting.) The 
gustatory papillae of the tongue, which are prin- 
cipally the fungiform and circumvallate papilloe. 

P., hemispherical. (]'H/uo-us, lialf ; 
c(paipa, a ball.) These are papillae which have 
a rounded summit and are hemispherical when 
viewed sidoways. They are a variety of the 
conical papillae. See Papilla conica. 

P. lnterlocular'cs. (L. inter, between ; 
loculus, a little place, dim. of locus.) The samo 
as the Papilla Joliaia. 

P. lachryma'lls. See Lacrimal papilla. 

P. lenticular es. (L. lenticula, dim. of 
lens, a lentil.) The Papilla circumvallata. 

P. lin g-use. (L. lingua, the tongue.) 
See P. of tongue. 

P. maximae. (L. maximus, greatest.) 
The P. circumvallata, which are the largest 
papillae of the tongue. 

P. me'dise. (L. medius, the middle.) The 
P. fungiformes, which are intermediate in 6ize 
between the circumvallate and conical papilloe. 

P. mln'imee. (L. minimus, least.) The 
P. conica, which are the smallest of the papillae 
of the tongue. 

P. mino'res. (L. minor, less.) The P. 

P. mucosae. A name given to the P. 

P. ner'veee. (L. nervus, a nerve.) The 
Pacinian bodies. 

P., ner vous. (L. nervus. F. papilles 
nerveuses ; I. papille nervosi ; G. Warzcn 
nervdse.) The papillae which contain Pacinian 

P. obtu'sae. (L. obtusus, blunt.) The 
Papilla fungiformes. 

P. of kid ney. See Kidney, papilla of. 

P. of mu cous mem branes. Minute 
processes of the corium, covered by epithelium, 
which contain nerves and loops of capillary 
vessels. They are best seen in the tongue. 

P. of skin. See Skin, papilla of. 

P. of tongue. Small elevations found 
over the anterior two thirds of the dorsum of the 
tongue, of which there are three varieties : cir- 
cumvallate, fungiform, and conical papillae. See 
P. circumvallata, &c. 

In addition to those which are visible to the 
naked eye, there are secondary papillae of minute 
size covering the tongue, which correspond to 
the papillae of the skin, and receive each a nerve 
and a loop of capillary vessels. 

P. petiola'tae. (Petiole, botanical term 
for leaf stalk; from L. petiolus, a little foot.) 
The P. circumvallata. 

P. pyramida'les. (Tlvpa/xk, a pyramid.) 
The P. conica. 

P. rena'les. See Kidney, papilla of. 

P. re num. (L. ren, the kidney.) See 
Kidney , papilla oj . 

P. semilenticular'es. (L. semi, half; 
lenticula, dim. of lens, a lentil.) The fungiform 

P. tac'tus. (L. tactus ; from tango, to 
touch.) The tactile papillae of the skin. A term 
applied to those papillae which possess tactile 
corpuscles, and which generally do not receive 
special blood-supply. They are concerned in the 
perception of touch. 

P. trunca'tae. (L. truncatus; from 
trunco, to cut off.) The circumvallate papillae 
of the tongue. 

P. valla tee. (L. vallum, a rampart.) See 
P. circumvallata. 

P., vas'oular. (L. vasculm, a little ves- 
sel.) Papillae of the skin which contain capil- 
lary blood-vessels, but no tactile corpuscles. 

P. vlllo see. (L. villosus, shaggy.) The 
filiform papilie of the tongue. 
Papillar is. The same as Papillary. 

P. her'ba. (L. herba, green grass.) The 
Lapsana communis. 

Papil lary. (F. papillaire ; from L. pa- 
pilla, a nipple. I. papiltare ; S. papilar ; G. 


warttig.) llesembling a nipple ; relating to the 

P. bod'y. The Skin, papillary layer of. 

P. car uncles. (L. caruncula, a little 
piece of flesh.) The Kidney, papilla of. 

P. mus'cles. See Musculi papillares. 

P. tu mour. (L. tumor, a swelling.) See 

Pap illate. (L. papilla. F. papille ; G. 
xcarzig.) Having papillae, as the stigmata of 

Papillated. (L. papilla.) Covered 
with papilhu. 

Papil liform. (L. papilla ; forma, shape. 

F. papilliforme ; G. warzenformxg.) Having 
the appearance of a papilla or nipple. 

P. eminences. Small elevations upon 
the wall of the membranous labyrinth of the ear. 
Papillo ma. (L. papilla. F. papillome ; 

G. Papillom.) A tumour of the skin or mucous 
membrane, which consists of a hypertrophy of a 
papilla, and is generally covered with a layer of 
thickened epidermis or epithelium. Papillomata 
upon mucous surfaces are found in the mouth, 
the lower part of rectum, in the bladder, and on 
the conjunctiva. Upon the skin, the papillomata 
include several diverse conditions ; corns, warts, 
condylomata, and the warty growths in gonor- 
rhoea. They are non-malignant, and are com- 
posed entirely of a hypertrophy of the normal 
elements of the tissues from which they de- 

P. diffu sum. (L. diffusus, wide, ex- 
tended ; from diffundo.) Multiple and diffuse 
papillomata which appear on the legs and but- 
tocks. They may be fused into extensive masses 
of hypertrophied skin. 

P., mu'cous. (Mikos, slime.) The form 
of papilloma which appears on mucous surfaces. 

P., neuropathic. (Ntvpov, a nerve; 
■jraOos, suffering. G. Nervennmvus.) A term 
applied by Gerhard to the cases in which papil- 
lomatous growths appear limited to the area of 
distribution of a nerve filament. 

P. neurot'icum. A peculiar disease allied 
to warts, in which papillomata, made up of hyper- 
trophied papillae covered with horny epidermis, 
appear over various parts of the skin. Those 
occurring on the back and sides have been found 
to follow the course of the cutaneous spinal 
nerves. There is no pain associated with 

P. zymot icum. See Taws. 

Papillose. (L. papillosus. F. papilleux.) 
Syn. or Papillated and Papillous. 

Papil lous. (L. papilla. T? . papilleux ; 
G. warzig.) Beset with papillae. 

Pap'ln, Denis. A French physician, 
born in 1647, died in 1714. 

P.'s digester. (F. digesteur de Papin, 
marmite de Papin.) See Digester. 

Pap'meat. Another name for Pap. 

Papoose'. The word for an infant among 
the North American Indians. 

P. root. The Caulophyllum thalictroides. 

Pap'pea. (Karl Pappe, a Leipzig botanist.) 
A Genus of the Nat. Order Sapinaacem. 

P. cap en' sis. Occurs in Caffroland as a 
small tree. The fruit, called the Wild plum, 
yields a kind of wine by fermentation, ana also 
vinegar. The kernel contains an oil which 
has, when taken internally, a slightly purgative 
action ; externally, this oil has been used as an 
application for Tinea tonsurans. 

Pappi ferous. (L. pappus, the woolly, 
hairy seed of certain plants ; Jero, to bear. F. pap- 
piferc ; G. federchentragend.) Bearing Pappus. 

Pap'piform. (L. pappus ; forma, shape. 
F. pappiforme ; G. federchenfbrmig.) Having 
the appearance of Pappus. 

Pappo'phorous. (ITdim-os, the down 
on certain seeds ; <popta>, to bear. F. pappo- 
phore; G. federchentragend?) Bearing tufts of 
down, or Pappus. 

Pap'pose. (UaiTTroi.) Covered with 

Pap-pox. Syn. of Cow-pox. 

Pap pus. (L. pappus; Gr. va-mro?, seed- 
down. F. pappe, aigrette; I. pennachino ; G. 
Federehen, Samenkrone.) Thistle-down. The 
hair- like appendages of the fruit in many Com- 
posite which assist in the dissemination of the 

Also, the downy hair of the skin and cheeks. 

P. america nus. The Solanum tuberosum. 
Pap'py. Like pap, succulent. 
Pap ula. See Papule. 
P. agria. The same as Lichen agrius. 
P. fe'ra. (L. ferus, wild.) The same 
as Herpes exedens. 

Also applied to Lupus vulgaris and Lichen 

P. lenticular is. The same as Fever, 

P. miliar is. The same as Miliary fever ; 
also, Sudamina. 

P. milifor'mls. (L. milium, a millet 
seed ; forma, shape.) The same as Sudamina. 

P. typho'sa. The rose spots of enteric or 
typhoid fever. • 

Papula?. Nominative plural of Papula. 
A term for Lichen. 

P. Celsl. Celsus describes two kinds of 
papules, the one being small and easily cured, 
and the other called Agria. His treatment for 
the former kind was to rub them daily with 
"jejuna saliva." See Papula agria. 

P. sie'eae. (L. siccus, dry.) A synonym 
of Lichen. 

P. sudorales. (L. sudor, sweat.) The 
same as Sudamina. 

P. sudoris. (L. sudor.) The same as 
Miliary fever ; also, Sudamina. 

Pap'ular. (L. papula, a pimple.) Be- 
longing to, or resembling, a. Papule. 

P. acne. See Acne punctata. 

P. ec zema. See Eczema papillosum. 

P. syphillde. See Syphilide. 

P. urticaria. See Lichen urticatus. 
Papula tion. (F. papulation ; from L. 
papula.) The stage at which the formation of 
papules occurs in some eruptive diseases. 
_ Pap'ule. (L. papula, a pimple ; a diminu- 
tive from a base pap, to swell. F. papule; I. pa- 
pula ; S. papitla ; G. Papel, Knotchen.) A 
small, solid, somewhat acuminated swelling of 
the skin, varying in size from a pin's head to a 
pea. The minute anatomy and pathology of 
papules are very various ; they may be inflamma- 
tory and due to a local hyperamia and exudation 
which may break down or be absorbed ; they 
may be due to local hypertrophy of the super- 
ficial layers of the epidermis around a hair- 
follicle ; or they may be developed in connection 
with a sebaceous gland, accompanied by accumu- 
lation of sebaceous matter. In some cases, pa- 
pules may be associated with a local haemorrhage, 
as in Purpura papulosa. 


Also, in Botany, De Candolle's term for such j 
structures as the sessile glands on the Mesem- 
bryanthemum cryslallinum, whioh consist of one 
secreting cell lying above the epidermis. 

P., hypertrophic. A form of P., mucous 
sometimes present in syphilis, in which there 
occurs a great increase in size, giving rise to 
warty growth. These are sometimes called 
vegetating papules. 

P., moist. The same as P., mucous. 

P., mu cous. A form of papule occurring 
in regions where folds of skin come into contact, 
especially where there are abundant sweat or 
sebaceous glands. They are common over the 
nates, perinaaum, and axilla?. They vary in 
size. The surface is moist, and covered with a 
mucoid secretion. See also Condyloma. 

P., neuropath'ic. (G. Nervennmvus, 
Gerhardt.) A form of neevus, the distribution 
and extent of which corresponds to that of a 
cutaneous nerve. 

P., squa mous. A papule in which there 
is desquamation of the superficial layers of epi- 
dermis over the surface. Squamous papules 
are common in syphilis. 

Papuliferous. (L. papula; fero, to 
bear. F. papulifere.) Bearing papules, as the 
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. 

Pap'ulose. (L. papula. F. papuleux ; 
S. papulosa ; G. papulbs.) Having, or covered 
with, papules. 
Pap-wort. A name for Dog's mercury. 
Papyra'ceous. {Papyrus. Y.papyrace; 
I. papyraceo ; S. papyraceo ; G. papierartig .) 
Like paper in texture and thinness. 

P. bone. A term for the ethmoid bone, 
and especially its outer part. 

P. foe'tus. See Foetus, papyraceous. 
Papyri'ferous. (L. papyrus ; fero, to 
bear. F . papyrifere ; G. papiertragend.) Bear- 
ing paper or something resembling paper, as the 
bark of Betula papyrifera. 

Pap'yrine. (L. papyrus. ~E.papyrin; 
G. papierartig.) Resembling paper. 

Papyrus. (L. papyrus; Gr. Trairvpot.) 
The paper-reed, Cy penes papyrus. 

Also, the writing-paper of the ancients, which 
was made from this reed by cutting the pith 
into strips, wetting these, and pressing them to- 

Also, rope made from this reed. 
P. antiquo'rum. The paper of the 
ancients. See Papyrus. 

Pa quelin s cau tery. See Thermo- 

Par. (L. par, equal, a pair. F. paire ; I. 
pajo; S.par; G. Paar.) A pair. 

P. nervo rum. (L. ncrvus, a nerve.) A 
pair of nerves. 

P. no'num. (L. nonus, the ninth.) The 
two hypoglossal nerves. 

P. op'ticum nervo rum. The two optic 

P. prl'mum nervo rum cer'ebrl. (L. 

vrimus, first ; ncrvus, a nerve ; cerebrum, the 
brain.) The two olfactory lobes. 

P. quar Turn nervo rum. (L. quartus, 
fourth.) The two trochlear nerves. 

P. quin'tum nervo rum. (L. quintus, 
fifth.) The two trigeminal nerves. 

P. secun'dum nervo rum. (L. secun- 
dus, second.) The two optic nerves. 

P. Sep timum nervo rum. (L. Septi- 
mus, seventh.) The two facial nerves. 

P. ter'tlum nervorum. (L. tertius, 

third.) The two oculo-motor nerves. 

P. trlgem'inum nervo rum. (L. tri- 
geminus, three born at a birth.) The two tri- 
geminal nerves. 

P. triumtunlculo'rum nervorum. 
(L. tres, trium, three ; funiculus, a cord.) The 
two trifacial nerves. 

P. va gum nervo rum. (L. vagus, wan- 
dering.) The two pneumogastric nerves. 

P. visorium nervorum. (L. visor, 
one who sees.) The two optic nerves. 

Par a. (ITapd, beside.) A prefix applied 
to substitution-products of certain derivatives 
of benzene, to express the supposed arrangement 
of the atoms in the molecule. When two radicals 
are substituted for two of the hydrogen atoms 
in a benzene molecule, so that they are on oppo- 
site angles of the benzene- ring, they are said to 
be in the para- position. See also Benzene. 

The abbreviations two para, three para, &c. 
(L. pario, to bring forth), are used to indicate 
the number of children a woman has borne. 
See also Multipara, Primipara. 
P. cress. The Spilanthes oleracea. 
P. nut. The fruit of Berlholletia excelsa. 
It contains crystalloids, which are compounds of 
proteid with magnesia, soda, &c. 

P. sarsaparil'la. A mealy sarsaparilla 
root from Rio Negro, or Brazil. 

Para-ansesthe sia. (Ilapa, beside; 
av, without ; attrfh/c's, feeling.) Anaesthesia of 
both sides of the body. 

Paraban ic acid. (F. acide para- 
banique ; I. acido parabanico ; S. acido para- 
banico ; G. Parabansdure.) C3H 2 N a 0 3 . A di- 
basic acid, produced by the action of nitric acid 
on uric acid. It crystallizes in colourless prisms, 
which dissolve readily in water. When boiled 
with dilute acids it is converted into urea and 
oxalic acid ; hence it is sometimes called Oxalyl 

Par'ablast. {Parablasta. F. parablaste ; 
I. parablasto ; G. Nebendotter .) 1. A special 
layer of the mesoblast described by His, and 
believed by him to be the origin of both vascular 
and connective tissue. It appears to arise at 
the peripheral portion of the blastoderm from 
the cells of the germinal wall. 2. The nutritive 
yolk, as distinguished from the formative yolk, 
or arcbiblast. 

Parablas'ta. (Tlapd, alongside of ; 
/3Xa<rxos, a sprout. F. parablaste.) A sucker 
or offshoot. 

Also, Eisenmann's term for a disease which is 
accompanied by anatomical changes in the tis- 

Parablas tic. Pertaining to the Para- 

P. cells. His maintains that the blood- 
vessels, blood, and connective-tissue are not de- 
veloped from true mesoblastic cells, but from 
certain wandering cells from the margin of the 
blastoderm between the epiblast and the hypo- 
blast, derived from the elements of the white 
yolk outside the position of the embryo. These 
wandering cells lie terms parablastic, in contra- 
distinction to the archiblastic cells, which belong 
to the three embryonic layers. 

Parablepsia. (ITapa/3\Ei^is, a looking 
askance.) False vision. 

Parableps'y. The same as Parablepsia. 

Para bola. (UapapoXn, a placing beside; 
I from irapapdWto, to throw beside. F. parabole ; 


I. parabola; S. parabola; G. Parabel.) The 
conic section which has its axis parallel to the 
side of the cone. 

Parabol'anus. (Uapaf3o\os, venture- 
some. P. parabolain ; I. parabolano ; S. para- 
bolano ; G. Parabolane.) Term used during the 
3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries for one who devoted 
himself to attendance on the sick, as a lay 
assistant to the clergy, and particularly during 
the time of epidemics and of plague. 

Parabolic. (JlapaQohj. F '. parabolique ; 
I. parabolieo ; S. parabolico ; G. parabolisch.) 
Kelating to, or like, a Parabola. 

In Botany, applied to oblong leaves which 
are rounded at each extremity and become nar- 
rower from base to summit. 

P. illu minator. A parabolic mirror used 
to form a black ground illuminator for microscopic 
specimens. See under Illuminator. 

P. spec'ulum. See under Speculum. 

Parabromacetan ilide. C 0 NH 
(C 2 H 3 0)H.HBr.H 2 . Antisepsin. A substance 
prepared by treating parabromaniline with ex- 
cess of acetyl chloride, washing with water, 
and then dissolving in alcohol and recrystal- 
lizing out. It crystallizes in large, many-faced 
prisms ; slightly soluble in hot water, soluble in 

Parabulia. (Uapa, aside ; (3ov\v, will.) 
Leupoldt's term for a mental affection consist- 
ing m disturbance of the will capacity. 

Parabux'ine. C^H^NjO. An alkaloid 
obtained from the bark of Buxus sempervirens. 

Parabys'ma. (Uapaf3uap.a, stuffing.) 
Term employed by Good (as Genus iv of Order 
Splanchnica) for a localised swelling of the 
abdomen from indurated enlargement of one of 
the chylopoietic viscera ; divided into P. hepa- 
ticum, P. splenicum, &c. 

P. lie nis. (L. lien, the spleen.) Engorge- 
ment of the spleen. 

P. mesenter icum. The same as Tabes 

Parabys'tla. (Jlapa^varo^, stuffed in.) 
The 6ame as Parabysma. 

Par acanthoses. (Tlapd; aicavda, a 
prickle ; from cuctj, a point or edge.) Term for 
diseases associated with morbid growth of the 
prickle-cell layer of the skin. 

Par'acarp. (Tlapu, beside; Kapiros, 
fruit. F.paracarpe; I. paracarpo ; S. para- 
carpo ; G. Aflerfrucht.) Link's term for an 
aborted ovary and for that which in male 
flowers, by abortion, takes the place of an ovary. 

Paracar'pium. The same as Paracarp. 

Par'acary. A name for the Peltodon 

Paracasein. Gluten-casein. 

Paracel'lulose. (Tlapd ■ cellulose.) A 
variety of Cellulose, occurring in the cellular 
tissue of the wood and in the pith of plants. 
It is characterised chemically by oeing insoluble 
in Millon , 8 reagent, except after heating to 
140° F. for several hours. 

Paracel'sian. Of, or belonging to, or 
a follower of, Paracelsus. 

Paraccl'sist. The same as Paracelsian. 

Paracel sus. A famous physician, who 
was born in 1493, practised in Basle, Alsace, and 
afterwards in Switzerland, and died in 1541 in 
Salzburg. Although ignorant of physiology and 
anatomy, he practised medicine with comparative 
success, having accumulated a store of ideas and 
observations in the course of wide travel. He 

used opium, antimony, and mercury largely ? and 
was the first to administer mercury in syphilis. 

Paracente sis. (n«prt/v-n/Ti|<m-,a tap- 
ping for dropsy; a couching for cataract. F. 
paracentese; l.paracentesi ; S. paracentesis ; G. 
Anstechen, Abzapfung.) The operation of tap- 
ping or making an opening into a cavity for the 
removal of fluid contained therein. 

P. abdominis. (L. abdomen, the belly. 
F. paracentese abdominale ; G. Bauchstich.) 
The operation of tapping the peritoneal cavity 
for the removal of free fluid in Ascites ; in very 
rare cases, tapping for the outlet of free gas from 
the peritoneal cavity. It is performed with a 
trocar and cannula, and the spot chosen for the 
puncture is in the linea alba, midway between 
the umbilicus and pubes. 

There are certain points of great importance 
which must be attended to. (1) The trocar and 
cannula and the surface of the patient's abdomen 
must be most carefully cleaned and rendered 
completely aseptic. (2) The bladder must be 
emptied just before the operation. (3) The 
region in which the puncture is to be made 
must be percussed and be made out to yield 
an absolutely dull note. (4) The position of 
the patient must be carefully arranged, in order 
that, firstly, the fluid shall gravitate into that 
part of the abdomen where the cannula is to be 
inserted ; and, secondly, the patient shall be sup- 
ported and not sitting upright, so that the danger 
of syncope may be avoided. (5) A many- tailed 
bandage should be arranged in position and 
gradually drawn together and fastened, so as to 
keep up uniform gentle pressure as the fluid 
runs away. 

Dr. Reginald Southey employs a very fine 
cannula, perforated by several lateral openings 
and fitted with a small metal shield to keep it 
fixed in position after insertion. On to the ex- 
ternal end of the cannula, which is bulbous in 
shape, a long rubber tube is fitted to convey 
away the fluid. The point of the trocar is thrust 
through the rubber tube into the cannula and, 
on its being withdrawn after puncture of the 
abdomen, the valve-like opening thus made in 
the india-rubber closes up at once. The advan- 
tages Dr. Southey claims for his method are (1) 
simplicity, (2) painlessness, (3) avoidance of the 
danger of syncope, and (4) the doing away with 
the necessity of an abdominal bandage. 

P. cap itis. (L. caput, the head.) The 
operation of tapping one of the lateral ventricles 
of the cerebrum through the anterior fontanelle, 
in Chronic hydrocephalus. A very fine trocar is 
used. It is pushed through the anterior fonta- 
nelle, just to one side of the middle line, to 
avoid the longitudinal sinus, its direction being 
obliquely towards one side, so as to hit off the 
lateral ventricle. A vacuum should not be pro- 
duced till the needle has been passed far enough 
to reach the ventricle. 

P. cor'neae. {Cornea. F. paracentese de 
la cornee.) Paracentesis of the anterior chamber 
of the eye. This is done in the treatment 
of corneal ulcer and iritis, and occasionally to 
give temporary relief in glaucoma. Performed 
by means of a paracentesis needle or, in cases of 
corneal ulcer, with a cataract knife, the incision 
being carried through the whole thickness of 
the cornea and just beyond the limits of the 
ulcer at each end. 

P. pericar'dii. (JTtpl, around ; napoia, 
the heart. F. paracentese du pvricarde.) The 


operation of tapping the pericardium, performed 
in cases of Hyarops pericardii where the patient 
is in danger of death from pressure. It is most 
safely done by means of a fine aspirator, which 
is inserted into the chest in the fifth left inter- 
space, and from two to two and a half inches from 
the left margin of the sternum. A vacuum is 
made directly the point of the needle is inserted. 

P. thora els. (L. thorax, the chest. F. 
paracentise de la poitrine ; G. Bruslstich.) 
The operation of tapping the pleural cavity 
for the removal of pus or serum or, very occa- 
sionally, air, performed with the aspirator. A 
small incision is first made through the skin, at 
the lower border of the sixth rib and parallel to 
it, between two serrations of the serratus mag- 
nus in the mid-axillary line. The skin is then 
pulled upwards so that the , incision corresponds 
with the lower part of the fifth space. The 
trocar is now plunged into the pleural cavity, 
lieing first slipped over the upper margin of the 
sixth rib, so as to avoid the intercostal artery 
and nerve lying below the fifth rib. If severe 
pain be complained of, the cannula must be 
withdrawn, and the operation repeated after a 
few days if necessary. Thorough antiseptic pre- 
cautious must be taken throughout the opera- 

P. vesicae. (L. vesica, the bladder. F. 
incision de la vessie.) This term is used in two 
senses : (1) as meaning aspiration of an over- 
distended bladder, the trocar being passed in 
immediately above the pubes; (2) as meaning 
tapping the bladder, either above the pubes, or 
through the rectum immediately above the 
prostate. Paracentesis vesicae is sometimes neces- 
sary in complete rupture of the urethra, in cases 
of impermeable stricture, and in cases of en- 
larged prostate. 

Paracentete'rion. {YlapaKtwr^Tn- 
ptov, from irapuKtirriu), to pierce.) An instru- 
ment for performing Paracentesis. 

Especially applied to a small trocar employed 
by Nuck for paracentesis cornese. 

Paracente tic. Relating to Paracen- 

Paracentic'ion. An instrument for 
the performance of Paracentesis. 

Paracen'tral. {U.ap&, alongside of ; 
centre. F. paracentral.) At the side of the 

P. lobe. The Lobulus cerebri paracen- 

P. sulcus. (L. sulcus, a furrow.) A 
sulcus extending upwards from the calloso-mar- 
ginal fissure. 

Paracepha lians. (ITapa; KtcpaXt). 
F. paracephalien ; S. paracephalico.) A Family 
of monsters that have an imperfectly-formed 
head, and an absence of a great part of the tho- 
racic and abdominal viscera. The limbs are 
imperfect, either in general contour or in the 
number of digits of the manus and pes. 

Paraccphalus. (riap«, amiss; mo>- 
oX»j, the head. F. paracephale.) Isid. Geof- 
frey St. Hilaire's term for a Genus of monstrosi- 
ties with a badly-formed, large head, distinct 
face, with a mouth and rudimentary sensorial 
organs, and thoracic limbs. 

Paracer'cus. (Ilapa, besides; Klpxos, 
the tail. F. paracerque.) Uliger's term for the 
long feathers which in some birds, as the pea- 
cock, grow from the lower part of the back and 
hide the tail. 

Parachor dals. (Tlapd, besides ; \opov, 
a cord.) Cartilaginous plates on each side of 
the anterior extremity of the notochord. The 
parachordals with the cephalic portion of the 
notochord form the basilar plate, which sup- 
ports the hind- and mid-brain of the foetus. 

Parachroe a. (ITapa, amiss; xp ol "> the 
colour of the skin.) A morbid change of the 
colour of the skin, especially of the face. 

Parachro ma. (ITapa ; -^pw/ia, the 
colour of a surface.) Faulty perception of 

Parachromatobleps'ia. (ITapa ; 
■Xpui/ia; /3\ti//js, sight.) The seeing of false 

Parachron'ic. (n«i>u, amiss ; xpoVos, 
time.) Unseasonable ; at the wrong time. 

Parach'rodus. (ITapdxpoos-, of false 
colour, faded.) Of an altered colour, faded. 

Parachro'sis. (Tlapd, amiss ; ^poio-is, 
a colouring.) False colouring. 

Parachymo sis. (ITapa; x"«, to pour 
out.) Faulty secretion. 

Paracinema. (YlapaKiviui, to move 
aside.) A synonym of Dislocation. 

Paracine'ses. (napa»ai»|o-ts, from ira- 
paKivtw, to excite violently. F. parakineses.) 
Diseases of the motor system of nerves ; morbid 
movements of voluntary muscles. 

Paracine'sis. (Tlapaidv do-is.) The pro- 
duction of a dislocation. 

Paracine tic. Relating to Paracinesis. 

Paracma'sis. (JlapatcnaXjo, to be past 
the prime.) Synonym for Pat-acme. 

Paracmas'tic. (JlapaK/iaa-TtKo^, past 
its prime. F. paracmastique ; G. paraktnas- 
tisch.) Past the prime or the time of vigour ; 
past the crisis. 

Parac'me. (JlapaK/iv.) The point at 
which the prime is past ; the commencement of 
old age ; the beginning of the decline of vigour ; 
the period in a fever after the occurrence of the 

Parac'oe. (JlapaKoi), that which has 
been heard imperfectly.) Imperfect or incor- 
rect hearing. 

Also, the hearing of imaginary sounds. 

Also, duluess of hearing. 

Para colic tic. (.IIapaKo\\i|Tuco's, join- 
ing at the edges ; from irapaKoWdw, to glue 
on.) Capable of sticking together ; agglutinant. 

Paracolpitis. (ITapa ; KoXirot, the 
vagina.) An inflammation beginning by the 
side of the vagina, and spreading to its walls. It 
is accompanied by great swelling. Matthews 
Duncan speaks of it as being erysipelatous. 

P. dis secans. (L. disseco, to cut up.) A 
variety of paracolpitis which results in suppura- 
tion, so that the vagina becomes separated from 
the surrounding parts. 

Paracol plum. (Tlapd ; k6\ttos, the 
womb.) The connective tissue around the 

Paracon'dyloid pro'cess. (Ilapa; 
kovSvKos, a knuckle. ) A name given by Undo to a 
process of the occipital bone occasionally present 
on the outer side of the condyle, which articu- 
lates with the transverse process of the atlas. 

Para conine. (n«p«; oonine.) C S H, 5 N. 
An artificial variety of Conine, prepared by a 
long and complicated process from butyric alde- 
hyde and alcoholic ammonia. It differs from 
natural conine in some of its chemical reactions, 
and also in having a greater coefficient of ex- 


pansion, in being less soluble in water, and in 
not acting on polarised light. 

Para cope. (JlapaKOTni, infatuation; 
from irapaKoitTw, to strike the mind awry.) 
The slight delirium of fever. 

Paracop'io. Of, or belonging to, Para- 

Paracop'tic. Of, or belonging to, Para- 

Faracorol'la. (Ilapo, beside; corolla. 
F. paracorolle ; I. paracorotla ; S. paracorola ; 
<}. Nebenblumenhrone.) Link's term for the part 
of the flower inside the corolla, as of the nar- 

Paracou'sia. The same as Paracusis. 


Paracre'sol. C 6 H 4 < CH Hydroxyl- 

toluol. One of the tolyl alcohols found in urine, 
and occurring in it as kresol sulphate of potas- 
sium, C 7 H 7 O.S0 3 K. It is also one of the pro- 
ducts of the fractional distillation of coal-tar. 
It occurs in colourless prisms, melting at 36° F. 
and boiling at 198 a F. ; only sparingly soluble 
in water. 

Para'crises. (Uapd, amiss; Kpio-is, a 
separating.) Diseases of secretion. 

Paracru sis. (Uupdnpovan, striking a 
false note.) Slight delirium. 
Paracrus'tic. Relating to Paracrusis. 
Paracu'sis. (UapaKodw, to hear imper- 
fectly. F . paracousie ; I. paracusis ; S. para- 
cusis; G. Falschhoren.) Defective hearing; 
perverted hearing. 

P.a'cris. (L. acer, piercing.) The pain- 
fully acute sense of hearing which occurs in 
some diseases. 

P. duplica'ta. (L. duplicates, two-fold. 
F. paracousie double.) Double hearing, the time 
of the perception of the same sound being dif- 
ferent for the two ears. 

P. imag inar ia. (L. imaginarius, 
fancied.) A synonym of Tinnitus aurium. 

P. imperfec ta. (L. imperfectus, incom- 
plete.) Inability to hear sounds distinctly ex- 
cept in the presence of other sounds. 

P. lo ci. (L. locus, a place.) Failure to 
recognise the direction from which a sound pro- 

P. obtu'sa. (L. obtusus, blunt.) Dulness 
of hearing. 

P. oxycoi'a. See Oxycoia. 

P. perver'sa. (L. perversus, turned the 
wrong way.) That form of deafness in which 
sounds can only be distinguished in the presence 
of other and louder sounds. 

P. surditas. (L. surdilas, deafness.) 
Loss of hearing. 

P. Willis ii. (Robert Willis.) Synonym 
for P. perversa. < 

Paracyan'ic ac'id. (Uapd; cyanic 
acid. F. acide paracyanique.) Berzelius's term 
for Fulminic acid (q. v.). 

Paracyanogen. (F. paracyanogene ; 
I. paracyanogeo ; G. Paracyanogen.) An isomeric 
modification of cyanogen. When cyanogen is 
prepared from mercuric cyanide ? paracyanogen is 
formed in small amount. It is a dark brown 
substance, insoluble in water, and is probably a 
polymer of cyanogen. When paracyanogen is 
calcined in an atmosphere which does not act 
upon it, cyanogen is again formed. 

Paracy cle'ses. (Xlupa, amiss ; /ciSkXtj- 
<rts, a revolution.) Disorders of the circulation 
of the blood. 

Paracye sis. (Uapd, beside ; 
conception. F. paracyesie ; I. paraciesa; S. 
paraciesa.) Extra-uterine pregnancy. 

P. abor'tus. (L. abortus, a miscarriage.) 
Premature termination of Paracyesis. 

P. tubar'la. (L. tuba, a trumpet.) Extra- 
uterine conception in the Fallopian tube. 

Paracynan che. (Uapd, beside ; kv- 
vayKi), sorethroat. F. paracynancie ; I. para- 
cinancia.) An anomalous form of quinsy ; an 
inflammation of the structures near the tonsil. 

Paracys'tis. The same as Parurocystis. 

Paracyst'ium. (Vlapd; kuo-tis, a blad- 
der.) The connective-tissue round the bladder. 

Paradac'tylUS. (nctjoa.near; BdKTv\o<;, 
a finger. F. paradactyle.) Illiger's term for 
the lateral portions of the toes of birds. 

Paradenitis. (Uapd ; dHv, a gland.) 
Inflammation round a lymphatic gland. 

Paradid ymis. (Jlapd, beside ; 8lSvpi.os, 
the testicle, i . paradidymie.) The Organ of 

Par adise. (F. paradis; L. paradisus ; 
Gr. irapdouaos, an enclosed part ; Old Pers. 
pairidaeza, a place walled in ; from pairi, around ; 
diz, to mould ; from Sanscrit root dih, to knead. 
I. paradiso ; S. paraiso ; G. Paradies.) The 
Garden of Eden ; heaven. 

P. ap'ple. The fruit of Citrus paradisi. 
P., grains of. See Grains of Paradise. 

Paradox ia sexuaiis. (UapaSo^La ; 
from Trapdoo^o?, contrary to opinion, marvellous; 
L. sexus, a sex.) Sexual precocity ; masturba- 
tion in childhood. 

Paradoxical contraction of 

mus cle. (Uapddo£os, contrary to opinion ; 
L. contractus, past. part, of contrahere, to draw 
together.) This is a secondary muscular con- 
traction, excited by a nerve in the state of eleo- 
trotonus. If the sciatic nerve in a frog be di- 
vided above, and one of its two branches, e. g. 
the peroneal, divided below, and the cut end of 
the latter be stimulated with the constant cur- 
rent, the muscles supplied by the other (tibial) 
branch will contract. No contraction takes place 
if the peroneal nerve be ligatured. The con- 
traction is due to electrotonus induced in one 
branch by the current acting as a stimulus to the 
adjacent fibres of the other branch, above the 
point of division. 

P. pulse. See Pulsus paradoxus. 

Paraellag-'ic ac'id. (Uapd; ellagic.) 
Synonym for Riif gallic acid. 

Para-epidid'ymis. The same as Para- 

Paresthesia. (Ila^a; a?(r6ij<ris, per- 
ception by the senses. F. paresthesie.) A hal- 
lucination of any of the senses, sight, hearing, 
taste, by whatever cause produced. 

P. of lar'ynx. A feeling as of a foreign 
body, or of constriction, or heat, &c., is common 
in hysteria ; it is also common after the removal 
of a foreign body. In true paresthesia, the mu- 
cous membrane of the larynx is either normal or 
anaemic ; in the latter case it may bo that the 
paresthesia is a forerunner of laryngeal phthisis. 

P. of pharynx. The Globus hystericus. 

P. olfacto'ria. (L. olfacio, to smell.) See 

P. sexua'lls. (L. sexus, a sex.) A pervor- 
sion of the sexual feelings. 

Parresthe sis. The same as Paras- 

P. audi tus flae'ea. (L. auditus, hearing; 



Jlacca, flaccid.) An abnormally large and pendu- 
lous condition of the lobule of the ear, usually 

Paresthetic. Relating to, or in a con- 
dition of, Paresthesia. 

Parae'thenar. See Parathenar. 

Par affin. (L.parum, little ; affinis, con- 
nected with. P. paraffine; I. parajina; S. 
parajina; G. Parajin.) A hydrocarbon dis- 
covered in the dry distillation of wood by 
Reichenbach in 1830. It occurs as a colour- 
less, wax-like solid at ordinary temperatures. 
See Paraffinum durum. 

P., bard. See Paraffinum durum. 

P. jel'ly. Synonym for Paraffinum molle. 

P. se'ries. (L. series, a succession, chain.) 
The series CnH a n -t- 2 . Before 1848, none of the 
hydrocarbons of this series were distinctly 
known, except Marsh-gas, the first term of 
the series. In 1848, Kolbe's researches on 
the electrolysis of the fatty acids, and Frank- 
land's on the action of zinc on the iodides of the 
alcohol radicals, opened a new field. The hydro- 
carbons obtained were considered as the free 
radicals of the alcohols. Gerhardt, however, 
proposed to double their formulae, to bring them 
into co-ordination with Avogadro's law, and he 
considered them to be hoinologues of marsh-gas. 
Frankland also discovered what he believed to be 
a distinct series of hydrocarbons, obtained by 
the replacement of the iodine in the iodide of 
the alcohol radical by hydrogen. He assumed 
these hydrides to be the true hoinologues of 
inaish-gas. In 1862, Pelouze and Cahours 
showed that Americau petroleum consisted almost 
entirely of a mixture of homologous hydrocar- 
bons of the series CnH 2 n + 2 , and Schorlemmer 
found the same in the distillation-products of 
cannel coal. The monoehlorinated substitution- 
products of these hydrocarbons were shown to be 
really the chlorides of the alcohol radicals from 
which alcohols and other derivatives may be 
obtained, and the hydrocarbons themselves to 
be hydrides. It was, later, found that all dis- 
tinctions between the hydrides and the radicals 
themselves broke down. The lower members of 
the paraffin series are extremely volatile liquids. 
With each increment of CH S the boiling-point 
rises regularly, and thus the highest members of 
the series are crystalline solids. Reichenbach 
discovered, "in 1830, a mixture of the highest 
members in wood-tar. The substance he found 
he believed to be a definite chemical compound, 
and from its inactive properties he called it 
Paraffin. In the cold, the paraffins are not 
actedon by chromic acid, strong nitric acid, sul- 
phuric acid, nor by a mixture of the two latter 
acids. Heated with chromic, or dilute nitric 
acid, or with a mixture of dilute sulphuric acid 
and manganic dioxide, they become slowly oxi- 
dised, and converted almost entirely into carbonic 
dioxide and water. Nitric acid together with 
heat decomposes them* forming small quantities 
of fatty acids, succinic acid, and nitrates. By the 
action of chromic acid and heat a small amount of 
acetic acid is formed. Chlorine, in daylight, acts 
on these hydrocarbons slowly, and forms substitu- 
tion-derivatives ; first mono-derivates, and by 
further action with nascent chlorine, higher 
derivatives. Bromine yields similar products, 
but less readily than chlorine. 

P., loft. See Paraffinum molle. 

P., sol id. Paraffinum durum. 

P. wax. Paraffinum durum. 

Paraffi num du rum, B.Ph. CL.durus, 
hard.) A mixture of several of the higher mem- 
bers of the Paraffin series, i. e. those which have 
a high boiling-point. Obtained generally by dis- 
tilling shale, and purifying the solid substance 
obtained by the action of a low temperature on 
the oils that come over during distillation. It 
is a translucent, whitish, greasy, crystalline 
solid; is tasteless and inodorous; melts at 110° 
to 145° F. ; and burns with a bright flame, leaving 
no residue behind. It is soluble in ether, chloro- 
form, and benzol. 

P. mol'le, B.Ph. (L. mollis, soft. F. 
paraffine, petroleine ; I. parajina ; S. parajina; 
G. Parajin.) It is a semi-solid mixture of some 
of the more fluid members of the Paraffin series, 
and is generally prepared by purification of the 
less volatile portions of Petroleum. A white or 
yeUow, soft and greasy, translucent substance, 
tasteless, and of neutral reaction. It is insoluble 
in water, and melts at 95° to 105° F. Used as 
a basis for ointments. 

Parafi'brin. (Uapd, near to ; fibrin. F. 
parafibrine ; I. parafibrina.) Polli's term for 
a supposed modification of fibrin occurring in 
certain morbid conditions. 

Paraformaldehyde. A polymeric 
form of Methyl, or Formic, aldehyde. 

Parafumar'ic acid. (Tlapd.) A 

synonym of Maleic acid. 

Paragene'sia. (Tlapd ; ytvto-is, origin. 

F.paragenesie.) A term applied by Broca to the 
comparative sterility of hybrids, which consists 
in their being sterile with similar hybrids, but 
fertile with members of either parent species. 

Paragen'esis. See Paragcnesia. 

Paragfeu'sia. (Jlapd, amiss; yEucrir, the 
sense of taste. TP.parageustie ; I. parageusia ; S. 
parageustia.) Perversion of the sense of taste. 

Paragreu'sis. The same as Parageusia. 

Parageustia. The same as Para- 

Paragle'nal. Term for the coracoid 
bone or cartilage in Fishes ; also used as an 

Paragr'lin. The same as Smilacin. 

Paraglo bin. The same as Paraglobulin. 

Paraglobulin. (Uapd, beside; globulin. 
F. paraglobuline.) A proteid belonging to the 
family of Globulins ; obtained as a granular, 
slightly viscid precipitate from blood- plasma by 
the addition of magnesium sulphate to the point 
of saturation, after precipitation and removal by 
means of sodium chloride of all the Fibrinogen 
from the blood-plasma. It is more readily ob- 
tained by diluting blood-serum ten-fold with 
water, and then passing through it a current of 
carbon dioxide. The precipitate is separated by 
decanting and filtering, and washed on the filter 
with water containing carbon dioxide in solu- 
tion. Paraglobulin can be precipitated from its 
solution in dilute sodium chloride by a very 
dilute solution of acetic acid, less than 1 per 
1000. If a stronger solution be used, acid- 
albumin is formed. Paraglobulin occurs not only 
in blood-serum, but also in white blood cor- 
puscles, and to a slight extent in the stroma of 
red blood corpuscles; in connective tissue, the 
cornea, aqueous humour, lymph and chyle, as 
well as in serous fluids. 

Paras lossa. (Uapd, amiss; yXwaira, 
the tongue. F. paraglosse ; I. paraglossa ; S. 
paraglosa; G. Zungenvorfall.) Swelling, usually 
with partial protrusion, of the tongue. 


Also, disease of parts in the neighbourhood of 
the tongue, causing prolapse. 

Also, in Entomol., either of the two append- 
ages of the ligula, situated on each side of the 

P. adhesi va. Good's term for a form of 
paraglossa in which the tongue is adherent to 
surrounding parts. 

P. deglutito'ria. (L. de, down; glutio, 
to swallow. F. Renversement de la langue; G. der Zunge.) Term used by Sau- 
vages for an apparent doubling back of the 
tongue on itself. 

P. fraena'ta. (Good.) Tongue-tie. 

Paraglossia. Term for Glossitis, paren- 
chymatous. See Paraglossa. 

Parag'nathus, (Uapd, at the side; 
yvddos, the jaw. F. paragnathe.) A Genus of 
monstrosities possessing a double jaw. 

Parag"0'g*e. (Tlapaywyrj, a leading by.) 
The replacement of a displaced part ; the reduc- 
tion of a dislocation. 

Paras ompho sis. (Tlapd, amiss ; 
yo'/ut/xoo-is, a bolting together. F. paragom- 
phose ; I. paragomfosi ; S. paragomfosis ; G. 
Paragomphosis.) The impaction of the foetal 
head in the pelvis. 

Paraguay. A republic of South America. 
P. tea. The same as Mate. 

Parahypno sis. (Tlapd; uirvos, sleep.) 
An abnormal sleep, such as that induced Dy 
hypnotism ; the sleep of a somnambulist. 

Parai'ba. Brazilian name for the Sima- 
ruba versicolor. 

Paraidro'siS. See Paridrosis. 

Parai'so springs. Monterey County, 
California. There is a hot soda spring, 120° F., 
and a hot sulphur spring, 114° F. Analysis 
of the hot soda spring : carbonate of lime 1*43 
grains, carbonate of soda 4*23, chloride of sodium 
3-50, chloride of potassium 0-35, sulphate of 
lime 4-32, sulphate of soda 35 - 50, magnesia a 
trace, alumina and iron 1*60, silica 2 - 63, or- 
ganic matter 5-25 ; total, 58-80 grains in one 

Paraitacon ic ac id. Synonym for 
Citraconic acid. 

Parakerato ses. (Tlapd; horn.) 
Skin diseases which present abnormal develop- 
ment of the horny layer of the epidermis. 

Parakine sia. (Tlapd; /a^jo-is, motion.) 
Irregular or peculiar movement. 

Paralac'tic ac'id. (F. acide paralac- 
tique ; I. acido paralattico.) The more abundant 
of the two constituents of Sarcolactic acid, the 
other being probably the true Ethylene- lactic 
acid. Paralactic acid is dextro-rotatory, and 
forms well- crystallised salts. To separate the two 
acids, sarcolactic acid made from meat-extract 
is saturated with zinc carbonate, and the con- 
centrated solution is then precipitated with a 
large excess of 90 per cent, alcohol. The para- 
lactate is thus thrown down as a mass of small, 
colourless crystals, which are purified by a 

firocess of washing and recrystallisation. Para- 
actic acid, when heated to 140° F. or 150° F. is 
split up into formic acid and acetic aldehyde. It 
is found in the colloidal secretion of the thyroid 
gland (Moscatelli), and in the lymphatic glands 
receiving the lymphatic vessels from the thyroid. 

Paralal ia. (Uapd, amiss; \o\ia, talk- 
ing. F. paralalie.) Lordat's term for defective 

P. mi sit lis. (L. nasalis, belonging to the 
nose.) Speaking through the nose. 

P. rhlnopho'nia. The same as P. nasalis. 
Paralam psis. (Tlapd\ap.\}/^, a shining 
spot on the cornea ; for TrapaX^xj/ii, from irapa.- 
\d/nrw, to shine near. F. paralampsie ; I. para- 
latnpsi; S. paralampsia G. per Imutterar tiger 
Eornhautfleck.) A pearly-looking opacity of the 
cornea, a variety of Albugo or Leucoma. 

Paralbu min. (Tlapd, beside; albumin. 
F. paralbumine ; I. paralbumina; S. paralbu- 
mina; G. Paralbumin.) Scherer's term for a 
form of albumin found together with Metalbumin 
in ovarian cysts. By means of strong alcohol 
they may be precipitated from the ropy solution 
they form in the fluid of the cyst, and the pre- 
cipitate so obtained is soluble in water. Ham- 
marsten considers Metalbumin to be a mixture of 
Paralbumin and other proteids. 

Paraldehy'dum, Martindale's Extra 
Pharm. A polymer of aldehyde. It is made 
by treating Aldehyde with sulphuric or nitric 
acid, and at ordinary temperatures is a colour- 
less liquid. When cooled below 50° F., like 
glacial acetic acid, it crystallises. It smells and 
tastes like aldehyde, but does not cause the same 
suffocation when respired. It is soluble 1 in 10 of 
water. Paraldehyde is probably the important 
therapeutic agent in Spirittis atheris nitrosi, 
B. Ph. Its action differs from that of Chloral, to 
which it is very similar, in diminishing the fre- 
quency, but strengthening the beats, of the heart. 
It causes marked diuresis; but does not affect 
the skin, nor give rise to headache nor digestive 
disturbance. It is given as a narcotic in cases 
of heart disease where chloral is contra-indi- 
cated. Dose, 30 to 60 min. 

See also Metaldehyde. 
P., cap'sules of, Ex. Ph. Each contains 
3 min. of paraldehyde. 

P., elixir of, Ex. Ph. Paraldehyde 240 
parts, glycerine 240, rectified spirit 480, oil 
of cinnamon 4, oil of bitter orange 8, saccharin 
1 part. Dose, 1 to 3 drachms. 

Paralere ma. (Jlapa\vpi)p.a, silly talk.) 
Slight delirium. 

Paralere'sis. (JTapa\vpr\ats, a talking 
foolishly.) Delirium. 

Parale'rous. (Tlapakvpo?, talking 

foolishly.) Delirious. 

Paralexia. (Uapd, badly ; Xe'£ ts, speak- 
ing. G. Paralexie.) A form of sensory aphasia 
in which there is a difficulty of reading, though 
the power of writing from dictation is retained. 

Paralge'sia. (Tlapd; d\yn<ris, sense of 
pain.) Diminished sensibility to pain. 

Paralgia, cuta'neous. (Tlapd; 
a\yos, pain.) A term applied to certain anom- 
alous painful or disagreeable sensations, such 
as itching, creeping, burning, &c, referred to 
the skin, when the excitability of the cutaneous 
nerves is increased, as in inflammatory condi- 
tions of the skin. 

Parallage. (napaXXa-y?;,a passing from 
hand to hand, a changing.) An old term for 
wandering of the mind. 

Parallag'ma. (TlapdWaypia, alterna- 
tion.) A change in the situation of bones or 
parts of bones, as when one fragment of a frac- 
tured bone rides over another. 

Parallax is. (n«(>«XXa£is, alternation. 
F . parallase ; S.paralase.) The overlapping of 
two fragments of a broken bone. 

Par allel. (TlapdWiiXoi, side by side ; 



from -n-apa, beside; 4\X.i}\os, one another.) 
Side by side; hence, alike. Parallel straight 
lines are denned in an axiom of Euclid as " those 
straight lines that will never meet, though pro- 
duced ever so far both ways." 

P. lis sure. See Parallel sulcus. 

P. law. (G. Parallelgesetz, Fechner.) A 
law enunciated by Fechner, which is a converse 
of Weber's law. If the stimuli remain con- 
stant and the sensibility of an organ be altered, 
according to the parallel law, the perceptible 
difference between the stimuli remains unaltered. 
This is probably only approximately correct. 

P. sul'cus. The superior temporo- sphe- 
noidal sulcus, which is parallel to the Sylvian 

Paralle'la. An old term for a scaly 
eruption on the palms of the hands ; probably 
Psoriasis palmarts. 

Parallel ic. (F. parallelique.) Relating 
to that which is Parallel. 

P ar all e liner vat e. ; {Parallel; L. 
nervus, a nerve. F. parallelinerve.) Applied 
to a leaf the nervures of which are equidistant 
from each other. 

Paralleliner vous. The same as Pa- 

Par allelism. The state or condition of 
being Parallel ; similarity. 

P. of disease'. Term introduced by 
Harden, of Georgia, to denote the tendency of 
some diseases to simulate others. 

Parallelive'nous. {Parallel; L. vena, 
a vein. F. paralleliveine ; G. gleichweilend- 
derieht.) The same as Parallelinervate. 

Paralog ia. (irapaXoyos,beyond reason.) 
Slight delirium ; slight madness. 

Paraloph ia. {UapaXotpia, the back of 
the horse's neck where the mane grows.) The 
lower and lateral part of the neck. 

Paralych'nion. {Tlapa, alongside of ; 
Xvxvtiov, a lamp-stand.) A protection from 
the glare of a light ; a lampshade. 

Paralysiorheumatis'mus. {Pa- 
ralysis ; rheumatism.) Paralytic rheumatism. 

Paralysis. (L. paralysis; Gr. ■napa- 
Xuo-ts, a loosening by the side, palsy ; from 
■jrapaXvw, to loose from the side ; from irapa, 
beside; Xvw, to loosen. F. paralysie; I. para- 
lisia ; S. paralisis ; G. Lahmung, Paralyse.) 
Palsy_ ; loss of power over some part of the body. 
The inability to produce contraction of muscle 
is called motor paralysis, in opposition to loss of 
sensation, which is sometimes called sensory 
paralysis. The various forms of motor paralysis 
group themselves under four main heads : (1) 
encephalic ; (2) spinal ; (3) peripheral ; (4) and 
lastly, that due to idiopathic disease of the 

The encephalic form may be due to various 
causes, viz.: to psychical defect, as in hysterical 
paralysis ; to organic disease of the motor area 
of the brain, as in cortical tumours ; to a solution 
of continuity or injury to the motor fibres in the 
motor tract, as in ordinary hemiplegia. 

The spinal forms of paralysis may be pro- 
duced by lesions of the whole thickness of the 
cord, with paraplegia as a result; disease or 
degeneration of the anterior polar cells of the 
grey matter, as in infantile palsy ; and also by 
lesions of the anterior roots or spinal nerves con- 
sequent upon disease of the spinal membranes. 

The peripheral forms of paralysis, e.g. that 
due to peripheral neuritis, are due to inflamma- 

tion, injury, or other lesion of the trunks of 
spinal nerves. 

Disease of the muscles themselves, indepen- 
dent h of disordered or defective innervation, is 
thought by some to be the cause of pseudohyper- 
trophic paralysis. 

Paralysis is accompanied by wasting of the 
muscles, if the motor nerve supplying them be 
injured, or if the anterior polar cells in the grey 
matter of the cord from which this nerve arises 
degenerate or be destroyed. 

P., acute' ascend ing:. (L. acutus, sharp; 
ascendo, to mount up). The same as Landry's 

P., acute' spin al. (L. spina, the back- 
bone.) The same as Acute atrophic paralysis. 

P. agr'itans. (L. agitans, part, of agito, 
to put in frequent motion. F. paralysie agi- 
tante ; G. Schiittellahmung.) Shaking palsy, 
under which name it was first described by 
Parkinson. By Sauvages, it was termed Scelo- 
tyrbe festinans, and by Good, Synclonus ballis- 
mus. A disease occurring in elderly persons, 
characterised by tremors of the limbs, and 
weakness and rigidity of muscles. The causa- 
tion and pathology of this disease are not under- 
stood at present. It is more common in men 
than women, and is rarely manifest until past 
middle life; when once established, it is incur- 
able. The tremors of paralysis agitans are fine 
oscillatory movements of the fingers, wrist, and 
even the whole arm, and they are regular in 
time and in extent. In the early stages they 
can be controlled for a short time, and are less 
marked during voluntarymovements; later, they 
are more persistent. They are worse during 
excitement. The stiffness and rigidity may pre- 
cede, but usually follow, the onset of the tremors, 
affecting the muscles of the back, neck, and 
limbs, and producing a characteristic attitude; 
the head being thrown forwards, the arms and 
legs slightly bent, whilst the toes are extended ; 
on account of this the patient finds a difficulty 
inmaintaining his equilibrium, and he frequently 
tends to fall forward. Such a patient may have 
difficulty in walking, but once started may be 
obliged to run and be unable to stop himself : 
this condition is sometimes termed festination. 
In addition to these symptoms the patient fre- 
quently complains of exhaustion, and his speech 
may become unduly slow. The mental faculties 
are not affected, though the patient may be 
somewhat irritable. The treatment of paralysis 
agitans is unsatisfactory, and nearly all cases 
slowly progress until the patient dies of some 
intercurrent disease. 

P. agr'itans mercuria'lis. See Mer- 
curial tremors. 

P., altern'ate. (L. altemus, alternate; 
from alter, one of two.) Paralysis, of motion on 
the one side and sensation on the other. 

P., atroph ic. ("Axpcx/ua, want of nou- 
rishment.) Spinal paralysis with wasting of 
muscles; anterior polio-myelitis. See P., 
atrophic, acute, also Progressive muscular 

P., atrophic, acute'. (L. acutus, sharp. 
F. paralysie de Venfancc, myelite anterxeure 
aigu'e ; G. Kinder lahmung.) Though acute 
atrophic paralysis is most common in children 
undor the ago of four years, it sometimes occurs 
in adults. Boys are more subject to the disease 
than girls. It occurs most frequently in summer, 
and is sometimes attributed to chill or over- 


exertion. It may complicate convalescence from 
some acute febrile disease. 

The course of the disease may be divided into 
four stages : 

(1) The prodromal stage usually presents some 
degree of fever, possibly accompanied by con- 
vulsions. The attack of fever may last from 
two to seven days, but sometimes is absent alto- 

(2) The stage of maintenance. Paralysis of 
one limb, occasionally of two, suddenly sets in. 
Reflexes are entirely absent. The paralysed 
muscles waste rapidly, and present marked re- 
action of degeneration. There is no loss of sen- 
sation, although the limb is perfectly helpless 
and flaccid; growth is lessened, the surface of 
the limb is cold, and presents a livid appearance. 
In rare cases all the limbs are affected succes- 

(3) At the end of about a month, or perhaps 
in a shorter time, the third stage, that of im- 
provement, usually sets in. The wasted muscles 
begin to regain their size and strength, espe- 
cially in the case of the arms and upper part of 
the trunk. Complete recovery is, however, rare ; 
there is usually but slight improvement after 
the lapse of three months. 

(4) Stage of deformity. Owing to contractions 
of unopposed muscles, deformities are frequently 
produced, such as talipes equino-varus. The 
limb affected, or a portion of it, may remain 
shrunken and powerless throughout. 

Though to the naked eye there may be no 
perceptible change, it is found microscopically 
that the disease is due to an acute inflammation 
of the anterior horns of grey matter in the 
region of the spinal cord corresponding to the 
limb affected, resulting in a variable amount of 
injury to the pyramidal cells contained in that 
part of the cord. Hence the name "Acute an- 
terior polio-myelitis." 

P., atrophic, chronic diffused. 
{'Xrpotpia ; xpoi/ik-ds, concerning time ; L. 
diffundo, to scatter abroad. F. paralysie generate 
spinale anterieure subaigue.) Polio-myelitis 
anterior subacuta et chronica. A chronic or 
subacute paralysis, resembling acute atrophic 
paralysis in its local characters, but with more 
tlilt'used distribution, and occurring in adults 
rather than children. The symptoms are 
due to a chronic anterior polio-myelitis, which 
results in destruction of the anterior polar 
ganglion cells, followed by secondary degenera- 
tion of the motor nerves with wasting of the 
muscles. It usually begins in the lower limbs, 
and may extend upwards to the arms and trunk 
in the course of a few days ; in other cases the 
paralysis extends very slowly. The limbs are 
flaccid and helpless, and the muscles present re- 
action of degeneration, and subsequently waste. 
Recovery may be complete or only partial ; rarely, 
the bulbar nuclei may be involved, and a fatal 
termination occur after the lapse of a year or 
two. The disease is readily distinguished from 
progressive muscular atrophy, in that the inci- 
dence of the paralysis and its extent and pro- 
gress differ greatly ; but the diffuse and chronic 
variety of lead poisoning may closely resemble it. 
P., Bell's. Facial paralysis due to peri- 
heral lesion of the facial nerve, described by 
ir Charles Bell. See P., facial. 

P., bul'foar, (UoX/3ds, a bulb. F. para- 
lysie bulbaire, paralysie labio-glosso-larungee.) 
A paralysis of those muscles which receive in- 

nervation from nerves arising from the nuclei 
in the medulla, or " bulb." There are two varie- 
ties, respectively described under the headings 
P., bulbar, acute and P., bulbar, progressive. 

P., bul bar, acute'. (L. acutus, sharp.) 
The symptoms of acute bulbar paralysis corre- 
spond to those of the progressive form of the 
disease, but have an acute onset and rapidly 
tend to a fatal termination. The lesions which 
may destroy the bulbar nuolei and produce 
bulbar symptoms are various ; but the disease 
is commonly due to softening dependent upon 
atheromatous arteries in elderly people, which 
mayor may not be accompanied oy haemorrhage. 

P., bul bar, progres sive. (L. progres- 
sus ; from progredior, to march forwards. F. 
paralysie glosso-labio-laryngee ; G. progressive 
Bulbar-paralysie.) A disease characterised by 
symmetrical paralysis of the lips, tongue, and 
larynx ; having an insidious onset, and tend- 
ing to progress to a fatal termination in the 
course or one to three years. It is frequently 
secondary to progressive muscular atrophy or 
disseminated sclerosis, and may occur as a 
complication of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. 
No definite cause of this disease can be ascer- 
tained in most cases ; it has been known to follow 
undue exposure to cold. It commonly appears in 
adults, after the age of forty, and in males more 
frequently than females. The earliest symptom 
is usually defective speech, which differs accord- 
ing to the part first affected; in paralysis of 
the lips, B, P, and M are pronounced badly ; 
of the tongue, R, SH, L, D, and T ; and when 
the soft palate suffers, the speech acquires a nasal 
tone. Speech becomes, later, quite unintelligible. 
When the disease is developed, the tongue lies 
flaccid in the floor of the mouth and cannot be 
protruded, the lip3 are helpless, the lower 
part of the face is devoid of expression, and the 
muscles of the larynx and soft palate become 
paralysed. Owing to the paralysis of the lips, 
the mouth remains open, the saliva runs out, 
and mastication is performed with difficulty. 
In advanced cases deglutition is impossible ; the 
attempt to swallow liquids results in some of the 
liquid running into the air passages; owing to 
the laryngeal palsy, and consequent inability to 
cough, this is not properly expelled, hence food- 
pneumonia is a not infrequent complication. At 
first, respiration is unaffected ; but in some cases 
dyspnoea becomes a prominent symptom, and 
the respiratory movements are observed to be 
feeble. There is no defect of sensation, and 
intelligence and memory remain intact. The 
muscles are wasted, in advanced cases, and the 
motor nerves to them, degenerated. The nuclei 
of origin of these nerves are degenerated, and 
under the microscope the ganglion cells therein 
are atrophied. A 11 the nuclei on the floor of the 
fourth ventricle suffer, especially the hypoglossal 
and spinal accessory nuclei, the nucleus of the 
vagus, and the lower facial nucleus. The pro- 
gnosis is utterly bad. In the early stages the 
disease may be difficult to distinguish from de- 
fective articulation due to other cerebral dis- 
ease ; and, in some cases, other causes of paralysis 
of the hypoglossal or facial nerves may be a 
source of difficulty in diagnosis. 

P., cer'ebral. (L. cerebrum, the brain.) 

P., cer'ebral, direct'. Direct or ordi- 
nary Hemiplegia. 

P., cer'ebral, infant ile. (L. infans, 


an infant. G. cerebrate Kinderlahmung .) See 
Hemiplegia, spastic infantile. 

P., cor tical. Hemiplegia, cortical. 

P., crossed. Hemiplegia, crossed. 

P., crutch. (An Old £. word, probably 
derived from Anglo-Sax. crice, a crutch or staff.) 
A paralysis of the arm produced by the pressure 
of a crutch, either upon the branches of the 
brachial plexus, or, as some think, upon the 
axillary vessels, leading to impairment of the 
blood supply of the nerves. The musculo-spiral 
nerve alone frequently suffers. Synonym, Crutch 

P., Cruveil'hier's. The same as Pro- 
gressive muscular atrophy. See Oruveilhier' s 

P., diphtheritic. See Diphtheritic 

P., Duchen'ne's. The same as P., 
pseudohypertrophic , which was first described by 
Duchenne of Boulogne in 1861. 

P., essen'tial. (L. essentia, the being or 
essence of a thing. F. paralysie essentielle.) 
A name given to infantile paralysis before its 
pathology was understood, and when it was 
thought to be independent of any nervous 

P., fa'cial. (L. facialis; from fades, a 
face. F. paralysie faciale.) A paralysis of the 
muscles of the face due to a lesion of the facial 
nerve, or of its nucleus in the pons, or in that 
part of the motor tract which contains the fibres 
passing from the motor area concerned in move- 
ments of the face. The various forms of facial 
paralysis may be conveniently divided into two 
divisions ; those of peripheral origin and due to 
a lesion of the facial nerve, and those of central 
origin dependent upon lesion of the brain. Facial 
palsy due to peripheral disease of the nerve was 
first described by Sir Chas. Bell, and is fre- 
quently called Bell's palsy. The common cause 
of this is exposure to cold ; it may be also due to 
disease of the temporal bone injuring the nerve 
in its course through the aqueduct of Fallopius, 
as by necrosis of the petrous bone occurring in 
otitis, or any injury to the nerve from a blow, or 
pressure by tumour. It may occur in syphilis. 
The whole of the muscles supplied by the facial 
suffer, so that one side of the face is flaccid and 
immobile ; the patient is unable to close the 
eye on the affected side, and on attempting to 
do so the eye- ball rotates up under the upper 
lid ; the mouth is drawn to the opposite side in 
all active movements of the facial muscles, there 
is no power of frowning on the palsied side, and 
mastication is difficult on account of the food 
collecting in the palsied cheek ; there is gene- 
rally impairment of taste on the affected side and 
tip of the tongue, due to implication of the 
chorda tympani; the muscles present well- 
marked reaction of degeneration, and waste 
rapidly unless recovery occurs early. The pro- 
gnosis of that form following exposure is good, 
and recovery is generally complete, though pro- 
tracted, both in this variety and in that due to 
syphilis; when due to necrosis of the petrous 
portion of the temporal bone, the condition is 
permanent. Double facial palsy, or diplegia 
facialis, is a very rare affection; both sides of 
the face are flaccid and devoid of expression, 
hence the name "masked face" sometimes 
given to this affection. It is commonly due either 
to a central lesion affecting the nuclei of both 
facial nerves, or to meningitis of the base of the 

brain implicating the roots of both facial nerves, 
which latter may be of syphilitic origin ; the 
affection has also been observed in diphtheria. 
Facial paralysis produced by a central lesion 
affecting the motor tract above the nuclei in the 
pons is usually a part of hemiplegia ; it differs 
materially from the preceding form, as the upper 
part of the face almost completely escapes, the 
eye can be closed, and there is no reaction of 
degeneration, nor wasting. See Hemiplegia. A 
paralysis of the lower part of the face is also 

E resent in lesions of tne lower nucleus of the 
icial nerve in the medulla, occurring in bulbar 
paralysis. See P., bulbar. 

P., general, of insane'. (L. in, not ; 
sanus, of sound mind. F. paralysie generate pro- 
gressive.) A disease usually affecting persons 
near the prime of life, and characterised by a stage 
of mental excitement with exalted delusions, fol- 
lowed by dementia ; it is accompanied by a vary- 
ing amount of loss of muscular power, and usually 
ends fatally in about three years. The causation 
of general paralysis is obscure. It is much more 
common in men than in women, and commences 
usually between the ages of forty and fifty. Most 
patients have previously "lived hard," and in- 
dulged in much dissipation. It has been ascribed 
to syphilis, sexual excess, alcoholism, injury, 
business excitement, and anxiety, any of which 
may be factors in its causation. It has no con- 
stant morbid anatomy. Occasionally the dura 
mater is thickened and adherent ; the pia mater 
is frequently adherent to the convolutions, which 
are often greatly wasted; fluid in the lateral 
ventricles is common. Under the microscope 
there is generally an increase of conneetive 
tissue ; there may be a large migration of leuco- 
cytes in the perivascular sheaths of the capillary 
vessels ; and the cortical nerve cells, particularly 
the pyramidal cells of the third layer, may be de- 

General paralysis is usually divided into three 
stages : a first stage, of extravagance and altered 
moral conduct ; a second stage, with distinct 
mental and motor symptoms; and a third stage, 
of dementia and paralysis. These stages are not 
sharply defined from each other. The onset of 
this disease is generally insidious, the commonest 
early symptoms being some moral alteration, 
with failure of memory and judgment ; the pupils 
may be contracted or unequal. During the first 
stage the patient may be extravagant in any 
direction, or may be irritable or morose. During 
the second stage the characteristic symptoms are 
developed. The signs and symptoms of general 
paralysis are so numerous and its clinical fea- 
tures so dissimilar in different cases, that only 
some of the commoner ones will be mentioned. 
Exalted delusions, as of the possession of 
great riches, strength, and ability are common. 
Tremors of the tongue and hands, slurring ar- 
ticulation, and shaky hand-writing with bad 
spelling, are all frequent symptoms. The pupils 
are generally unequal. The gait is shuffling; 
but where associated with tabes, it is high- 
stepping and ataxic. Convulsions generally occur, 
and these may be the dividing line between the 
second and third stage. Patients are also liable 
to maniacal, rarely melancholic, attacks, and it 
is of tho utmost importance to place them under 
suitable care as early as possible. Succeeding 
tho excitement there is often an appearance of 
recovery ; the patient becomes quieter, and may 
get fat, out is as a rule weak-minded and is liable 


to occasional convulsions. During the third 
stage, muscular weakness increases, the dementia 
is progressive, control of the sphincters is lost, 
bea-sores are common, the patient becomes bed- 
ridden, diarrhoea frequently occurs, and death 
ensues, usually in two to five years from the 
onset. When once established, the prognosis is 
hopeless ; but with care and good nursing, life 
may be greatly prolonged though no improve- 
ment in the mental or bodily condition occurs. 

P., glos'so la bio larynge al. Syn. 
for P., bulbar. 

P., glos'so-larynge al. The same as 
P., glosso-labio-laryngeal. 

P., glos'so-pharyng-e'al. The same as 
P., glosso-labio-laryngeal. 

P. hemiple'gica. The same as Hemi- 

P. her'ba. A name given to the Primula 
vera, on account of a supposed virtue in curing 

P., histrlon'ic. (L. hislrionicus ; from 
hislrio, a player or actor.) Bell's facial palsy, 
so named because the power of facial expression 
is lost. 

P., hysterical. A paralysis of a limb or 
certain groups of muscles (see Hysteria) without 
any anatomical lesion in the nervous system or 
muscles, and usually associated with other hys- 
terical manifestations. There is no wasting or 
reaction of degeneration in the affected muscles. 
See Paraplegia, hysterical; Aphonia, hysterical. 

P., infan tile. (L. infans, an infant. 
F. paralysie infantile.) Acute atrophic para- 
lysis in infants is often called infantile paralysis, 
because the greater number of cases occur in 
children under three years of age. 

P. insano'rum. (L. insanorum; from 
insanus, of unsound mind.) The same as P., 
general, of insane. 

P. intesti'ni recti. (Gen. of L. intes- 
tinum, a gut ; recti, gen. of rectus, straight.) 
Paralysis of the rectum. 

P., laryngeal. See under Laryngeal. 

P., lo cal. (L. localis, belonging to a 
place.) Loss of power over a few muscles only. 

P., masticatory. Paralysis of the 
muscles of mastication occurring in lesions of 
the motor part of the fifth cranial nerve. 

P. metal lica. (L. metallum, a metal.) 
An old name for lead palsy. 

P., myogen ic. (MC9, a muscle ; ymia, 
birth. F. paralysie myogenique.) The same as 
acute atrophic paralysis. It received this name 
before the pathology of the disease was recog- 
nised, and because it was thought to be primarily 
a disease of the muscles. 

P., myopathic. Paralysis from disease 
of the muscles themselves. 

P., my osclerot'ic. (MDs, muscle ; o-kXjj- 
/oos, hard. F. paralysie myosclerotique.) The 
same as P., pseudo- hypertrophic. 

P. notarlo'rum. (Gen. plural of L. no- 
tarius, a short-hand writer.) Writers' cramp. 

P., nu clear. Any paralysis due to a 
lesion of nerve-nuclei. 

P., obstet'rical. (L. obstetrix, a mid- 
wife.) A paralysis in an infant due to injury 
received during parturition. 

P. of the brain. See P., cerebral. 

P. paraplegica. The same as Para- 

P., peripheral. (VLtpicpipiia; -nipi, 
around; </n'pa>, to carry.) Paralysis due to 

disease of the peripheral nerves, as opposed to 
that due to disease of the brain or spinal cord. 
See Neuritis. 

P., peripheric. (Jlipupiptiu.) An old 
name for progressive muscular atrophy. 
Also, the same as P., peripheral. 

P., phonet ic. Aphonia, paralytic. 

P., post-convul'sive. (L. post, afier; 
convulsio, a spasm.) Muscular weakness or 
paralysis following convulsions. A temporary 
paralysis often follows severe epileptic convul- 
sions, moro marked on the side that has been 
principally affected. 

P., pseudohypertrophic. (^Ptt/oi'is, 
false; virtp, signifying excessive; Tpo(pi), nour- 
ishment. F. paralysie pseudohypertrophique.) 
A progressive paralysis, in which certain muscles 
are greatly increased in size, on account of an 
interstitial deposit of fat and connective tissue, 
the muscle fibres themselves being wasted. Pseu- 
dohypertrophic paralysis is much more common 
in boys than girls. It is sometimes hereditary 
through the mother, and though it is usually 
manifested in early childhood it is often congeni- 
tal. Cases which develop later, progress more 
slowly. The earliest symptom of the disease is 
muscular weakness, which may be overlooked in 
infants, but in older children results in a peculiar 
attitude : the abdomen is thrust forward owing 
to increased antero-posterior curve of the spine, 
which is seen only when the child is erect; he 
walks with a waddling gait. There is no diffi- 
culty in stooping, but the attempt to regain the 
erect posture fails without the assistance of the 
arms ; so that if no object of support be at hand, 
the child as it were climbs up his own legs. 
There is considerable weakness of the muscles of 
the legs, trunk, and upper limbs, accompanied 
for the most part by wasting ; but a remarkable 
increase in the size of certain muscles is a pecu- 
liar feature of this disease ; both calves are 
greatly enlarged, and the muscle is harder and 
firmer than natural ; the glutei, infraspinati, and 
other muscles are sometimes similarly affected ; 
these muscles stand out conspicuously, compared 
with the general wasting. The muscles do not 
give the reaction of degeneration. The general 
health does not suffer. Deformities, such as talipes 
equinus, may develop as the wasting progresses. 
When once established the disease is progressive, 
the enlarged muscles eventually waste, and the 
paralysis extends ; and though the patient may 
live for years, he lies helpless and bedridden, 
until carried off by some intercurrent disease. 
The muscles of the calves are enlarged, not on 
account of any new development of muscle, but 
through an increase in connective tissue and an 
abundant deposit of fat; the muscular fibres 
themselves degenerate and disappear. It is 
doubtful whether there is any change in the 
nervous structures antecedent to the development 
of the disease of the muscles. 

P., psychical. (¥ux>;, the spirit, soul.) 
A paralysis dependent upon psychical defect, 
and not upon disease of the cortical motor areas 
or of the motor tract. Hysterical paralysis may 
be considered a psychical paralysis. 

P., re flex. (L. reflexus, part, of rcflccto, 
to turn back.) Loss of power, due to peripheral 
irritation. See Paraplegia, reflex. 

Cases of considerable loss of power in the 
arm have been found to be dependent upon the 
irritation of carious teeth (Salter, Guy's Hosp. 
Reports, 1868). 



P., regres sive. (L. regressus, a return.) 
The same as P., atrophic, acute. 

P., satur nine. (L. Saturnus, Saturn.) 
Lead palsy, so called because Saturn was the 
symbol of the alchemist for lead. 

P., scorbu'tica. (From scorbutus, a 
Latinised form of G. Scharbock, scurvy.) The 
same as Pellaora. 

P., senWy. (L. sensus, the faculty of 
perceiving.) The same as loss of sensation, 
or Aneestitesia. 

P., spas'tic. (STracr/uos, a spasm.) Weak- 
ness of a part accompanied by muscular spasm. 
Spastic conditions of muscles are mostly due to 
a degeneration of the motor tract in the brain 
and spinal cord. This may either be secondary 
to a lesion of that tract or of the motor areas in 
the cortex, or it may be due to a primary de- 
generation of the white fibres forming the motor 
tract. See Hemiplegia, spastic. 

P., spas'tic, spi'nal. (S^acr/jos- ; L. 
spina, the backbone.) See Sclerosis, lateral. 

P., spi'nal, g-ene'ral subacute'. Du- 
chenne's name for P., atrophic, chronic, diffused. 

P. spina lis. (L. spinalis; from spina, 
the backbone.) The same as Paraplegia. 

P. trem'ula. (Fern, of L. tremulus, 
quivering.) The same as P. agitans. 

P. vac'illans. (From vacillo, to stagger.) 
The same as Chorea. 

P. venena'ta. (L. veneno, to poison.) 
Paralysis produced by poisons, e.g. lead, mer- 

Paralyt ic. (F. paralytique ; I. para- 
litica ; S. paralitico ; G. paralitisch.) Affected 
with, or pertaining to, paralysis. 

P. demen tia. (L. dementia; de, neg; 
mens, the mind. F. demence paralytique, para- 
lysie generate.) A name sometimes given to 
general paralysis of the insane, also, to the third 
stage of that disease. See Paralysis, general, of 

P. id iocy. A form of idiocy associated 
with hemiplegia or monoplegia, the affected 
limbs being drawn up, contracted, and wasted. 
The paralysis may arise from some lesion of the 
wall of the blood-vessel in childhood, a tuber- 
cular deposit or some other growth, inflamma- 
tion of one side of the brain, or want of deve- 
lopment. A special type has been described, in 
which one hemisphere of the cerebrum is con- 
siderably less than the other, from great flat- 
tening of the corresponding temporal bone. 

P. insan'ity . This term is used as mean- 
ing insanity associated with paralysis, other 
than general paralysis of the insane. The 
paralysis may follow upon apoplexy, or be asso- 
ciated with paralysis agitans or locomotor ataxy. 

P. secre'tlon. The continuous secretion 
that goes on in some glands after complete sec- 
tion of their secretory nerves, the sympathetic 
nerve-supply remaining intact, and that comes 
to an end only as the gland-tissue degenerates. 
The fluid thus secreted is thin and watery, and 
the characteristic properties of tho normal 
gland secretion are only feebly manifested in it. 

Parama'lic ac id. The same as Fu- 
marie acid. 

Paramastitis. (Tlapd; p.a<n-o's, the 
mamma.) Inflammation of the connective 
tissue in the neighbourhood of the breast. 

Paramas toid. The jugulnr process of 
the occipital bone. 

Parame cium. See Parammcium. 

Parame dian. (Jiapa ; L. medius, the 
middle.) By the side of the middle-line. 

P. sul'cus. (L. sulcus, a furrow.) An 
ill-defined longitudinal sulcus in the spinal 
cord, which separates the posterior median from 
the posterior external column. 

Parame nia, (Hapd; /urjvts, the menses. 
F. paramenie.) Disordered or irregular men- 

P. dlffic'ilis. (L. difficilis, difficult.) The 
same as Dysmenorrhea. 

P. profu'sa. (L. profusus, excessive.) 
An old name for Menorrhagia. 

P. super llua. (L. supcrfluus, overflow- 
ing.) Menorrhagia. 

Paramenisper'mine. An alkaloid 
left as an insoluble residue after the extraction 
of menispcrmine, and obtained by extracting 
with alcohol and crystallising out from the 
alcoholic solution. It is insoluble in water. 

Parame'rion. (Hapa; p.vp6s, the 
thigh. F. parame'rion.) An old name for the 
inner part of the thigh. 

Parame'rium. The same as Parame- 

Para'mesos. (Hapa ; ptaos, the middle. 
F. paramese ; Gr. Ringftnger.) The ring-finger. 

Para'mesus. The same as Paramesos. 

Paramet'ric. (llapa; pn-rpu, the 
womb.) In the neighbourhood, or by the side, 
of the uterus. 

P. ab'scess. See under Parametritis. 
P. phleyr nion. {^Xtynovn, inflammation 
beneath the skin, a swelling.) Term for a form 
of parametritis in which the inflammation is 
acute and the swelling very' marked. 

Parametritis, (riopa-, pvrpa, the 

womb. F. parametrite ; I. paramelrite.) An 
inflammation of the connective tissue of the 
pelvis by the side of the uterus and upper part 
of the vagina, usually occurring during the 
puerperal state, and dependent upon septic in- 
fection. The term is sometimes limited to in- 
flammation of the connective tissue about the 
cervix and upper part of the vagina. It may 
also follow operations upon the neck of the 
womb, or the introduction of tents. The onset 
of parametritis is usually sudden, and is gene- 
rally accompanied by a rapid rise of temperature 
with a feeling of chilliness. There is often pain 
in the back and during micturition, and slight 
metrostaxis sometimes occurs. Upon examination, 
the uterus is foun d to be displaced, generally to one 
side, by a phlegmonous mass of exudation which 
may obliterate the lateral fornix on that side. 
The mass extends outwards between the layers 
of the broad ligament, and, when large, is im- 
moveable, on account of the implication of the 
fascia of the pelvic wall ; in other cases the in- 
flammation may extend into the iliac fossa, or 
along the psoas muscle ; in the latter case a 
difficulty or completely extending the thigh is 
often produced. The course of parametritis is 
usually towards spontaneous recovery: under 
the influence of rest the exudation is absorbed, 
and it is then sometimes found that, after cica- 
trisation, the uterus has become drawn over to- 
wards tho affected side. Sometimes, however, 
the inflammatory products break down, and an 
abscess results ; this increases in size till it 
bursts, which it may do into the vagina, bladder, 
or rectum, or under Poupart's ligament. The 
abscess may also pass upwards behind _ the 
kidney. A certain amount of perimetritis is 


generally associated with parametritis ; in the 
rare event of the rupture of an abscess into the 
peritoneum, severe peritonitis is produced. The 
phlegmon characteristic of this disease resembles 
in its anatomy other inflammatory affections of 
connective tissue ; it is undoubtedly due to in- 
fection by micro-organisms. 

P. atrophicans. ("Att> o</>os, ill fed, 
decayed.) A term used by Matthews Duncan 
for a form of parametritis in which, without 
suppuration, the parametric connective tissue 
becomes hard and gristle-like, fixing the uterus, 
and usually causing a neuralgia. 

P. chronica atrophicans circum- 
scripta. A chronic inflammation affecting, to 
a circumscribed extent, the pelvic connective 
tissue. It may be caused by affections of the 
rectum, bladder, or uterus. Its results are dis- 
placements of the uterus, compression of veins, 
and catarrh of the cervix, with consequent 
nervous irritation from pressure. Tke prognosis 
is fairly good. 

P. chron ica atrophicans diffu sa. 
The inflammation is said to start from the base 
of the broad ligaments of the uterus; it becomes 
widely spread. The results are the same in kind 
as, but greater in degree than, those of P. 
chronica atrophicans circumscripta; and the 
prognosis is less favourable. 

P. poste'rior. Term used by Sehultze 
for inflammation of the utero-sacral ligaments. 

P., remote'. A form of parametritis, de- 
scribed by Matthews Duncan, in which abscesses 
form in places more or less remote from the site 
of the disease. 
Parame'trium. (Ti ap d; nv-rpa.) The 

connective tissue by the side of the uterus and 
vagina, including that between the layers of 
the broad ligament. 

Paramim ia. (TIapa ;, to imi- 
tate. G. Paramimie.) A disordered or incorrect 
expression of ideas by means of gestures, or a 
want of accord between the words spoken and the 
gestures accompanying them. 

Farami'tom. (Jlapd; n'noi, a thread.) 
The liquid part of the protoplasm enveloping 
the reticulum of protoplasmic threads. 

Paramnesia. (ITapa ; &, without ; 
IxvTjaL's, memory. F. paramnesie ; I. param- 
nesia; G. Paramnesie.) Lordat's name for a 
perverted memory of the meaning of words, 
which may be associated with misplacement of 
the letters of a word. 

Para'mo de Ru iz. A town in New 
Granada noted for its mineral waters, which are 
remarkable for containing free hydrochloric and 
sulphuric acids. 

Paramoe cium co'li. (Tlapd ; juotxos, 
an adulterer (?)). The same as Balantidium 
coli. "When this parasitic infusorian was first 
discovered by Malmsten it was called paramoe- 
cium on account of its likeness to that species. 

Paramor phia. (Tlapd; p.op<pv, form.) 
An old name for that which possesses a morbid 

Also, the same as Paramorphine. 

Paramor phine. The same as Thebdine. 

Paramylura. _ (Jlapa; amylum.) A 
carbohydrate closely allied to starch, or amylum, 
and, like it, a member of the so-called third 
division of carbohydrates, the formula of which 
is (C 0 H| 0 O 5 )". It occurs in granules resem- 
bling those of starch, in the flagellate Euglena 

Paramyoclonus multiplex. 

(Tlapd; juDs, a muscle; kXokos, a tumult. L. 
multiplex, manifold.) A form of symmetrical 
convulsions, ceasing during sleep, described first 
by Friedreich. They do not prevent voluntary 

Paramyosinogen. (Tlapd; Myosino- 
gen.) A proteid contained in muscle-plasma. 
It becomes coagulated at a temperature of 47° C, 
and is insoluble in sodium chloride and magne- 
sium sulphate. 

Paramy'otone, ataxic, Gowers. 

(TIapa; /uus; /uuds, a muscle; tovoi, a stretch- 
ing.) An acquired nervous disease, characterised 
by persistent tonic spasm like the transient 
spasm in Thomsen's disease, associated with 
ataxy, weakness, and some amount of anses- 
thesia. In the case cited by Gowers, the disease 
was found to begin gradually in the legs, then 
to invade the arms six months later, and to in - 
crease more rapidly in the latter. 

P., congenital. An affection described 
by Eulenberg, occurring in certain families, 
somewhat allied to Thomsen's disease in its 
general characters, and equally obscure, but dif- 
fering greatly in its special peculiarities. The 
symptom is tonic spasm lasting from a quarter 
of an hour to several hours, excited chiefly by 
cold, the rigidity being followed by transient 
weakness of the affected muscles. The muscles 
affected are those of the face, and to a some- 
what less degree, those of the legs and arms. 

Paranephritic. (Tlapd, beside : vt<p- 
pos, the kidney. F. parane'phritique,) Relating 
to the Paranephros. 

Paranephritis. (F. parancphrite.) 
Inflammation of the paranephros or suprarenal 
body. See Suprarenal bodies, inflammation of. 

Paraneph'ros. t (Tlapd; veto's, the 

kidneys. F. capsule surrenale ; I. capsula sopra- 
renale ; G. Nebennicre.) The suprarenal body. 

Faran'gi. A skin disease prevalent in 
Ceylon, resembling Yaws. 

ParancB'a. The same as Paranoia. 

Paranceic. Affected with, or relating 
to, paranoea. 

Paranoia. (Jlapdvoia, madness, folly. 
G. Wahnsinn.) An old term for mental weak- 
ness or instability ; also, delirium, dementia, 
monomania, and other forms of mental derange- 

Paranoiac. Affected with, or pertain- 
ing to, Paranoia. 

Paranucleus. (Jlapd; nucleus.) The 
modern name for what has been erroneously 
termed Nucleolus (q. v.). Also termed Endo- 

Paranym'phus. (Jlapd; vvp.<pn, a 
bride. F. paranymphe.) Originally he who 
led the bride to her husband's house. After- 
wards, in the old schools of medicine, a dis- 
course mentioning the licentiate's qualifications 
given at the close of his curriculum. (Dungli- 

Parapar esis. (Jlapd; irdpt^^, from 
iraplr\ixi, to let fall.) The same as a partial or 
incomplete paraplegia. 

Parapath'ia. (Tlapd; -rrddov, feeling, 
affection.) The same as Pathomania. 

Parape'chyon. (fi« ( xi; ttt/x" 5 ) tne 
ulna.) An old term for the radius. 

Parapec tic acid. (G. Tarapcktin- 
siiure.) An acid formed, together with meta- 
pectic acid, from pectin or pectic acid, by pro- 


longed boiling, by the action of acids or alkalies, 
or by the action of pectosc. 

Parapec tin. (II«pd ; pectin. G. Para- 
pektin.) A neutral substance, non-crystal- 
lisable, very soluble in water, but insoluble in 
alcohol. It is formed by the action of boiling 
water upon pectin, from which it differs only in 
being precipitated from its aqueous solution by 
neutral acetate of lead. See Pectin. 

Farapep'tone. (ITapd; peptone. A 
substance resembling syntonin, or acid-albumin, 
in its general characters. It is thrown down 
as a precipitate on neutralising the product of 
the action of gastric juice on egg- or serum- 
albumin. (Foster.) 

Parapet' al. (napd; ttItoXov, a leaf, or 
petal. F . parapetale ; I. parapetalo ; S. para- 
petalo ; G. Afterkronenblatt.) An appendage 
to a petal (Mcench). Also, leaf-like structures 
situated within the petals and resembling them 
(Link) ; these are in reality modified stamens. 

Paraphasia. (IIapd; Acpacrl a, speech- 
lessness. F. paraphasie.) A form of disordered 
speech due to disease of the brain, and charac- 
terised by the incorrect use of words, so that the 
words spoken do not express that which is in- 

Paraph'ia. (napd; acpi'j, the sense of 
touch. F. paraphie.) Disordered tactile sense. 

Paraphimosis. (Ilapa; 4>i>os, a 
muzzle. F. paraphimosis ; I. parafimosi ; G. 
Paraphimosis, spanischer Kragen.) The con- 
dition of strangulation of the glans penis by a 
tight prepuce, either in congenital or acquired 
Phimosis, which has been forcibly drawn back 
behind it. 

Parapho'bia. The same as Hydrophobia. 

Parapho nia. (napd ; <fc<avn, the voice. 
F. paraphonie ; I. parafonia ; S. parafonia ; G. 
Stimmfehler.) A disorder of the voice; an 
alteration in the character or quality of the 

P. clang ens. (L. clangens, clanging.) 
A shrill or harsh voice. 

P. nasalis. (L. nasus, a nose.) A voice 
with a nasal tone. 

P. palati'na. (L. palatum, the palate.) 
The altered voice of a person with cleft palate. 

P. pulierum. (L., gen. of puberes, 
adults.) The alteration in the voice of boys 
which occurs at puberty. 

P. rau'ea. (L. raucus, hoarse.) A term 
for a harsh, hoarse voice. 

Para phora. (Xlapa<popa, madness.) A 
term used by Hippocrates for slight delirium ; 
also, a mild form of insanity. 
Paraphra'sia. (Ilapa ; </>pdo-is, speech. 

F. paraphrasie.) Incoherent, or disordered, 

Paraphrene sis. (ITapd; <l>pr'jv, the 
mind.) An old term for dementia ; also, for de- 

Also, the same a3 Paraphrenias. 
Paraphre nia, The same as Paraphre- 

Paraphrenias. (n.ap&; <p/>»}i>. F. 
paraphrenesie ; I . parafrenesia ; S. parafrcnesis ; 

G. Paraphrenias.) An old term for inflamma- 
tion of the diaphragm, which was thought to be 
invariably accompanied by delirium ; also ap- 
plied to delirium supposed to be produced in 
this way. 

Paraphrone'sis. (napa(/>poVi|<ris.) 
The same as Paraphrosyne. 


Paraphron'ia. (U-apa^povia.) The 
same as Paraphrosyne. 

Paraphrosyne. (ITapar/jpotrui/ij, a 
wandering of the mind. F. paraphron/ne ; I. 
parafronesi ; G. Paraphronesis.) An old term 
for febrile delirium. 

P. calentu'ra. (L. caleo, to be hot.) 
Applied by Sauvages to a furious delirium ob- 
served among sailors in the tropics. It was first 
described by Spanish writers ; but it is probable 
that the delirium they described was due to 
various causes, such as sunstroke, fevers, or 

Paraphyl lia. (ITapd ; <p&\\ov, a leaf.) 
Appendages of the calyx or under the perianth 
in certain flowers (Moench). Also, stipules or 
other foliaceous appendages to leaves (Link). 

Paraphysis. (Ilapd; <piw, to grow. 
F '. paraphyse ; G. Nebenwachs.) 1. The lateral 
process of a vertebra. 

2. A sucker or off-shoot of a root. 

3. One of the sterile filaments that form, 
together with the fertilised filaments or asco- 
gonium, the hymenium in Ascomycetes. 

4. Hair-like organs occurring at the insertion 
of the sexual organs in Muscinese. 

Paraphyte. {Uapacpvw, to grow be- 
side. F. paraphyte ; G. Paraphyte.) Eisen- 
mann's name for any disease characterised by 
a new growth, as in hydatid or polypus. 

Parapic'oline. (napd; picoUne.) The 
name given by Anderson to a basic substance, 
polymeric with Picoline (q. v.), and formed from 
it by the action of sodium. The sodium and 
picoline must be heated together to the boiling- 
point for several days ; the parapicoline is then 
found as a brown, hard mass, in combination 
with the sodium. The mass is decomposed by 
water into soda and an oily substance containing 
the Parapicoline. 

Par aplasm, (napd; TrXdo-o-ai, to mould, 
fashion.) Used in three different senses: 1, 
meaning Heteroplasm (q. v.) ; 2, malformation ; 
3, used by Flemming to designate the substance 
that tills the reticular meshes of protoplasm. 

Paraplas'tic. Pertaining to Paraplasm. 

Paraplec'tiC. (napd7rX)|KTos, stricken 
aside. F. paraplectxque.) Paralysed. 

Also, attacked by Paraplegia. 

Also, tending to produce palsy. 

Faraple'g'ia. (IIapa7rX»;yia; fromirapa- 
•7r\?(cr<7(o, to strike on one side. Y . paraplegie ; 
I. paraplegia; S. paraplegia; G. Paraplegia, 
Querliihmung .) The clinical name for the 
symptoms accompanying an affection of the 
spinal cord which results in paralysis of the 
lower part of the body, associated with impair- 
ment of sensation. The area of the paralysis 
and of the sensory defect depend upon the site 
of the lesion. When the lesion involves the 
whole thickness of the cord, complete paraplegia 
results; i.e. there is total loss of power oyer 
all muscles innervated by motor nerves passing 
from the cord below the level of the lesion, 
combined with anaesthesia over the area sup- 
plied by sensory nerves passing into the cord 
below this level. 

P. doloro sa. (L. dolor, pain.) A name 
applied by Cruveilhier, paraplegie douloureuse, 
to cases in which growths in the spinal column 
give rise to a number of symptoms, of which 
radiating pains along the course of nerves arc 
the most prominent. The pains may be slight 


at first ; but, later on, they become very severe, 
and are increased by even the slightest move- 
ment. There is generally cutaneous hyper- 
esthesia, followed by cutaneous anaesthesia. 
When the motor nerves are affected, muscular 
contractures result, with paralysis and wasting. 
Symptoms of compression develop, similar to 
those in caries, but coming on much more rapidly. 
The distribution of the pains and paralysis will 
depend on the position of the growth, which 
may occur in any part of the spinal column. 
The earlier symptoms appear to t>e caused by 
inflammation, rarely infiltration, the later, by 

Paraple'g"ic. {TLapa-nXvyia. F.para- 

plegique ; I. paraplegico ; G. paraplcgisch.) 
Relating to, or affected with, paraplegia. 

Parapleuritis, (Ilapd; nXtvpov, the 
side. F. parapleuresie ; I. parapleurisia ; S. 
parapleuresia ; G. Parapleuritis.) A slight 
degree of pleuritis; also, applied to pleuro- 

Paraplex la. (IIapa7r\)|£['a ; from 
irapd, and nrXijcratu, to strike. P. paraplexie ; 
I. paraplessia.) The same as Paraplegia accord- 
ing to some, or as Parapoplexia accordiug to 

Parapoie'sis. (Ilapd; irouio-is, a mak- 
ing. P. parapoiese ; G. Parapoese.) Eisen- 
mann's term for disturbance of a function, such 
as nutrition. 

Parapo'physiS. (Ilapd; airofpuw, to 
bud. P . parapophyse ; I. parapqfisi ; G. Para- 
pophysie.) The capitular process of a vertebra. 
In man it is situated close to the body, separated 
from it by the neuro-eentral suture. 

Parap'Oplexia. Ilapa ; aironfKi^ia, a 
stroke. F. parapoplexie ; I. parapoplessia.) A 
slight attack of apoplexy. 

Also, an attack simulating apoplexy. 

Paraproctitis. Inflammation of the 

Paraproc'tium. (Ilapd ; irpaiKTos, the 
anus.) The connective tissue supporting the 

Paraps'iS. (Ilapd; atr-ropai, to touch. 
F. parapsis.) A disordered sense of touch, 
giving false perceptions. 

P. ex'pers. (L. expers, devoid of.) Anaes- 

P. illuso'ria. (L. illudo, to play upon.) 
Disordered sensations giving rise to illusions. 

P. pruritus. (L. prurio, to itch.) 

Parapyram'idal sul'cus. A name 
given to a slight furrow in the medulla, which 
joins the antero-lateral sulcus and the anterior 
median fissure. 

Farar'abin. (Ilapa ; arabin.) A modi- 
fication of arabin, from which it is distinguished 
by not yielding sugar ou treatment with dilute 
acids. It is prepared from carrots or beet- 
root by pressure, exhaustion of the pulp with 
water and alcohol, digestion of the residue 
with a one per cent, solution of hydrochloric 
acid, followed by boiling and precipitation by 

Pararabin forms a jelly with water, dissolving 
in acids, but precipitated by alcohol and alkalies. 
It is converted into arabin by heating with an 
alkali. Agar-agar, the Chinese vegetable jelly, 
is composed of pararabin. 

Pararec'tal. (Ilapa, rectum.) By the 
side of the rectum. 

P. pouch. A name sometimes given to 
the peritoneal pouch on either side of the upper 
part of the rectum, formed by the reflection of 
the peritoneum from the rectum to the parieties 
of the pelvis. 

Pararhotacis'mus. (iTapd; 'P; L. 
taceo, to be silent.) An inability to pronounce 
the letter R properly. 

Parar'ma. (A shortened form from 
Trapuppvfia, a curtain ; from irapa ; piofiui.) 
The same as Fimbria. 

Pararrhyth'mus. (Ilapd; pudpLot, 
rhythm. F. pararrhythme, adj.) Irregular. 
An old epithet applied to a pulse the rhythm of 
which was considered not to be suited to the age 
of the individual. 

Pararthrema. (Ilapa; apdpov, the 
socket of a joint. P. pararthreme ; I. parar- 
trema.) An old term for an incomplete disloca- 
tion; subluxation. 

Pararth'ria. (n«pd; apdpow, to speak 

distinctly.) Defective or disordered speech, in 
which articulation is difficult. 

Pararthro'ma. The same as Parar- 

Pararthro'sis. (Ilapa; apdpov.) The 

formation of Pararthrema. 

Parasacch arose. (ITapd; saccharose.) 
A substance formed from Saccharose or Sac- 
charon (cane-sugar) by a special fermentation of 
its aqueous solution with the addition of phos- 
phate of sodium or ammonium ; it is isomeric 
with saccharose ; it is not hygrometric, but is 
very readily soluble in water ; it has a slight 
reducing action on potassio- tartrate of copper. 
Parasaccharose is more strongly dextro-rotatory 
than Saccharose. 

Parasalicyl. (Ilapd; salicyl.) See 

Parasalpingitis. (Ilapd; (raXiriy^.) 
Inflammation of the connective tissue about the 
Fallopian tube or Salpinx. 

Parascepas'tra. (ilapd ; (tkettu^co, to 
cover.) A term used by Galen, Trapacr/ctTrdo-- 
-rpa, for a cap or bandage covering the entire 

Parasceu'e. (ITapd ; g-keuj}, apparatus.) 
A term for preparatory action or apparatus. 

Para'schides. (Tiapaa-yiS^ ; from 
irapu ; (tk'lX^oi, to cleave. F. paraschides.) The 
fragments in a comminuted fracture of bone. 

Parasecre'tion. (Ilapd; secretion.) 
Excessive, or continuous, secretion. 

Faraseis'ma. (napd(r£«rp.a; from 

irapu ; <r£io-p.ds, a shaking. F. paraseisme.) A 
swinging of the arms to exercise them. 

Parasinoidal spa'ces. (G. Para- 
sinoidalraume.) The spaces in the dura mater, 
near the longitudinal sinus, which contain the 
Pacchionian bodies, and into which the cerebral 
veins discharge. 

Parasi'ta. (From Trapdcm-os, one who 
lives at another's expense.) A parasite. Also, 
as nom. plural n. of adj. parasitiis, applied 
by Latreille to an order of insects, charac- 
terised by their parasitic habits ; also, applied 
to 1, an Order of Crustacea ; 2, a Family of 

Par'asite. (napdo-t-roe, one who lives 
at another's expense ; from TrapaciTtw, to 
eat beside. F. parasite; I. parasito ; G. Pa- 
rasit, Schmarotzer.) A parasite is an or- 
ganism which inhabits, or is attached to, 
another organism, for the purpose of obtaining 


nutriment at the latter's oxpense. The parasite 
is necessarily smaller than its host. Some 
animals are, moreover, only occasionally para- 
sitic, either when the opportunity occurs, as the 
leech, or during some part of their life-history, 
as the larva of musca vomitoria. Some parasites 
also are temporary, some, permanent. The former, 
such as the common flea, generally possess highly 
specialised organs ; the latter are often very 
httlo differentiated in structure, and may, like 
the tape-worms, possess no alimentary canal, 
and consist of little more than reproductive 
organs. A parasite may be animal or vegetable, 
and either kind may infest an animal or vegetable 

List of Human Parasites : — 



I. — Amoeba coli (" Amoeba dysen- 

II. Infusoria Ciliata. — Balantidium coli, 
originally described by Malmsten as 
" Paramcecium coli." 

III. Infusoria Flaoellata. — Bodo hominis 

(*' Cercomonas hominis" of Davaine), 
Trichomonas intestinalis, and T. vagi- 

IV. Gregarinid-K. — Apparently closely related 

to the spores or pseudonavicelhe of these, 
are the psorosperms detected in the liver 
of the human subject. 
Protozoa have also been detected in the sputa 
of whooping-cough, including a form which 
Deischler provisionally refers to Balantidium 
coli (Zeitschr. Wiss. Zool., Bd. 48). 

Subkingdom, VERMES. 
The greater number of human parasites be- 
long to this subkingdom. 

Class 1. — Nematoda. 
Oxyuris vermicularis. Filaria sanguinis ho- 

Subclass b, Bigenea. 

a. Monostomidui. 
Monostomum lentis. 
/i. Distomido). 

Ascaris lumbricoides. 
Trichina spiralis. 
Anchylostoma duode- 

Filaria medinensis. 
Filaria lentis, vel oculi. 
nafe, vel Sclerostoma Ascaris mystax. 
duodenale. Strongylus bronchialis. 

Anguillula storcoralis. Eustrongylus gigas. 
Anguillula intestinalis. 

Class 2. — Cestoda. 

Family a. 
Taenia solium, 

and its cysticercus. 
T. sanginata. 
T. nana. 

T. flavopunctata. 
T. madagascarensis. 
T. cucumerina. 

T. acanthotrias, 

and its cysticercus. 
T. marginata. 
T. echinococcus 

(as hydatid). 
T. mediocanellata. 
T. lonhosoma. 
T. elliptica. 
Family b. PseudopUyllidce. 
BothriocophaluB latus. 
B. cristatus. 
B. cordatus. 

Class 3. — Trematoda. 

Subclass a. Monogcnca. 
Hexathyridium pingui- Polystoma pinguicola. 

cola. Pentastoma tamioidcs. 

H. venarum. Pentastoma constrictum. 

Tetrastoma renale. 

Fasciola hepatica. 
Distoma lanceolatum. 
D. ophthalmobium. 
D. heterophyes. 
D. crassum. 
O. sicnense. 

Distoma capense. 
D. spatulatum. 
D. endemicum. 
D. hepatis innocuum. 
D. Rathouisi? 
Bilharzia hxinatobia. 

Class 4.— Annelida. 
Order, Hirudinea. 

Genus, JELirudo. 
(For different species, see under Hirudo.) 

Subkingdom, ARTHROPODA. 

Class 1. — Arachnida. 
Order, Acarina. 

Acarus cellaris. 
A. dysentericus. 
A. marginatus. 
Sarcoptes scabiei. 
Demodex folliculorum. 
Argas chinche. 
A. reflexus. 
A. persicus. 
Ixodes reduvius. 
I. ricinus. 

Class 2. — Insecta. 
Order A. Neuroptera. 
Genus a. Pulex. 
Pulex irritans. 
P. penetrans. 
Genus f). Cimex. — C. lectularius. 
Order B. Rhynchota (Hemiptera). 
Genus, Phthirius (Pediculus). 
Phthirius pubis. 

P. capitis (termed Pediculus ta- 
bescentium, when occurring 
on the heads of patients suf- 
fering from wasting ill- 

P. corporis, vel vestimenti. 
Order c. Diptera. 

Larva of Lucilia hominivorax (see 

Culex pipiens. 

Simulia? (the mosquito of the 

GSstrus hominis. 
Anthomyia canicularis. 

Order 1. — Schizomycetes. 

a. Spherobacteria or Micrococci. — Sarcina 


ji. Microbacteria or Bacteria. (For species, 

see under Bacterium.) 
y. Desmobacteria or Bacilli. (For species, see 

under Bacillus.) 

b. Spirilla. (See under Spirillum.) 
t. Spirochoota;. — Leptothnx buccahs. 

Order 2. — Saccharomycetes. 
Torula cerevisitB. 

Oidium albicans vel Saccharomyces myco- 

Order 3. — Actinomycetes. 
Actinomyces (Ray fungus). 
Chionyphe Cartcri? (in Mycetoma). 



Order 4.— Hyphomycetes. 
Achorion Schonleinii. 
Trichophyton tonsurans. 
Microsporon furfur. 
M. minutissimum (von Barensprung). 
Trichophyton sporuloides. 
Microsporon Adouini. 

Parasitic cysts. See Cysticercus. 

Parasitica. The Order Parasita ; also, 
a subsection of the Hytnenoptera. 

Parasiticide. (L. parasita; ccedo, to 
kill.) A remedy that kills a parasite or para- 
sites. See Anthelmintics. 

Parasit ifer. (L. parasita; fero, to 
carry.) The "host," or organism that nourishes 
a Parasite. 

Par'asitism. Term for the state or 
condition of an organised being that lives upon 
another living body, whether the former draws 
its nourishment from the latter or not. 

Parasito geny. (Parasite; Gr. yly- 
vopai, to be born.) The condition favouring 
the development and reproduction of parasites. 

Parasor'bic acid. (F. acide para- 
sorbique.) C 6 H 8 0 2 . An oily, acid liquid ob- 
tained from mountain-ash berries. 

Paraspa'dia. (Tlapd; <nrdw, to draw 
out.) A condition of the penis in which there is 
a lateral opening into the urethra. 

Paraspadiae'us. One who has Para- 

Paraspa'dius. A synonym of Para- 

Para'sphaglS. (Tlapd; <rcpayv, the 
throat. F. parasphage.) An old term for that part 
of the root of the neck containing the trachea. 

Para'stadus. (Tlapa<jTa<s, a colonnade. 
F. parastade.) Botanical term ; applied by Link 
to the sterile filaments situated between the 
petals and stamens, as in Passiflora. 

Parasta'men. The same as Parastemon. 

Parastan nic oxide. (JlapA; L. 
stannum, tin.) A name applied by Berzelius to 
calcined stannic oxide, which differs from the 
ordinary oxide in its properties, though it has 
the same composition. 

Para stata. (TlapaaTaTi]?, the testicles ; 
originally, one who stands by.) An old term for 
the various openings through which the semen 
is conveyed to the urethra ; also applied to the 
prostate gland ; also, hy Hippocrates, to the epi- 

P. adenoi'des. The prostate gland. 
P. cirsoi'des. The epididymis. 
P. varico'sa. Term applied by Rufus of 
Ephesus to the Fallopian tube ; by other writers, 
to the epididymis. 

Parastatadeni'tis. (Parastata ; Gr. 
&Snv, a gland. F. parastatadenite.) Inflam- 
mation of the prostate gland, Prostatitis. 

Parastati'tis. (Parastata, the prostate 
gland.) The same as Parastatadenitis. 
Also, Epididymitis. 

Parastemon. (Tlapd , (TTTJ p.UJV) a 
stamen. F. parasteme.) A floral appendage 
resembling a stamen in appearance, but having 
a different function. 

Parastich y. (ITapd, alongside ; o-rt'xos, 
a row.) The serial arrangement of lateral 
organs in a plant, in two or more directions 
crossing one another. 

Parastram'ma. (TlapaaTpt<pw, to 

distort. F '. parastremme ; G. Verdrehung.) A 
convulsive spasm, distorting the face or mouth. 

Parastrem'ma. The same as Para- 

Parastrepsls. (TlapaaTpi<\>u>; from 
tT-rpt(f>u), to twist, or dislocate. F. subluxation.) 
Swediaur's term for a partial dislocation or 

Par'astyle. (Tlapd; <rrD\os, a pillar. 
F. parastyle ; I. parastilo ; G. Aftergriffel.) A 
part of a flower resembling a pistil, but pos- 
sessing different functions. 

Parasynan che. The same as Para- 

Parasynovi'tis. (From irapd; syno- 
vitis.) An inflammation of the connective 
tissue in the neighbourhood of the synovial 
membrane of a joint. 

Parasys tole. (Tlapd ; owroXii, a con- 
traction.) An interval between the systole and 
following diastole, or between the diastole and 
following systole, in the cardiac cycle. 

Paratar'sia. (Tlapd; xaptros, a flat 
surface.) The same as Tarsoectopia. 

Paratar'sium. (F. paratarse; G. 
Laufseite.) Term applied to the lateral part of 
the tarsus of birds, between the articulation of 
the knee and that of the foot. 

Paratartarlc acid. The same as 
Macemic acid. 

Parateresioma nia. (TlapaTi'ipnais, 
an observing closely ; fiavLa, madness. F.para- 
teresiomanie ; G. Beobachtungswuth.) The 
Furor observandi, a passion for close observation. 

Parathe nar. {Tlapa ; dlvap, the hollow 
of the hand or foot. F. parathenar ; G. Neben- 
klopfer.) Applied by Winslow to a portion of 
the abductor of the little toe, the Parathenar 
major ; also, to the short flexor of the little toe, 
which he called the Parathenar minor. 

Parathy mia. (Ila^d; Qvp6$, the mind. 
F. parathymie ; G. Parathymie.) An over- 
strained condition of the mind ; brain-fag. 

Parathy mie. Relating to Parathymia. 

Paratomlum. (llapa; -rofiv; from 
Ttp.uui, to cut. F '. paratome ; G. Kieferseite.) 
Applied by Illiger to the lateral part of the 
upper jaw of birds, including the edge. 

Para'tomous. (Paratomium.) Mineral. 
Applied to cleavage when its planes are parallel 
with those of the fundamental figure, or are in- 
clined to the axis. 

Paratonla. (Tlapa; toVos, a stretching. 
F. paratonie ; G. Paratonie.) An overstrained 
condition, or abnormal stretching ; also, spasm. 

Paratonie. Relating to Paratonia. 

Paratop'ia. (Tlapa ; xo7ros, a place. F. 
paratopie ; G. Paratopie.) A displacement of 
organs ; also, luxation ; also, in the plural, Pa- 
ratopes, diseases characterised by displacement 
of organs. 

Paratopie. Relating to Paraiopia. 

Paratrim'ma. (llap& ; -rplpw, to rub. 
F . paratremme ; G. Afterfratt.) An inflamma- 
tion produced by rubbing, as in riding on horse- 
back ; chafing. 

Paratripsls. (Tlapa ; -rpUj/n, a rub- 
bing. F. paratripsie; G. Aneinnnderreiben.) 

Paratrip'tic. Of, or belonging to, Para- 

Par a' trope. (Tlapa ; Tpcnrt'u a turn. F. 
paratrope ; G. Abseitwendcn.) A distortion, or 



Paratrophic. Of, or belonging to, 

Para trophy. (Tlapd ; Tpofpn. F. para- 
trophie ; G. Paratrophie.) A malnutrition ; also, 

Paratrop'ic. Of, or belonging to, Para- 

Paratu do, See Gomphrena. 

Par auche nium. (llapa ; avx'iv, the 
neck. F. parauchhie.) Term applied by Illiger 
to the lateral region of the neck. 

Paravaginitis. (Tlapd; L. vagina, a 
sheath.) The same as Paracolpitis. 

Paravesical. (n«|0«; L. vesica, a 
bladder.) Beside the bladder. 

P. pouch. The peritoneal pouch on either 
side of the bladder, the boundary edges of which 
form the so-called lateral false ligament. See 
Ligaments of bladder, false. 

Paraxan thine. (Ilapa ; xanthine.) 
A substance obtained by Salomon, who gives its 
formula as C 15 H I7 N g 0 4 , from normal human 
urine, having a resemblance to the members of 
the Xanthine group. 

Paraxial. (Tlapd, by the side of ; a%<ov, 
an axle.) Developed by the side of the axis, 
or vertebral column. 

P. mus'cles. The muscles developed by 
the side of the vertebral column. 

Parazb on. (Tlapd; %S>ov, an animal.) An 
animal or vegetable organism parasitic upon an 

Parazyg-o'sis. (Tlapd; Juycoo-is.) The 
condition of a double monster which is united 
above the umbilicus, whether dorsally, ven- 
trally, or laterally, but has four lower limbs. 

Par'chemin, bru'it de. (F. par- 
chemin, parchment; bruit, noise.) Pericardial 
friction-sound, heard in Pericarditis before the 
occurrence of pericardial effusion, or throughout 
the disease in the so-called dry pericarditis. So 
named from its likeness to the sound made 
by the rubbing together of two pieces of parch- 

Parch'ment. (Tlzpyapuivrj, parchment ; 
from Pergamos, the ancient Troy, now called 
Bermago, in Asia Minor. It was in this city 
that parchment was first used, by Crates of 
Mallos, about 160 B.C., when the supply of 
Biblus from Egypt was stopped by Ptolemy. 
F. parchemin ; 1. pergamena ; G. Pergament.) 
The skin, usually of the sheep or goat, pre- 
pared for writing on, by a process of tanning, 
polishing with pumice-stone, and rendering 
impermeable to ink by treatment with some 
resinous substance. 

P., vegetable. See Paper, parchment. 

Parch'ment skin. See Xeroderma. 

Parchment'ed. Term applied to a 
hard, tough condition of the skin in certain 
diseases, and also to the indurated cicatrices of 
certain varieties of Sard chancre. 

Pardac'tyle. (L. par, equal; Gr. 
cuktoXos, a finger. F. pardactyle ; G. gleich- 
fingert.) Term applied to those birds that have 
the toes equal in length. 

Pardalian'ches. (TL&p&oXk, a pan- 
ther ; ayx^'to strangle.) A name for the Aco- 
nitum napellus. 

Pardalian'chum. The same ns Parda- 

Pareccoelo'ma. (rir<,.<;, near; lie, out 
of; koi\6u), to hollow. F. parecccelome.) Terra 
for one morbid sinus near another. 


Parecccelo sis. Formation of a Parec- 

Parec'crisis. (Tlapd, badly ; iKKpivw, 
to secrete. F. pareccrise.) A term for dis- 
ordered secretion. 

Parec tama. (JlapiKTiivw, to stretch, 
out beside. F. parcetdme.) Excessive extension 
or stretching of a part. 

Also used for dilatation, as of the heart. 

Parec tamic. Of, or belonging to, 

Parec'tasis. The 6ame as Parectama. 

Parecte'nia. (TTaptKTdvw, to stretch 
out beside.) The same as Parectama. 

Paregoric. (Tlapnyopiw, to assuage. 
G. schmerzstillend.^ Assuaging, anodyne ; term 
applied to a medicine that mitigates or assuages 

Also used as meaning Paregoric elixir. 
P. elixir. See under Elixir. 

Parei'a. (Tlaptid, the cheek; from -rrapa. 
L. gena; F.Joite; G. Bakke.) Old terra for the 

Pareira bra'va. (G. Grieswurzel.) 
Term used in England and in the United States 
for the official root (see Pareira} radix) of Chon- 
drodendron tomentosum, a plant belonging to the 
Family of the Menispermacea:, and a native of 
Brazil and Peru. The root was formerly sup- 
posed to be obtained from the Cissampelos 
pareira ; this was a medical plant indigenous to 
Tropical America, but never exported. 

Parei'ra? ra'dix, B. Ph. The dried root 
of Chondrodendron tomentosum. It occurs in 
long, cylindrical, somewhat twisted pieces, one or 
two inches in diameter. The root is enclosed in 
a thin, brownish-black bark, marked externally 
by transverse ridges and fissures and longitudinal 
furrows. It is brownish- grey internally, and is 
made up of circles of porous wood, separated by 
medullary rays into wedge-shaped pieces. It 
has a bitter taste, but no odour. Pareira root 
contains starch, resin, and a bitter alkaloid, 
pelosine, which is possibly identical with the 
beberine of bebeeru bark, Nectandra cortex. Its 
physiological action is but little known ; but it 
is believed to be tonic, laxative, and mildly 
diuretic. It is given empirically in inflamma- 
tory affections of the urinary tract. Doses : of 
the Decoctum, 1 — 2 fl. oz. ; of the Extractum, 
10—30 grains ; and of the Extractum liquidum, 
i— 2 fl. dr. 

Parelectro'nomy. (Tlapd, contrary 
to; nX.tKTpou, amber; vopot, law.) Name ap- 
plied by DuBois Reymond to the weakened con- 
dition of the electrical current of muscle, while 
the natural transverse section at the tendinous 
ends is maintained. The condition is due to the 
presence of an opposite current across the natural 
transverse section. 

Pare'lia. See Parhelium. 

Parel'la. See Lecanora parella. 

Parel lie ac'id. C 9 H 0 O 4 . Schunck iso- 
lated two distinct acids from the Lecanora 
parella, Lecanoric and Parellic acid. The latter 
was obtained as a yellow substance with a bitter 
taste. By oxidation with nitric acid it is con- 
verted into Oxalic acid. 

Parempto sis. (n«.,.«. beyond ; m»- 
iTTtuo-is, a falling upon. F. paremplose ; I. par- 
emplosi.) Term for an intervening or intruding 
into an unusual place. Also applied by Erasis- 
tratus to the Error loci (q. v.). Galen described 
under this term an occlusion which, he said, oc- 


casionally took pluco, of the optic foramen by 
the presence of a humor, causing blindness. 

Parenceph'alis. (llapd; iyiciipaXo*, 
the brain. F '. cervelet, partncephale ; l.paren- 
cefalo ; G. Hirnlein, das kleine Gehirn.) Old 
term for the Cerebellum. 

Parencephali tis. (Porencephalia . 
F. parencephalite ; I. parencefalite.) Term for 
inflammation of the cerebellum. 

Parenceph alocele. (Parenccphalis ; 
Gr. KiiXijj a tumour.) A soft, irreducible, occa- 
sionally somewhat painful, indolent swelling, 
protruding through an opening in the occipital 
Done. It is a hernia cerebelli, which is most 
commonly congenital, and points to a delayed 
ossification of the occipital bone. Its diagnosis 
from other tumours in this region is manifestly 
of the utmost clinical importance. 

Parenceph alus. The same as Paren- 

Paren chyma. (Tlaptyxvua, anything 
poured in beside, an effusion. F. parenchyme ; 
I. parenchima ; G. Drusenfleisch, Parenchym.) 
The name given by Erasistratus to the special 
substance of the lungs, liver, spleen, and kid- 
neys, supposed then to he formed of effused and 
coagulated blood strained through the pores of 
the blood - vessels. The special tissue of glandular 
organs, originally so called because it was thought 
to he an effusion from the blood-vessels. The 
word parenchyma designates a group of tissues, 
but not all the tissues, of an organ ; it is syno- 
nymous neither with tissue nor with the special 
substance of each anatomical element. The 
parenchymata of glandular organs are vascular, 
usually composed of tubes or closed vesicles 
lined with an epithelium, and often more com- 
plex than are the so-called tissues proper. The 
epithelium in the parenchymata is simply applied 
to the internal surface of the connective tissue 
lining the tubes or closed vesicles; it may thus 
die, become detached and afterwards renewed in 
parts, as at the surface of a mucosa, without any 
lesion of the tissue of which it forms a part. 
The cells of this epithelium elaborate the cha- 
racteristic secretion of their special gland. The 
parenchymata are only renewed ini perfectly, if 
at all, after removal of a portion of their sub- 

In Botany, the primitive and typical form of 
fundamental tissue. A tissue made of large, 
roundish, polyhedral or prismatic cells, enclosed 
in a cell-wall and containing a lining of living 
protoplasm and a nucleus. The space in the cell 
not filled up by protoplasm contains watery sap, 
and often, also, various products of assimilation 
and metabolism. Intercellular spaces are often 

P ., elon'g-ated. The form of plant paren- 
chyma the cells of which are much longer than 
broad, being cylindrical, or prismatic, or fusiform. 
It occurs in the stems of Monocotyledons. 

P., flat'tened. The same as P., tabular. 

P., isodiamet'rlc. flo-os, equal to; <5ta- 
fiiTpiu), to measure through.) The form of plant 
parenchyma in which the cells are cubical. 

P., mu rlform. (L. murus, a wall ; forma, 
shape.) A variety of P., tabular in which the 
cells are arranged like bricks in a wall. It occurs 
in the medullary rays of the stems of Dicoty- 

P., o'val. The same as P., round. 
P., palisade'. A form of parenchyma 
found in green leaves beneath the upper epi- 

dermis. Its cells are elongated vertically, but 
narrow and crowded together horizontally. 

P., poly hed'ral. (JloXutopos, with many 
bases.) The same as P., regular. 

P., regular. A form of plant parenchyma 
having closely-set cubical cells without inter- 
vening cell- spaces. It occurs in pith. 

P., round. The form of plant parenchyma 
in which the cells are more or less rounded, and 
touch each other by part of their periphery only, 
so that spaces are left between them. It occurs 
in the succulent parts of plants. 

P., spon gif orm. (L. spongia, a sponge ; 
forma, shape. G. Schwammparenehym.) The 
same as P., spongy. 

P., spon'gy. This forms the under half 
of green leaves. It is composed of roundish 
cells, furnished with fairly large intracellular 
spaces, or with outgrowths which touch adjoin- 
ing cells. 

P., stellate. The same as P., spongy. 
P., tab'ular. The form of plant paren- 
chyma in which the cells are flattened, and ad- 
herent by their edges. It occurs in the epidermis 
of the leaf and its derivatives. 

Paren chymal. Relating, or belonging, 
to Parenchyma. 

Parenchy mata. Plural of Paren- 
chyma. An Order of the Entozoa. See Paren- 

Parenchymat'ic. The same as Paren- 

Parenchymati'tis. _ (Parenchyma. F. 
parenchymatite.) Inflammation of the Paren- 

Parenchymato'sa. (Parenchyma.) 
Applied by Cuvier and Schweigger to an Order 
of the Entozoa, comprehending those whose 
bodies contain, in their parenchyma, the viscera 
indistinct and sometimes very little apparent. 

Parenchym'atose. (F. parenchy- 
mateux.) Term applied to parts, or organs, that 
are formed of parenchyma. 

Parenchymatous. (F. parenchy- 
mateux ; I. parenchimatoso ; G.parenchymatbs.) 
Of, or belonging to, the Parenchyma. 

Parenchymepati'tis. (Parenchyma; 
hepatitis, inflammation of the liver. F. paren- 
chymepatite.) Parenchymatous inflammation of 
the liver. 

Paren'chysis. (Tlapa; tyxito, to pour 
in. F. parenchyse ; G. Nebenhcrfiillen.) A 
falling in beside; an infiltration. Formerly 
applied to the supposed mode of formation of 

Parencra'nis. (I I <;/>«; Kpavtov, the 
skull.) An incorrect term for Pareneephalis. 

Par'ent cell. (F. cellule-mere.) See 
under Cell. 

Parepidid ymis. (Uapd ; epididymis. 
F. parepididyme.) The Organ of Giraldes. See 
under Giraldes. 

Parepithym'ia. ^n«o«, badly; i-Ki- 
Ovpla, a longing. F. parepithymie ; G. Par- 
epithymie.) A term for a mental condition 
characterised by morbidly changed or depraved 

Parepithym'ic. Of, or belonging to, 

Parereth'isis. (UapA, beyond ; ;<>£0- 
t£u>, to rouse to anger. F.parereihesis.) Term 
for abnormal excitement; an unusual, irritated 
condition of an external part. 

Parer'ethism. Sec Parerethisis. 


Parer'g-on. (Jl ap d ; i py0 v, work. G. 
Nebenwerk.) Term for a by-work, or seooudary 
business ; an appendage. 

Parer'g-y. The same as Parergon. 

Pares'ifying-. {Paresis; L. facio, I 
make.) Producing paresis or paralysis. 

Par'esiS. (IIap£o-is, a slackening of 
strength; from iroptfjjui, to relax. F. paresie ; 
I. purest; G. die unvolkommene Lilhmung.) 
Partial paralysis. 

Parestihe sis. (F. paresthesia ; I. pares- 
tesia.) The same as Parasthesis, or Paresthesia. 

Paret ic. (F. parctique ; I. paretico ; G. 
nachgebend, parelisch.) Of, or belonging to, 

P. demen tia. Syn. for Paralysis, gene- 
ral, of insane. 
Paret ica, exarthrosis. See Ex- 

arthrosis paretica. 

Pareu nia. (Uapd ; zvvv, a bed.) The 
act of coition. 

Parey'ra. The same as Pareira brava. 

Parhaema'sia. (Uapd; alpa.) Young's 
name for any disease of the vascular S3 r stem. 

Parhe'lia. Plural of Parhelion. 

Parhelion. (Tlapa, near or against; 
i}\tos, the sun. F. parelie ; G. Nebensonne.) 
Term for the simultaneous appearance of many 
representations (Parahelia) of the true sun. A 
phenomenon of Optics the theory of which con- 
sists in that of the mirage. See Paraselenia. 

Parhe iium. The same as Parhelion. 

Parhidro sis. See Paridrosis. 

Par'icin. C, 6 H 12 N ? 0. An alkaloid first 
discovered by Winckler in a bark resembling 
that of cinchona. Howard and Fliickiger threw 
doubt on the existence of this alkaloid, until 
Hesse discovered it also in the bark of Cinchona 
succirubra, and succeeded in isolating it. It has 
the peculiarity of being precipitated from a weak 
salt solution by bicarbonate of soda. By the 
discovery of the sparing solubility of its sulphate 
in dilute sulphuric acid, its separation from the 
other alkaloids in the bark was effected. It 
occurs as a pale yellow, amorphous powder, 
soluble in alcohol and ether, but only sparingly 
in water, and melting at 136° F. All its salts 
are amorphous. 

Parid'eSB. A Tribe of the Smilacea, to 
which belongs the Paris quadrifolia. 

Par'idin. C 16 H 28 0 7 . So named by "Waltz, 
who discovered it in the stem and root of Paris 
quadrifolia, occurring in company with pari- 
styphnin, as a crystalline glucoside of the for- 
mula C 16 H S0 O 7 . Paridin occurs in white, silky 
needles of neutral reaction, and having a sharp, 
but not bitter taste ; readily soluble in alcohol, 
with difficulty in ether and water. By boiling 
with dilute sulphuric acid, paridin becomes split 
up into glucose and paridol, C M H 40 O 9 , a soft, 
fusible substance, turning red with sulphuric 

Par idol. See under Paridin. 

Paridrosis. (Uapd; icpws, sweat. F. 
paridrose ; G. Schweissfrist.) Secretion of sweat 
of an abnormal kind. See Chromhidrosis, 
Osmidrosis. Term used by Bitzen for the period 
of sweating. 

Pari era. The Pareira brava. 

Par'les. (L" par, a pair.) The wall of a 
house. In Anatomy, applied, in the plural, to 
the walls or sides of any cavity, these being spoken 
of as the Parietes of the cavity. 

Parietal. (L. parietalis ; from paries, a 


wall. F. parietal; I. parielale.) Delating to 
the wall or side of a cavity. The parietal bone. 

P. an k1<- of Dro ca. An angle formed 
on the surface of the skull by two Btruight lines 
drawn from the Auricular point, one to the 
Bregma, and the other to the Lambda. 

P. angle of Lis'sauer. (G.Krummungs- 
winhel des Scheitelbeins.) The angle included 
between two straight lines drawn from the most 
prominent point on the parietal bone to the 
Bregma and Lambda respectively. 

P. angle of Quat refages. (F. angle 
parietal.) Used in craniometry to express the 
projection of points on the parietal bone with 
reference to the zygomatic arch. There are two 
such angles. The anterior parietal angle is mea- 
sured by two imaginary straight lines drawn from 
the most prominent point of the zygomatic arch 
through the Stephanion on each side and pro- 
duced to meet one another; the posterior is 
included by lines drawn from the same point 
through the most prominent point on the parietal 
eminence of each side. 

P. arc. The arc measured on the surface 
of the skull from the Bregma to the Lambda. 

P. arches. (G. Scheitelbogen.) The 
arched, external surface of those cerebral convo- 
lutions that curve round the posterior end of the 
horizontal limb of the Sylvian fissure. Not very 
well marked in man. 

P. a'rea. That area of the surface of the 
skull which lies between the frontal and occipital 
areas, and above the Suture, lateral longitudinal. 

P. ar'teries. Branches of the middle 
cerebral which supply the outer surface of the 
temporal lobe of the cerebrum, the convolutions 
of the island of Eeil, and the parietal lobe. 

P. bone. (F. parietal; I. ossa parietale ; 
G. Scheitelbein.) The two parietal bones form a 
considerable part of the roof of the skull. They 
are quadrilateral, convex externally, and concave 
internally, slightly thicker above than below. 
The anterior inferior angle is the most projecting. 
Near the middle of the outer surface is the pa- 
rietal eminence ; below this is the temporal line, 
curved with its convexity upwards, bounding 
below the somewhat flattened temporal surface, 
which forms part of the temporal fossa. Near 
the postero-superior angle is the parietal fora- 
men. The inner, concave surface, the deepest 
part of which, corresponding to the parietal emi- 
nence externally, is called the parietal fossa, 
is marked by shallow depressions corresponding 
to cerebral convolutions, and by narrow grooves 
branching upwards and backwards from the 
lower border for the middle meningeal artery 
and its branches. A slight depression along the 
upper border forms with that of the opposite 
bone a groove for the longitudinal sinus, and a 
depression at the postero- inferior angle forms a 
small part of the groove for the lateral sinus. 
Near the upper border, especially in the skulls 
of old people, are the small irregular pits lodging 
the Pacchionian bodies. The anterior border 
articulates with the frontal bone, slightly over- 
lapping it inferiorly, but overlapped Dy it supe- 
riorly. The inferior border is overlapped ante- 
riorly by the great wing of the sphenoid, poste- 
riorly by the squamous portion of the temporal, 
the serrated part behind this articulating with 
the mastoid portion of the temporal. The pos- 
terior border articulates with the occipital. The 
superior border articulates with its fellow of the 


opposite side. The bone is ossified from a single 
nucleus, in membrane; the nucleus appearing 
about the seventh week of foetal life. The Jr. 
eminence is very marked in early life. 

P. convolutions. (F. circonvohitions 
parietales ; I. circonvohizioni parietali ; G. 
Windumjen des Scheitellappens.) The Gyri 
parietales. These constitute the parietal lobe of 
the cerebrum. They are three in number : 1. 
The ascending parietal convolution passes up- 
wards and backwards by tho side of the central 
sulcus. 2. The superior and 3. Inferior parietal 
convolutions are separated by the intraparietal 
sulcus from one another, and by the postcentral 
sulcus from the ascending parietal convolution. 
In the great longitudinal fissure of the cerebrum, 
the superior parietal convolution is continued as 
the quadrate lobe or Precuneus. The inferior 
parietal convolution winds posteriorly round the 
end of the parallel sulcus, and joins the middle 
temporal convolution, being here called the An- 
gular gyrus. Above, it abuts upon the posterior 
limb of the Sylvian fissure, and is here called 
the Supra-marginal gyrus. 

P. dia'meters. (G. Interparietalbreiten.) 
These are: 1. The Biparietal diameter, or dis- 
tance between the parietal protuberances on the 
two sides. 2. The Inferior parietal diameter, 
between a point on the root of the zygoma on 
each side, vertically over the Auricular point ; 
this is oftener spoken of as the Bizygomatic dia- 
meter ; it is important as being the maximum 
transverse diameter of the base of the foetal 
skull. 3. The Maximum parietal diameter, not 
necessarily coinciding with the biparietal. (To- 

P. em inence. (F. basse parietale ; l.bozza 
parietale ; G. Scheitelhocker.) The most pro- 
minent and convex part of the external surface 
of the parietal bone. 

P. em'issary vein. The Emissarium 
parietale. A small vein passing through the 
parietal foramen, and connecting the superior 
longitudinal sinus and one of the parietal veins 
of the scalp. 

P. eye. In Lacertilia and in Cyclostome 
fishes, the anterior or dorsal lobe of the Pineal 
body becomes developed into an eye, which lies 
centrally, in the parietal foramen. This organ 
is known to have existed in many extinct fishes 
and in groups of extinct reptiles. It was first ac- 
curately described by de Graaf in 1886. (Spencer, 
Quart. Journ. Micros. Sci., vol. 27. Beard, ibid, 
July, 1888. Leydig, Abstract Zool. Record, 1890, 
Article "Jleptilia," p. 3.) 

P. flexure. (G. Eopfbeuge.) The bend 
that occurs in the development of the brain in 
the embryo, at the most projecting part of the 

P. fora'men. (F. trou parietal ; I. forame 
parietale; G. Scheitelbeinloch.) A small aper- 
ture usually present near the postero-superior 
angle of the parietal bone, giving exit to the 
P. emissary vein. 

P. fos'sa. Term for the deepest portion of 
the concave, inner surface of the parietal bone. 

P. lobe. (G. Schcitellappen.) Situated 
at the posterior and superior part of the cerebral 
hemisphere. The convex or external surface is 
bounded in front by the central sulcus ; below, 
by the posterior limb of the Sylvian fissure and 
the temporal lobo; behind, by the parieto-occi- 
pital fissure, the occipital lobe, and the transverse 
occipital sulcus. The median surface is bounded 

below by the subparietal sulcus and falciform 
lobe; behind, by the parieto-occipital fissure; and 
in front, by the ascending portion of the calloso- 
marginal sulcus. 

P. lobules. See Lobulas cerebri parietalis 
superior and inferior. 

P. mes'oblast. Sec Monoblast. 

P. nerves. Branches of the auriculo- 
temporal nerve supplying the parotid gland. 

P. notch. The Incisura parietalis. The 
angle between the squamous and mastoid parte 
of the temporal bone, which receives the postero- 
inferior angle of the parietal bone. 

P. pericardium. See Pericardium. 

P. peritone'um. See Peritoneum. 

P. placen ta. See Placenta. 

P. pleu'ra. See Pleura. 

P. protu'berance. The same as P. 

P. quadrangle. (G. Parietalviereck.) 
The quadrangle formed by straight lines joining 
the two sphenia and the two entomia. (von 

P. sec'tor. An area in the median plane 
of the skull included between two straight lines 
drawn from the hormion, one to the bregma, and 
the other to the lambda, and the portion of the 
convex surface included between the bregma and 
lambda. (Lissauer.) 

P. segr'ment. The Septum valvulare Lieu- 
tandii. (G. Scheidewandlappen.) The posterior 
of the two segments of the mitral valve of the 

P. sul'cus. See Sulcus interparietal. 

P. tbrom'bus. A thrombus situated on 
the wall of the heart or of a blood-vessel. 

P. ver'tebra. See Cranial vertebra. 
Parieta'lia. (Nom. pi. n. of L. parieta- 
lis^) A term applied to the bones that together 
form the cranial vault. 

Parietar'ia. (L. paries, a wall. F. 
parietaire; G. Glaskraut.) A Linn. Genus of 
plants, Class Polygamia, Order Monwcia. The 
wall pellitory ; so called because it grows on old 

P. diffusa. A plant belonging to the 
Genus Parietaria. It contains nitre, and has 
hence been used medicinally as a diuretic, and 
also in external applications. 

P. erec'ta. Also contains nitre, and has 
been used therapeutically in the same way as P. 

P. lusitan'ica. Species of Parietaria used 
medicinally in Persia. 

P. officinalis. (F. parietaire commun ; 
G. officinelles Glaskraut.) Systematic name for 
tho wall pellitory, formerly esteemed astringent 
and diuretic. 

P. pennsylvan'lca. The American 
pellitory. A small plant which flowers from 
June to August. Used as a diuretic ; believed 
formerly also to be emmenagogue. 

Fari'etes. Nom. plural of Paries. 

Pariet'ic ac'id. Thomson's name for 
the acid obtained from Parmelia parietina ; since 
found to be really Chrysophanic acid. 

Pari'etin. The fame as Usninic acid. 

Pari'eto hacm al arch. The Hyoid 

Pari'eto-ju'g-al in dex. The ratio of 
the greatest transverse diameter of the skull, or 
maximum parietal diameter, to the bizygomatic 
diameter ; the latter being taken as 100. 

Pari cto-mas toid su ture. The 


irregular, deeply dentate suture between the in- 
ferior border of the parietal bone above, and the 
superior border of the mastoid portion of the 
temporal bone below. 

Pari eto occip ital fis sure. (F. 
scissure occipitale ; I. scissura occipito-parietale.) 
The Pissura parieto-occipitalis. A deep fissure 
appearing in each cerebral hemisphere, mainly 
on its median surface, passing downwards and 
slightly forwards, and joining the calcarine fis- 
sure. Its upper end corresponds roughly with 
the lambdoid suture of the cranium. The small 
part of this fissure which passes on to the upper 
surface of the hemisphere is called the External 
parieto-occipital fissure. 

Pari'eto - sphenoid al ar'tery. 
The Inferior parietal artery. 

P. notch. The Incisura parte to- sphenoi- 
dalis. The slight depression usually present at 
the antero-superior extremity of the squamous 
portion of the temporal bone, in close proximity 
to both the parietal bone and the great wing of 
the sphenoid. 

Pari eto tem poral su ture. The 
Sutura parieto-temporalis. The suture between 
the parietal and temporal bones, divided into 
the Squamo-parietal and Parieto-mastoid su- 

Parlglin. (F. parigline ; I. pariglina; 
G. Parigline.) The same as Smilacin, a colour- 
less, crystalline, neutral substance, closely allied 
to Saponin, and found in the root of Smilax offici- 
nalis, the Jamaica sarsaparilla. A name given 
by its discoverer, Pallotta. 

Paril lin. (F. parilline.) A name for 
Pariglin, given by Pelleton. 

P., yellow. The Mcnispermum canadense. 

Par'in. The same as Paridin. 

Pariner vate. (L. par, equal ; nervus, 
a nerve. F. pariner vie; G.gleichspannadericht.) 
Applied by Raspail to the superior palea in the 
Graminacece, which is marked by two equal 
nerves, situated one on each side of the centre. 

Paripen'nate. (L. par, equal ; penna, 
awing. F . paripenne ; G. gleichgeflugelt.) Term 
applied to a pennate leaf the leaflets of which 
are attached in pairs to the common petiole, to 
the end of which there is neither cirrus nor soli- 
tary leaflet, as in the Cicer arietinum. 

Par is. {Paris, the son of Priam and 
Hecuba. F.pariselle; G. Pariskraut.) A Linn. 
Genus of plants, Class Octandria, Order Tetra- 
gynia ; also, the herb Paris, P. quadrifolia. 

P. blue. Sometimes used for pure Prussian 
blue; lately used for a very pure blue colour 
obtained when aniline and tannic chloride are 
heated together. 

P. chalybeate springs. (X«\m//, 
steel.) At Paris, in Lawrence County, Missouri, 

P. green. See Schweinfurfs green. 

P. quadrifo'lla. A plant of the Tribe 
Parideas, Nat. Order Smilacem. It is acrid, 
poisonous, and narcotic. The leaves, root, and 
terries were formerly employed medicinally as 
anodyne and emetic. Popularly considered to 
be aphrodisiac ; hence its name " True Lovo." 

P. red. Term both for red sulphide of 
mercury and red lead ; also, for very finely 
divided ferric oxide, used for polishing optical 
glasses, gold and silver ornaments, &c. 

P. white. A white, soft chalk, elutriated 
to a fine powder. 

P. yel low. Chromate of lead. 

Parisac'tic. (F. parisactique.) Of, or 
belonging to, Parisagoge. 
Parisaepo'gre intestino'rum. (ria- 

pittrayto, to oring in secretly. F. pareigoge ; 
G. Ineinanderschliipfen.) Intussusception of the 

Paristhmia. (Norn, plural. Ilapa; 
io-0/ios, the fauces.) Old term tor the glands of 
the fauces, that is, the tonsils ; and also used by 
Hippocrates for l'onsillitis, or inflammation of 
these glands. 

Paris thmic. (F. parittJmique.) Of, 
or belonging to, the Paristhmia, or tonsils. 

Paris thmion. A tonsil. See also Par- 

Paris thmiotome. (Hapivdma ; 
TOjUfj, a cutting.) Name for an old instrument 
for cutting out or scarifying the tonsils. 

Paristhmi'tis. Inflammation of the 
Paristhmia, or tonsils. 

Paristyph'nin. See under Paridin. 

Par'iswort. The Trillium latifolittm. 

Parity. (L. par, equal. F. parite.) 
Similarity, resemblance. 

Also (L. pario, to bring forth), capability of 
bearing children. 

Park leaves. A common name for the 
Hypericum androsmmum, all-heal, or St. Peter' s- 

Park'esin. (After Parkcs.) A substitute 
for caoutchouc, made up of a mixture of linseed 
oil and sulphide of chlorine with a solution of 
collodium in nitrobenzol. ( Real Encyclopadie der 
Pharmacie, Geissler and Moller.) 

Parkinson, James. An English 
physician of the early part of this century. 

P.'s disease'. Paralysis agitans ; so 
called because Parkinson, in 1817, was the first 
to recognise its clinical features. 

Parmacit'y. A corruption of Spermaceti. 
See Cetaceum. 

Par'mel red. A colouring matter con- 
tained together with P. yellow in Parmelia 

P. yellow. See P. red. 

Parmelia islan'dica. A name for 
the Cetraria islandica. 

P. parieti'na. The Lichen parietinus, 
or yellow wall lichen, which grows abundantly 
on trees and walls. Chrysophanic acid was 
first obtained from this lichen by Schrader, in 

P. plica' ta. The Lichen roccella. See 

Parmelia'ceee. Applied by Fries. Esch- 
weiler, and Reichenbach to a tribe of the Lich- 
enes, having the Parmelia for their type. 

Parme lire. Term applied by Zenker to 
the Parmeliacea;. 

Parmentie'ra ceri'fera. (L. ccra, 
wax;/c»o, to carry. S. palo de velas.) The 
Candle tree. Nat. Order Crcsccntiatea. It 
grows in the forests of the Chagres Valley, and 
is used as fodder for cattle. It has a long, 
cylindrical fruit, supposed to resemble a candle. 

Parnas'sia palus tris. The Grass 
of Parnassus. An indigenous plant. It is a 
bitter and astringent herb, and was formerly 
used as a diuretic, and in the treatment of oph- 
thalmia. In Sweden, a decoction of it is added 
to beer on acoount of its supposed stomachic 

Parnas sieae. An Order of plants, all of 
which arc perennial glabrous herbs, indigenous in 


tho temperate and cool parts of the Northern 
Hemisphere, especially North America. 

Parnassus, grass of. See Par- 
nassia palustris. 

P. spring's. Red Creek springs. Natural 
springs at Red Creek, Pueblo County, in Colorado. 
Some are simple saline, others carbonated, and 
others sulphurated. 

Paroar ion. (Ilapd ; oiirion.) The 

Paroccip ital. (Ilapd; occipital.) By 
the side of the occipital. Term for the Jugular 
process of the occipital bone. It forms a separate 
bone in some of the apes. 

P. fissure. The posterior part of the 
inter-parietal fissure was so named by Wilder. 

Par ocheteu'sis. (Jlapoxvrzvo>, to turn 
off into a side channel.) Old term for Deriva- 

Parodin ia. (ITapd, badly; ii&k, the 
pain of childbirth.) The same as Dystocia. 

P. perver'sa. (L. perversus, turned the 
•wrong way.) An abnormal presentation of the 
foetus during labour. 

Par odon'tis. {Uapa, near ; 6006s, a 
tooth. P. parodonte.) The same as Parulis. 

Par'odyn. (Ilapd, contrary to ; 6Svvn, 
pain.) A synonym for Antipyrin, proposed by 
Nicot, and arising as did the other two synonyms, 
Anodynin and Analgesin, from his fondness for 
inventing new terms. 

Parodyn'ia. See Parodinia. 

Paroe'nia. (ITapd; olvos, wine. F. 
parmnie.) An act committed under the influence 
of wine. 

Parol'ivary body. (Ilapa, beside; 
olivary.) The Root-zone, anterior. 

Parom phalocele. (Ilapa; dp.<pa\ds, 
the navel ; ki}\i), a tumour. F. paromphalo- 
cele ; I. paronfalocele ; G. Nebennabelbruch.) 
A hernia near the umbilicus. 

Paroni'ria. (Ilapa; ovEipos, a dream. 
F. paronirie.) Disturbance of sleep by dis- 
agreeable dreams. 

P. am'bulans. (L. ambulo, to walk.) 

P. sal'ax. (L. salax, lust-provoking.) 
Nocturnal emission of semen. 

Paronoe'a. See Paranoza. 

Paronychia. (Ilapd; 5i/u£, the nail. 
F. paronychie ; I. paronichia ; G. Nagel- 
geschwiir.) Whitloiv. An erysipelatous in- 
flammation of the fingers. Sometimes it occurs 
spontaneously in cachectic constitutions, or it 
arises from the irritation of scratches, or inocula- 
tion of the part with poisonous matters. It is com- 
monest in spring, at which time it is occasionally 
almost epidemic. Four degrees of Paronychia 
are usually described : 1. The inflammation 
begins in or immediately beneath the cutis. A 
drop of pus forms, which burrows into the areolar 
tissue of the pulp of the finger. It may pass on 
to 2, 3, or 4. 2. Begins in the fibrous fat of the 
pulp of the finger. 3. A thecal abscess is formed, 
either primarily or secondarily, by the burrowing 
of pus into the tendon-sheath. 4. Begins or 
extends beneath the periosteum of the ungual 
phalanx, causing necrosis. 

Also, old name for the Erophila vulgaris, or 
whitlow grass. 

P. cellulo'sa. Term for degree No. 2 of 

P. digit' lum. Another name for Paro- 
nychia (Quincy). See also Digilium. 

P. lateralis. See Onychogryphosis. 

P. osseo'sa- Term for degree No. 4 of 

P. syphilitica. See Dactylitis syphi- 

P. tendin o'sa. The third degree of whit- 
low or Paronychia, in which an aoscess forms 
in the tendon-sheath of a finger, or, more rarely, 
a too. 

P. ungualls. Term for degree No. 1 of 

P. lingular is o vium maligna. Ma- 
lignant paronychia in sheep ; Rot-foot. 
Paron'ychis. Paronychia. 
Paronychi'tis. The same as Par- 

Parobphori'tis. (Ilapa; oophoritis.) 
Inflammation round the ovary. 

Parooph oron. (Ilapd ; oophoron. F. 
paroophore.) The Parovarium. 

Paropho bia, A term for Hydrophobia ; 
probably a corruption of Panophobia. 

Panophthalmia. (Ilapa; 6<pQa\ixia. 
F. parophthalmie ; I. paroftalmia.) Inflamma- 
tion of the tissues surrounding the eyeball. 

Parophthalmon cus. (ilapd ; 6<f>- 
GaXjuds, the eye ; dy/cos, a tumour. F. paroph- 
thalmoncie.) A tumour near the eye. 

Paro'piae. (Ilapa; &\\r, the eye. F. 
paropies.) Old term for the outer angles of the 
eyes. See Canthus. 

Paro pium. (ITapd, beside ; the eye. 
Y.paropion; G. Augenschirm.) An eye-shade. 
Also, a blinder for a horse. 
Paroplex'ia. (Ilapd; irXna-uu), to strike.) 

Parops'ia. A Genus of the Passifloracea. 
Paropsis. (Ilapd, badly ; d>//is, vision. 
F. paropsis; I. paropsia; G. falschc Sehen.) 
Generic term for disordered vision, introduced 
by Dr. Good. 

P. amauro'sis. See Amaurosis. 
P. catarac'ta. See Cataract. 
P. glauco'sls. (rXau/co/o-ts, blindness.) 
See Glaucoma. 

P. llluso'rla. See Metamorphopsia. 
P. lateralis. See Dysopsia lateralis. 
P. longin qua. (L. longinquus, distant.) 

P. lucifuga. (L. lux, light; fugio, to 
flee.) Nyctalopia. 

P. noctl'fuga. (L. nox, night ; fugio, to 
flee.) A syn. of Hemeralopia. 

P. propinqua. (L. propinquus, near.) 

P. staphylo'ma. See Staphyloma. 
P. staphyloma purulen'tum. Hy- 

P. staphylo'ma simplex. (L. sim- 
plex.) Hydrophthalmos. 

P. strabis mus. Slrabismtis. 

P. synezi'sis. Synezisis pupillai. 
Paropte'sis. (Ilupd; otttclw, to roast. 
F. paroplese.) The giving of a hot-air bath to 
a patient. 

Parop'tic. (Ilapd, about; oirrofxai, to 
see.) Applied by Goethe to the colours pro- 
duced by the diffraction of light. 

Par oquet. A place in Bullitt County, 
Kentucky, noted for its saline sulphur springs. 

Parora'sis. (Ilapd, badly; dpam, to 
see.) Old term for weak or disordered vision 
(Galen) ; also, for hallucination (Fernelius) : 
I also, Achromatopsia (Dunglison). 


Parqrchid'ium. (n,(<>«, bndly ; 6p- 
Xloiov; opxts, the testes. F. parorchidie ; I. 
parorchidia ; G. Leistenhoden.) Malposition of 
the testicle. 

Paror chido-cn terocele. i, tivre- 
pov, an intestine ; kj'Ai;, a tumour.) An inguinal 
hernia of the intestine complicated with a mis- 
placed testicle. 

Paror'^anum. (Tlapd, near; opyavov, 
the material of a work.) Term for a substance 
in which there is an accidental resemblance to 
organic structure. 

Paros'mia. (Tlapd, from ; o<r/un, a 
smell.) The same as Parosphresis. 

Parosphre 'sis. (Tlapd; 6tT(ppi](Tii, a 
smelling.) A morbid, perverted sense of smell. 

Paros'tia. (TI«pu, badly; oa-rtov, a bone.) 
Good's term for defective ossification. 

P. flex ills. (L. flexilis, pliant, flexible.) 
A syn. of Mollifies ossium. 

P. frag- ills. (L. fragilis, easily broken.) 
A syn. of Fraailitas ossium. 

Parosti'tis. (n«pa; ostitis.) A term 
for inflammation in connection with the perios- 

ParOStO'siS. (Tlapd; (m-riov.) The 
formation of bone external to the periosteum, as 
in connective tissue, or the sheaths of blood- 

Paro'tiae. See Paropice. 
Parot'ic. (F. parotique ; I. parotico.) 
The same as Parotid. 

P. pro'cess. A process in the skull of the 
Teleostei, formed by the union of the Pterotic 
and Epiotic bones. 

Parot'id. (Tlapd, near; ous, the ear. F. 
parotidien; I. parotideo.) Near the ear. 
Also, the Parotid gland. 

P. aponeuro sis. See P. fascia. 

P. ar'terles. Small twigs from the ex- 
ternal carotid supplying the gland as this artery 
passes through it. 

P. duct. See Stenson, duct of. 

P. fas'cia. (L. fascia, a band or swathe.) 
See Fascia, parotid. 

P. gland. (F. parotide; I. parotide; 
G. Ohrspeicheldriise.) Glandula parotis. The 
largest of the three salivary glands, situated on 
the side of the face in front of the ear, and ex- 
tending deeply into the space behind the ramus 
of the lower jaw. The outer surface, convex and 
lobulated, is covered by skin and fascia and in 
part by the platysma myoides. Above, the gland 
is bounded by the zygoma; below, by an ima- 
ginary horizontal line from the base of the lower 
jaw to the anterior edge of the sterno-mastoid. 
The anterior edge stretches forwards on the mas- 
seter muscle. Its duct (see Stenson, duct of) 
passes forwards from its anterior border. There 
is often a small, separated part of the gland in 
connection with the duct, called Glandula socia 
parolidis. The deep part of the gland extends 
far inwards between the mastoid process and the 
ramus of the jaw. Above, it occupies the pos- 
terior part of the glenoid cavity ; below and be- 
hind, it rests on the styloid process and the 
attached muscles and touches the digastric 
muscle ; and, in front, it passes some way be- 
tween the external and internal pterygoid 
muscles, under the ramus of the jaw. The ex- 
ternal carotid artery and temporo-maxillary vein 
pass through the gland, the former dividing 
into the temporal and internal maxillary ar- 
teries. The facial nerve passes through the I 

gland from behind forwards, and some branches 
of the great auricular nerve pierce it. 

P. gland, acces'sory. The Glandula 
socia parotidis. 

P. gland, secre tion of. See Saliva, 
secretion of, and Salivary glands, serous. 

P. gland, tu mours of. These are not 
so common as tumours upon the gland or in its 
vicinity. See P. tumours. 

P. lymphatic glands. Glandula au- 
riculares anteriores. A small collection of 
lymphatic glands lying in the substance of the 
parotid gland, and superficially in front of the 

P. tu'mours. These are tumours of the 
parotid region. They may be either simple or 
malignant. The simple tumours are peculiar; 
they usually consist of mixed cartilage, mucous 
tissue, and fibrous tissue, and sometimes also 
gland-tissue. Malignant parotid tumours are 
most commonly encephaloid cancers, more rarely 
scirrhous cancers, or spindle- or round-celled 

P. veins. Small veins passing out of the 
parotid gland to join the Facial vein. 

Parotide'an plex'us. (L. pkcto, to 
interweave.) See Pes anserinus. 

Parotideo masseter ic fas'cia. 
See Fascia, parotideo -masseteric. 

Parot ides. A syn. of Cynanche paro- 

Parotiditis. The same as Parotitis. 

Parotidon'cus. (TlapanU; 
tumour. F. parotoncie ; I. parotoncia ; G. Hals- 
mandeln.) Term for Mumps. 

Paro tine. (Parotid.) Dr. W. Farr's 
term for the specific contagious principle of 

Paro'tis. (Tlapd ; ous.) The Parotid 

Also, an old term for a swelling of the parotid 
gland, either inflammatory or due to a new 
growth in the gland. 

P. accesso'ria. The Socia parotidis. 

P. contagio sa. (L. contagio.) Term 
for Cynanche parotidea. 

P. epldem'ica. The same as P. con- 

P. sero'so grlu'tine tu'mens. (L. se- 
rum, whey ; gluten, glue ; tumeo, to swell.) The 
same as P. contagiosa. 

P. spu'ria. (L. spurius, illegitimate.) 
The same as P. contagiosa. 

Parotitic. Belonging to Parotitis. 

Paroti'tis. (Parotis. F. parotidile ; I. 
parotidite or parotite ; G. Ohrspeicheldriisenent- 
zundung.) Inflammation of the parotid gland, 
either specific (mumps), or simple. 

Also, inflammation of the neighbouring lymph- 
atic glands. This is common in the course of. 
or following upon, some of the specific fevers, 
notably, enteric, typhus, and puerperal fevers. 

P. epldem'ica. The same as Parotis 

P. eryslpelato'sa. The same as Parotis 

P. polymor'pha. The same as Parotis 

P. spec! flea. The same as Parotis epi- 

Par ous. (L. pario, to bring forth.) 
Having brought forth one or more children. 

Parovar'ial. A term applied to cysts of 
the broad ligament which are not developed in 


connection with tho Parovarium. (Varieties 
given under Parovarian cysts.) 

Parovarian. Relating, or belonging, to 
the Parovarium. 

P. cysts. (Kucttis, the bladder, or, in 
general, a bag.) Varieties : 1. A small, usually 
pedunculated, cyst is often developed at tho 
outer extremity of the horizontal tube (efferent 
duct) of the parovarium, lined with a layer 
of endothelial cells. The pedicle is not very 
vascular, and thus this variety of cyst never 
becomes very large. When non- pedunculated, 
it may become enlarged, separate the layers 
of the broad ligament, and form a large, uni- 
locular, true parovarian cyst. It comes in con- 
tact, as it enlarges, with the ovarian fimbria of 
the Fallopian tube, and stretches tbe fimbria, 
and finally, the tube itself. At this stage it can- 
not be distinguished from 3. 2. Small cysts are 
often present, usually adherent to the anterior 
layer of the broad ligament, far away from the 
parovarium. They may be either pedunculated 
or sessile. The large simple cyst with a trans- 
parent, thin wall, lined with endothelium and 
containing a clear watery fluid, which is usually 
termed parovarian, is developed from one of 
these small cysts. 3. A cystoid degeneration of 
the broad ligament sometimes occurs, apparently 
frem the effect of local oedema or congestion, 
commonly in cases where there is a large uterine 
fibroid. This cyst, also termed parovarian, 
as it enlarges, pushes the parovarium inwards, 
and often stretches the Fallopian tube to an 
enormous extent. 4. Cysts sometimes develop 
in connection with the vertical tubes of the par- 
ovarium. "When perfectly developed, they are 
lined with ciliated epithelium. They tend to 
develop solid papillary growths from their inner 
walls, and they generally contain a clear, watery 
fluid. When they become very large, the cilia 
of their lining epithelial cells usually disappear. 
These cysts, when they contain papillary growths, 
spread rapidly. When a cyst-wall bursts, the 
papillary growths spread freely into the peri- 
toneal cavity and over the Fallopian tube and 
uterus. These papillary cysts are not common. 
P. tu mours. See P. cysts. 

Parovarium, (More correctly Paroa- 
rion. Tlapa ; ovarium.) So named by Kobelt. 
This organ was first described by Rosenmiiller. 
It is composed of a group of scattered tubules 
between the two layers of the broad ligament 
of the uterus, lying transversely between the 
Fallopian tube and ovary, lined with epi- 
thelium, but without external openings. These 
tubules converge, but do not meet, towards their 
ovarian end, and are united somewhat indistinctly 
by a fairly large longitudinal tube, which is pro- 
longed downwards for some distance. (See Duct, 
Gartner' s). The parovarium is essentially homo- 
logous with the Epididymis of the male. 

P aroxyn't ic • The same as Paroxysmal. 

Par'oxysm. (Uapo^vvto, to sharpen, ex- 
cite. F. paroxysme ; I. parosismo ; G. Paroxys- 
mus.) A periodical fit, or attack of a disease, or 
certain symptoms that occur periodically ; the 
increase of symptoms to a maximum, with the 
succeeding decline. 

Paroxys'mal. Belonging to a Paroxysm; 
coming on in paroxysms. 

P. day. The day on which a paroxysm of 
a disease occurs. 

P. sneez ing. A symptom in Coryza, 

Paroxys'mus. A paroxysm. 

P. fe brills. (L. fehris, a fever.) Term 
for Pyrexia. 

Par'rot, Jules. A French physician of 
the present century. 

P.'s nodes. Local thickenings of certain 
bones occurring as a result of osteophytic dis- 
ease (Parrot) in congenital syphilis. The parts 
usually thus affected are the outer table of 
the skull around the anterior fontanelle and 
along the interfrontal and sagittal sutures, and 
the ends of certain long bones, namely, the lower 
end of the humerus, ulna, femur and tibia. 

Par'rot' s corn. Common name for the 
seeds of the Carthamus tinctorius. 

Pars. (L. pars, a part.) Term for the ex- 
ternal genital organs. 

P. acetabular is. The Acetabulum. 
P. ascen dens. (L. aseendo, to climb 
up.) Term for the vertical plate of the palate 

P. basilar'is. (L. basilaris ; from basis, 
a base.) The basilar portion of the occipital 

P. bulbo'sa ure'tbrae. The bulbous 
portion of the urethra. 

P.carno'sa ure'tbrse. The membranous 
portion of the urethra. 

P. cartilagin'ea tu'bae. The cartila- 
ginous part of the Eustachian tube. 

P. caverno sa ure'tbrae. The spongy 
portion of the urethra. 

P. cbordails. (L. chorda, a gut-string.) 
That part of the base of the skull between the 
foramen magnum behind, and the sella turcica 
of the sphenoid in front, including the basi- 
occipital and basi- sphenoid. This part of the 
base of the skull was occupied originally, in the 
foetus, by the Notochord. 

P. ciliar'ls. See Ciliary zone. 

P. ciliar'ls byaloiid'ea. ('YccXoek?/;?, 
glassy.) The same as P. ciliaris. 

P. conjunctiva lis cor'neae. The epi- 
thelial layer covering the cornea, which is a 
continuation of the conjunctiva. 

P. cor poris. (L. corpus, the body.) The 
external genital organs. 

P. cuneifor mis teg minis tym'panl. 
The anterior part of the Tegmen tympani. 

P. descen'dens substan tiae per- 
fora'tae antl'cae me'dlae. Name for the 
Lamina terminalis. 

P. frontalis. The squamous or anterior 
art of the frontal bone, which forms the fore- 
ead and anterior portions of the temples. 

P. borizontails. The horizontal plate 
of the palate bone. 

P. borizontails duode'nl. The third, 
transverse, or oblique portion of the duodenum. 

P. lnfe'rior ped'ls. The sole of the foot. 

P. interfascia lis ure'thrae. The mem- 
branous portion of the urethra. 

P. Interme'dla. Name given by Kobelt 
to a venous plexus, in the female, lying between 
the glans of the clitoris and the part correspond- 
ing to the urethral bulb of the male. This plexus 
he considered to be the homologue of the male 
corpus spongiosum. 

Also, the slender fasciculus of nerve lying 
between the facial and auditory nerves at the 
lower edge of the pons, and joining the former 
nerve in the auditory canal. 

P. tridica retinae. See P. retinalia 


P. irld'lca u'vcae. See P. uvealis iridis. 

P. malar'ls. (G. Wagenplatte.) The 
main, or central, portion of the malar bone, ex- 
cluding the processes, which forms the promi- 
nence of the cheek. 

P. mammllar'ls. The same as P. mas- 

P. mastoid ea. The mastoid portion of 
the temporal bone. 

P. membrana'cea sep'ti. The upper 
part of the interventricular septum of the heart, 
which is the last part of the septum to close 
during development, and which remains com- 
paratively thin and membranous. 

P. membrana'cea ure'tbrae. See 
Urethra, membranous portion of. 

P. muscular is ure'thrae. The same as 
P. membranacea urethra. 

P. nasa lis. The two horizontal portions 
of the frontal hone lying between the two 
orbital plates, and separated from one another 
by a space into which fits the cribriform plate of 
the ethmoid. These portions are irregular on 
the inferior surface, and form the roofs of the 
ethmoidal cells, and of the anterior and posterior 
internal orbital canal on each side. 

Also, name for the vertical plate of the palate 

P. natura lis medicinae. A term for 


P. nu da. The membranous portion of the 

P. obli'qua ascen'dens duode ni. The 

third, transverse, or oblique portion of the duo- 

P. obsce'na. (L. obscenus, disgusting, 
offensive.) Term for the external genital or- 

P. occipita'lis. The supra-occipital por- 
tion of the occipital bone. See Occipital bone. 

P. oss'ea tu bae. The osseous part of the 
Eustachian tube. 

P. palati'na. The horizontal plate of the 
palate bone. 

P. papillar is. Term for the papillary 
layer of the true skin, or derma. 

P. pelvi'na ure'thrae. Term for the 
membranous portion of the urethra. 

P. perinea lis ure'tbrae. Term for the 
spongy portion of the urethra. 

P. perpendicular is. Term for the 
squamous portion of the frontal bone. 

Also, term for the vertical plate of the palate 

P. petro'sa. The petrous portion of the 
temporal bone. 

P. pri'ma as perae arte'rlae. The 
Larynx. See Arteria aspera. 

P. prostat'lca ure'tbrae. The prostatic 
portion of the urethra. 

P. pylor ica. The pyloric portion of the 

P. pyramida lis os sis tem'porls. The 

petro-mastoid portion of the temporal bone, con- 
sisting of the petrous and mastoid parts, which 
are already united at birth. 

P. reticular is. Term for the reticular 
layer of the skin. 

P. retinalis iridis. The epithelial 
portion of the iris ; that part which is developed 
from the second optic vesicle. 

P. Rlvi'nl. Helmholtz's name for that 
part of the tympanic membrane usually called 
Membrana fiaccxda, or Shrapnell's membrane, 


given on account of the so-called Foramen 
Jtivini occurring in this situation. 

P. sclera lis cor'neae. Term for Bow- 
man's membrane. 

P. spongio'sa ure'tbrae. The spongy 
portion of the urethra. 

P. squamosa. The squamous portion of 
tho temporal bone. 

P. transver sa duode'nl. The third 
portion of the Duodenum. 

P. triangulares. Term for the anterior 
part of the third cerebral convolution. 

P. tympan'ica. The tympanic portion 
of the temporal bone. 

P. urethra lis levato'ris a'ni. Erro- 
neous name used by Luschka for those fibres of 
the Transversus perinei profundus that loop 
round the urethra. 

P. uvea lis cor'neae. Term for Desce- 
met's membrane. 

P. uvea lis i ridis. The external or 
connective tissue layer of the iris. 

P. va'ga. Term for the Vagus or Pneumo- 
gastric nerve. 

P. vl'rills. The penis. 
Pars'ley. (F. persil; I. prezzemolo ; G. 
Petersilie.) See Petroselinum sativum. 

P., break'stone. See Alchemilla ar- 

P. cam'pbor. A stearopten of the com- 
position C 12 H 14 04, obtained from the volatile oil 
of the Parsley. 

P., hem lock. See Conioselinum cana- 

P., Macedo nian. See Bubon macedoni- 


P., moun'taln, black. See Athamanta 

P., pi'ert. (F. perrer la pierre, to pierce 
the stone.) See Alchemilla arvensis. 

P., poi'son. A name for the Conium ma- 

P., spot' ted. The same as P., poison. 
P., stone. Common name for the Genus 

P., wa'ter. The Cicuta maculata. 
Par snip. (F. panais; I. pastinaca ; 
G. Pastinake.) The Genus Pastinaca. 
Also, Pastinaca sativa, the common parsnip. 
P., cow. The Heractewn spondylium. 
P., cree ping wa'ter. The Sium nodi- 

P., crow. The Taraxacum officinale. 
P., gar den. The Pastinaca saliva. 
P., mead'ow. The Thapsium barbinode. 
P., wa'ter, com'mon. The Sium lad- 

Par son's disease'. Another name 
for exophthalmic goitre. (Billings.) See Graves' 

Fart. ooq. Abbreviation, often used in 
prescriptions, for Partes wguales, equal parts. 

Par'tes. (Nom. plural of L. pars, a part.) 
The genital organs. 

P. generatlo'nl lnservien'tes. (L. 
generatio ; from genero, to beget; inservio, to 
serve.) The same as Partes. 

P. grenltales. The same as Partes. 

P. juffular'es. The condylar portions of 
the occipital bone, or Exoccipitals. 

P. latera les na si. The Ala nasi. 

P. latera les or sis occip itis. The 
same as P.jugulares. 

P. nervo sa 1 . (L. nervosus ; from nervus ; 


from Gr. vtupov, a sinew, and later, after the time 
of Aristotle, a nerve ) Term among the ancients 
for tendons and ligaments. 

P. obscee'nae. The same as Pars obscwna. 
P. orbita les. Tho orbital plates of the 
frontal bone. 

Parthenei a. (napdevtia, virginity, 
maidenhood.) Virginity. 

Parthenias trum. (Dim. of Parthe- 
nium, the tansy.) A name for tho Matricaria 

Parthen ic ac id. A non-crystallisable 
acid occurring in combination with Parthenine 
in the Parthenium hysterophorus. 

Parthenie ae. Name applied by Lessing 
to a section of the Senecionidece having the Par- 
thenium for their type. 

Parthenine. C 19 H 2B NO,i. A crystal- 
lisable alkaloid, occurring in combination with 
Parthenic acid in the Parthenium hysterophorus. 
It is a febrifuge, and its action is very similar to 
that of quinine. 

Parthe'nious. (TlapQivos, a virgin. F. 
parthenie.) Pertaining to a virgin. Applied to 
the disease Chlorosis. 

Par thenis. The same as Parthenium. 

Parthe nium. A Genus of the Com- 

Also, the Matricaria parthenium. 

P. febri'fugum. (L.febris, a fever; fugo, 
to put to flight.) The Matricaria parthenium. 

P. nystero'pborus. ('Yo-Tt'pa, the 
womb; <£opds, bearing.) The West Indian mug- 
wort. It grows in the "West Indies, Louisiana, 
and Florida. It contains the alkaloid Parthenine. 

P. integrifo lium. (L. integer, entire; 
folium, a leaf.) A perennial herb growing in 
the south-western parts of the United States. 
An infusion of the bitter flowering tops is used 
as an antiperiodic. 

P. mas. The Tanacetum vulgare. 
Parthen'ius mor bus. See Morbus 

Parthenochloro sis. (TlapOtvos, a 
virgin; chlorosis. F. parlhenochlorosis ; G. 
Bleichsucht .) See Chlorosis. 

Parthenogalactoze'mia. (Ua P - 

flti/os ; ydXa, milk ; £')/ u ' a > 1° S3, P a ^~ 
thenogalactozemie.) The escape of milk from 
the breasts of young girls or maidens. 

Parthenogen esis. (Jlapdtvo? ; yivt- 
<ris, birth. F. parthenogenese; I.partenogenesi ; 
G. Parthenogenesie.) Virgin-reproduction. 

In Zoology, the development of a new indi- 
vidual by the formation of a bud or detached 
overgrowth, or from an egg-cell that requires 
no fertilisation. 

In Botany, the formation of embryos by the 
female reproductive organs without fertilisation. 
In such cases, it is now generally considered that 
the so-called female organs are not, strictly 
speaking, female, since they contain within 
themselves all that is necessary for develop- 

P., male. Bot. The asexual development 
of a complete organism from the male element 
of its progenitor, without contact or conjugation 
with the female element. It occurs in some low 
vegetable organisms. 

Parthenon enet'ic. Relating to Par- 

Partheno'log'y. (JlapQivov, \6yoi, a 
discourse.) The discussion, or consideration, of 
the state of virginity in health and disease. 

Partheno'nosus. {JlapQivo* ; v6<rot, 
a disease.) Another term for Chlorosis. 

Par'tlal. Applied in Botany to partitions 
that do not completely divide the pericarpial 
cavity into separate compartments. 

P. metamor'pboses. The metamor- 
phoses of insects that, during the course of 
their existence, undergo little or no change of 
general form, but only acquire new external 
parts ; as the Hemiptera, Orthoptera, and many 
of the Neuroptera. 

P. pres'sure. If two or more gases are 
mixed in a closed space over a fluid, since the 
different gases existing in a gaseous mixture 
exert no pressure upon each other, the several 
gases become absorbed. The weight of each 
absorbed is proportional to the pressure which 
would be exerted upon that gas if it were the 
only gas in the space ; this pressure is called 
the Partial pressure of a gas. (Bunsen.) 

P . re'flexes. Reflex movements occurring 
in a muscle, or small group of muscles, from 

Par ticles. (L. particula, a small part.) 
Supposing ponderable matter to be continuously 
subdivided into smaller and smaller portions, 
until the last stage of division is reached in 
which it is possible to recognise the aggregate 
condition of the matter thus acted on, the finely- 
divided portions of matter thus supposed to be 
formed are called Particles. 

P., prim itive, of mus'cles. Term for 
the Sarcous elements of Bowman. 

Particular sanguinis. Term for 
the blood-corpuscles. 

Par'tite. (L. partio, to divide; from 
pars, a part. F. partite ; G. getheilt.) Divided 
into parts. 

Par'tridffe. (THpdi%. F. perdrix; G. 
Rebauhn.) The Perdix cinerea and Perdix 
rubra. Formerly, according to Aldrovand, used 
in medicine. Used now as food. 

P. ber'ry. The berry of the Mitchella 

Also, the berry of the Gaultheria procumbens. 

P. pea. The Cassia chamcecrista. 
Parts, the. Term for the external geni- 
tal organs. 

Partu'rient. (L. parturiens, bringing 
forth. G. gebarend.) Bringing forth young. 

Also, term for an oxytocic drug. 
P. ap'oplexy. A puerperal disease occur- 
ring in cows. The secretion of milk is arrested, 
there is some fever, and the brain becomes con- 

P. canal'. The canal formed by the dilated 
cervix uteri and vagina through which the foetus 
passes during Parturition. 

P. line. The axis of the P. canal. 
P. state. The Puerperium. 

Parturie'ntes dolo'res. The pains 
of bringing forth. Labour-pains. 

Parturifa'clent. (L. facio, to make.) 
Tending to bring on labour. 

Parturio'meter, Lea man's. (L. 
parturio ; Gr. /U-rpov, a measure.) An instru- 
ment for indicating the effective movement of 
the advancing part of the ovum or foetus at any 
moment during parturition. It consists of a 
metallic cylinder in which is a spring accurately 
made to measure force in pounds. The pres- 
sure is conveyed to the spring by a plunger 
terminating externally in a concave disc which 
is placed against the advancing part of the 



ovum. The effective movement is indicated on 
a scale. 

Parturition. (F. part; I. parto ; G. 
Qeburt.) The process of expulsion of the foetus 
and placenta from the uterus. See Labour. 

P., dry. See Labour, dry. 
Parturium va'num. (L. vanus, 
empty, fruitless.) See Labour, spurious. 

Par tus abac'tio. (L. pario, to bring 
forth ; abactus, driven out from.) Abortion. 

P. abac'tus. The same as P. abactio. 

P. Caesar'eus. Cwsarian section. 

P. dlffic ills. Difficult labour. 

P. emor'tuus. (L. e, out ; mortuus, dead, 
from morior.) Term for Stillbirth. 

P. intempesti'vus. (L. intempestivus, 
untimely.) Term for Labour, premature. 

P. laborio'sus. (L. laboriosus, toilsome.) 
See Dystocia. 

P. prae'eox. (L. prcccox, ripe before the 
time.) See Labour, premature. 

P. praematu rus. The same as P. pre- 

P. sero tinus. (L. serotinus, late ripe.) 
The same as Opsiotocia. 

P. sic cus. (L. siccus, dry.) See Labour, 


Parulidodonti'tis. (Parulis ; odont- 
itis. F. parulidodontite.) Inflammation of 
the tooth with gum-boil. 

Paru'lis. (Tlapa, ovXov, the gum. F. 
parulie ; I. parulide ; G. Zahnjleischgeschiviir.) 
Inflammation or abscess of the gum; gum- 

Also, an ulcer of the gum, with thickened 

Parumbili cal. (Jlapa; L. umbilicus, 
the navel.) Close to the umbilicus. 

P. veins. Name given by Schiff to one or 
two small veins passing downwards from the 
left division of the portal vein, along the round 
ligament of the liver, forming connections, 
towards the umbilicus, with the epigastric veins. 
In certain pathological conditions, when the 
portal branches are obstructed, these parum- 
bilical branches become greatly enlarged, and 
set up a collateral circulation. 

Paruria. (Jlapa, badly ; ovpim, to pass 
urine. F. parurie.) Disordered micturition, or 

P. incon'tinens. (L. incontinens, not 
retaining.) Enuresis. 

P. Incon'tinens aquo'sa. (L. aquosus, 
abounding in water.) Term for Diabetes in- 

P. in'ops. (L. inops, destitute.) Sup- 
pression of ui inc. 

P. melli'ta. (L. mcllitus, honey-like.) 
Diabetes mellitus. 

P. retentio'nls. (L. retentio, a holding 
in.) Retention of urine. 

P. retentio'nls rena'lis. (L. renes, the 
kidneys.) The same as P. retentionis. 

P. retentio'nls veslca'lls. (L. vesica, 
the bladder.) The same as P. retentionis. 

P. stlllatftia. (L. stillatim, drop by 
drop; from stilla, a drop.) Strangury. 

P. stlllatl'tla muco'sa. Cysiirrhcca. 
Paru'ric. Belonging to Paruria. 
Parurocystls. (\lapd; ovpov, urine ; 
KUffTis, the bladder. F. parurocyste ; G. Neben- 
blase.) An appendage or sacculus of the urinary 

Parviflo rous. (L. parvus, small ; flos, 

Jloris, a flower.) Having small flowers. The 
same as Micranthous. 

Farvifo'lious. (L. parvus ; folium, a 
leaf. F. parvifolie ; G. Kleinblattrig .) Having 
small leaves. 

Parvipso'as. Coues' name for the psoas 
parvus muscle. 

Parviros'trate. (L. parvus; rostrum, 
a beak. F. parviroste ; G. kleinschnabelt.) 
Having a slender beak. 

Par voline. C 9 H 13 N. 1. The first 
ptomaine analysed; discovered by Etard and 
Gautier in 1881, and obtained from putrefying 
mackerel and horse-flesh. It occurs as an oily, 
amber- coloured liquid, smelling like hawthorn, 
boiling just below 200° F. It is slightly soluble 
in water, readily soluble in alcohol, ether, and 

2. Waage obtained a substance probably iden- 
tical with the above, by heating a mixture of 
ammonia and propionic acid in a sealed tube. 

3. A substance (C 18 H, 5 N, Robin) not yet 
thoroughly isolated, obtained from some bitu- 
minous schists, which are rich in animal 

Par'vules. (L. parvulus, very small.) 
An American speciality, similar in all respects 
to "granules;" made up with a fixed, but very 
small, quantity of some active drug. 

Parye-'ron. (Jl&pvypo?, moist.) Term 
employed by Galen for a moist preparation used 
for allaying local inflammation. 

Pas'cal, Blaise. A French physicist. 
Born 1623, died 1662. 

P.'s law. The law, in Hydrostatics, of 
equality of pressures. ' It is enunciated as 
follows : — " Pressure exerted anywhere upon 
a mass of liquid is transmitted undiminished in 
all directions, and acts with the same force on all 
equal surfaces, and in a direction at right angles 
to those surfaces." 

Pas cuum. (L. pasco, to feed.) Old name 
for Pabulum, or food, as applied to man ; also for 
pasture, as applied to beasts. 

Pasi'phylus. (lias, all; a>i\os, beloved, 
grateful.) Old name for a dry plaster inducing 
the formation of a scab. It consisted of vitriol, san- 
darach, misy, and chalcitis, according to Aetius. 

Pas ma, (Jlaauw, to sprinkle over.) The 
same as Catapasma. 

Pa'so de nobles spring's. San 
Luis Obispo County, California. There are five 
hot sulphur springs, three cold sulphur springs, 
and one chalybeate spring. The waters are re- 
commended as alkaline-sulphur thermal waters. 
As baths, they are used for chronic skin diseases 
and rheumatism. Analysis of the main hot 
sulphur spring : — Sulphate of lime 3 - 21 grains, 
sulphate of potash 0'88, sulphate of soda 7 - 85, 
peroxide of iron 0 - 36, carbonate of magnesia 
0*92, carbonate of soda 50*74, iodides and bro- 
mides traces, alumina 0*12, silica 0*44, organic 
matter 1*64; total, 83 44 grains. Carbonic acid, 
10-50, sulphuretted hydrogen 4-55 cubic inches, 
in one imperial gallon. 

Paspa'lum, (Jla<mrakii, the finest meal.) 
The Trioe Panicece, of the Order Gramineae. 
Several species are cultivated for their small 
grain, which is used as food in India, &c. 

Pasquc flow er. (Passeflower,orpasch- 
flower. Anglo-Sax. pascha, Easter ; L. pascha ; 
Gr. iravrya, the passover; Heb. pesach, a passing 
over.) The Anemone pulsatilfa ; called Pasqus 
because it flowers about Easter. 



Pas'sa. (Nom. fern, of passus.) An 
epithet applied to Uva, a grape, to signify a 
dried grape, or raisin. 

Also, used by Paracelsus for Paronychia, or 

P. corinthi aca. (L. passus, dried.) The 
raisin or dried fruit of the Vitis corinthiaca. 

Pas'salus. (n«<rcra\os, a peg. F. pas- 
sale.) Applied by G. Allman to the calyx of a 
flower when entire. 

Passambi o. The Bio vinaigro. 

Passavan'tic. (lias, all; uuaivu>, to 
dry up. F '. passavantique.) Drying up ; applied 
formerly as an epithet for a certain powder 
described by Schroderus, which, by causing pur- 
gation, dried up the tissues. 

Pas'ser. (L. passer, a sparrow.) A Genus 
of the Passeridce, including the two English 
species P. domes ticits, the common house-sparrow, 
and P. montanus, the tree-sparrow. 

Pas seres. (Nom. plural of passer.) A 
Group of birds, including the whole of the so- 
called Passerine birds, and now divided into 
three Families, Eurylaemidm, Pseudoscines, and 
Passeridce. (Fiirbringer and Gadow.) 

Passeri dae. A Family of ihe Passeres 
(Fiirbringer and Gadow) including the three Sub- 
families, Oligomyodi, Tracheophones, and Poly- 
myodi. Also called Oscines, formerly Passerines. 

Passeri'na. (L. passer, a sparrow ; on 
account of its beaked seed.) A Genus of the 

P. tartonrai'ra. (F. passerine de tarton- 
raire, trintanelle malherbe.) The bark of this 
species is said to have an epispastic local action. 
An ointment is prepared from the bark in the 
same way as the ointment of Mezereon, and is 
said to be more active than the latter. 

P. tincto'ria. A species the root of which 
furnishes a yellow dye. 

Passeri'nse. A term, now being gradually 
given up, used to designate a Subfamily of the 
Passeridce, now generally called Oscines. It in- 
cludes all the true singing birds. See Passeridce. 

Pas'serine birds. A general term for 
the Passeres. 

Passeri'ni's decoc tion. A prepara- 
tion similar to Decoctum Zitmanni. 

Passibil'ity, great. (L. passus, from 
potior, to sutler ; habilis, able.) Term for Hy- 

Passiflora. (L. passio, passion ; flos, 
fioris, a flower. F. passiflore ; G. Passions- 
blume.) Term substituted by Linnoeus for Flos 
passionis, so called on account of the cross-shaped 
stigma. A Genus of the Passifloracece, chiefly 
confined to Tropical America, several species of 
which have active qualities. 

P. ntu lis. A South American species. 
The fruit is edible. 

P. foe'tlda. Has been used as a pectoral, 
antispasmodic, and emmenngogue. 

P. incarna'ta. A plant of the Southern 
United States. The fruit is known as maypops. 
The juice expressed from the leaves of this 
species and those of P. lutea, and afterwards dried 
and powdered, has been given in tetanus and in 
neuralgia. According to Phares, P. lutea and P. 
incarnata have been used by him (in the United 
States) with great success in the treatment of 
tetanus neonatorum and neuralgic affections, 
and an extract of the root as " an application to 
chancres, irritable piles, erysipelas, and recent 
burns." An extract made from the leaves has 

been given in powder, in doses of 1 to 4 tea- 

P. laurifo'lia. The bay- leaved passion- 
flower, a native of Surinam. Its fruit grows to 
the size of a small lemon, which it rather closely 
resembles ; it has a delicious smell and flavour, 
quenches thirst, is stomachic, and has been used 
as an anthelmintic. 

P. lu'tea. (L. luteus, dyed with the herb 
lutum; golden-yellow.) A plant growing in the 
Southern United States. Uses, see P. incarnata. 

P. lyrsefo'Iia. Used as a diuretic. 

P. mallfor'mls. The fruit of this plant, 
called also the apple- shaped granadilla, is con- 
sidered a delicacy m the West Indies. 

P. quadrang-ular'is. A native of the 
West Indies. The fruit is edible ; but the root, 
used in small doses as a vermifuge, is believed to 
be a narcotic poison. 

P. ru bra. Hab. West Indies. The flowers 
are used for their narcotic action. 

Passiflora ceae. {Passiflora.) An order 
of plants mostly inhabiting the Tropical parts 
of the New World, rarer in Asia, Australia, and 
Tropical Africa. The pulpy aril of plants of this 
order is used in America in making cooling 

Passiflo'rin. (F. passiflorine.) An al- 
kaloid little known, which Ricord-Madiana has 
obtained from the roots of the Passiflora. 

Pas'sio. (L. from paiior, to suffer.) Old 
term for a disease. 

P. cadi'va. (L. cadivus ; from cado, to 
fall.) The " Falling sickness." Term for Epi- 

P. cardi'aca. See Cardiac passion. 

P. choler'ica. Cholera. 

P. coeli aca. See Cceliac passion. 

P. felli'flua. (L.fel, fellis, gall, or poison ; 
fltto, to flow.) Cholera. 

P. haemopto'ica. Haemoptysis. 

P. hypochondri'aca. Hypochondriasis. 

P. hysterica. See Hysteric passion. 

P. lll'aca. See Iliac passion. 

P. ischiad ica. Sciatica. 

P. pleurlt'lca. Pleurisy. 

P. stomach ica. Dyspepsia. 

P. ventriculo'sa. Lientcry. 

P. vomico'flua. (L. vomica, an abscess ; 
fluo, to flow.) Term for Phthisis pulmonalis. 

Pas sion. (L. passio. F. passion ; G. 
Zuneigung.) An active affection or emotion of 
the mind, as rage, terror, &c. 

Also, suffering caused by a disease, as Cardiac 
passion, &c. 

P.-flow'er. The Clematis passiflora. 

P.-flow'er, bay-leaved. See Passiflora 

Passio'nes animi. (L.) Affections 
of the mind. 

Pas'sions. Old name for Bistorta. 

Pas'sive. (L. passivus ; from paiior, to 
suffer, undergo.) Used by pathologists to dis- 
tinguish those conditions of nypcroeinia, dropsy, 
&c, sometimes called mechanical or venous, 
which are due to a diminution of the force pro- 
pelling the blood-stream, or to direct obstruction 
to its return from the part,. 

P. clot. Term given by Broca to the clot 
formed in an aneurism, consequent upon the 
arrest of the blood-stream. It is the same kind 
of clot as that formed in shed blood. 

P. haem orrhage. Seo Haemorrhage, 



P. insufficiency of muscles. Shown 
by muscles acting on joints. In certain posi- 
tions of the joint, the muscle may become so 
stretched as to act like a rigid strap, and pre- 
vent or limit the action of other muscleB ; e. g. 
the gastrocnemius, when the knee is fully ex- 
tended, will not allow of complete dorsal flexion 
of the foot. This is called Passive insuffi- 

P. move ment. Surgical term for move- 
ment exerted, not by the patient himself, but by 
another person. 

Pas'sugg'. In the Graubiindt Canton, 
Switzerland, noted for its three cold mineral 
springs. The Neue Belvedra and the Theophilus- 
quclle, the waters of both of which are acid, con- 
tain in 1000 parts, sodium bicarbonate -32 and 
1*91, calcium bicarbonate 2-09 and 1-02, re- 
spectively. The Ulricusquelle, the water of 
which is salt, contains in 1000 parts, sodium 
chloride - 82, sodium bicarbonate 5-38, and cal- 
cium bicarbonate l - 03, besides iodine and bro- 

Pas'sula. (Contraction of passa uvula, 
dim. from passa uva, a dried grape. F. raisin 
sec; G. Itosine.) A raisin, or dried grape. 

P. ma'jor. A Malaga raisin, the fruit of 
the Vitis vinifera. 

P. mi nor. A Corinthian raisin, or cur- 

Pas sulae laxati'vae. Much used in 
many places as a laxative for children. Pre- 
pared by allowing 100 parts of washed and dried 
currants to absorb a mixture of 30 parts of Inf. 
senna? co. and 30 parts of Aqua cinnamomi, at a 
temperature of 25° C. The currants are then 
spread on parchment paper, and dried in an 

Pas'sulate. Epithet applied to certain 
medicines of which raisins form the chief ingre- 

Pas'sum. (Passa.) A name for raisin 

Pas'sus. (L.passus, dried.) Made sweet, 
and dried by exposure to the sun. 

Also, full of wrinkles; applied to the grape. 

Also (L. pando, passion, to extend), a step, or 

Pas'sy. A village near Paris, noted for 
its five cold mineral springs. The Eau depuree 
contains in 1000 parts, sodium chloride - 727, 
magnesium sulphate 2-589, calcium sulphate 
4-82, and ferrous sulphate "13 ; the Old Spring, 
Nos. I and II, contain in 1000 parts, sodium 
chloride -193 and -309, calcium sulphate 1-62 
and 2-819, ferrous sulphate -039 and -056; the 
New Spring, Nos. I and II, contain in 1000 parts, 
sodium chloride -359 and -338, calcium sulphate 
1-536 and 2-774, ferrous sulphate -045 and -412, 
respectively. The water of these springs is 
given internally as a tonic and astringent. 

Pasta. (IlaarTv, the fern, of iraaTo?, 
sprinkled as with salt.) This name was originally 
applied to a confection supposed to removo the 
cause of leanness. Seo Paste. 

P. Ab'botl. Used for cauterising the nerve 
of a tooth preparatory to stopping. Sec Arsen- 
ical paste. 

P. ad combustio'nes. (L. comburo, 
combustion, to burn up.) 50 parts of blue 
talc powdcr.mixcd with 10 of bicarbonate of soda 
and 10 of glycerine, and enough water to make 
a thick paste. Used as a local application for 
burns of the skin (Geissler and Moller). 

P. altheaeae. (Althcea officinalis.) Seo 
Paste, marahmaUow. 

P. amygdali'na. The Confectio amyg- 
dalae . 

P. am'yll. See Starch paste. 

P. boll albae. Bolus alba or Kaolin. 
See Paste, kaolin. 

P. cac'ao. The same as Chocolate. 

P. cac'ao cum ar rowroot. 400 parts of 
P. cacao, 300 of sugar, 300 of arrowroot, and 1 
of Eloeosaccharum vanilli, G. Ph. 

P. cac'ao cum car rageen. 100 parts 
of Gelatina carrageen, 400 of sugar, and 500 of 
P. cacao. See Carrageen moss. 

P. cac'ao cum extrac'to car nis. 50 
parts of Ext. carnis heated in a porcelain vessel 
in a steam bath with 470 parts of sugar to a dry 
powder, and added to 500 parts of melted P. 

P. cac'ao cum extrac'to chi'nse. 2\ 

parts of Ext. china) spir., G. Ph., 10 of Cinna- 
moni cortex, 2£ of Zingiberis rhizoma, 485 of 
sugar, and 500 of P. cacao. 

P. cac'ao cum extrac'to mal'tl. 300 
parts of Ext. malti siccum, G. Ph., 400 of sugar, 
and 400 of P. cacao. 

P. cac'ao cum liche ne islan dico. 
100 parts of Gelatina lichenis islandici saccharata 
sicca, G. Ph., 450 of sugar, and 450 of P. cacao. 

P. cac'ao cum sal'ep. 50 parts of Pulv. 
salep, G. Ph., 450 of sugar, 500 of P. cacao. 

P. cac'ao ferra'ta. 50 parts of Ferri 
oxyd. saccharati sol., G. Ph., 450 of sugar, 500 
of P. cacao, 2 of Ekeosacch. vanilli, G. Ph. It 
contains -15 per cent, of iron. 

P. cac'ao purgati'va. 200 parts of Mag- 
nesia usta, G. Ph., carefully mixed with 400 of 
sugar and added to a mixture of melted P. cacao 
300 parts, and 01. ricini 100 parts. 

P. cacaoti'na. (Geissler and Moller.) 
The same as P. cacao. 

P. canquoi'ni. Paste oj zinc chloride. 

P. carbol'ica, Lister. 5 parts of Acid, 
carbol., 50 of 01. oliva?, and enough of Creta 
prseparata to make a thick paste. 

P. caus'tlca viennen sis. See Vienna 

P. de dac'tylis. (L. dactylus, a date ; 
Gr. oaKTiAos, a finger.) See Paste, date. 

P. de juju'bis. See Paste of jujubes. 

P. emulsi va. (L. emulgeo, to milk out.) 
The Confectio amygdala. 

P. g-lycyrrni'zae gumma ta et ani- 
sa'ta. A compound paste, made up of ex- 
tract of liquorice, gum Senegal, sugar, Florence 
orris-root, and volatile oil of anise. It is used 
as a demulcent. 

P. guarana. See Guarana. 

P. gummo sa. The P. althaat. 

P. io'di et am'yll. Starch 1 oz., glyce- 
rine 2 oz., water 6 oz. These are boiled to- 
gether, and, when almost cold, there is added 
solution of iodine 1 oz. 

P. llcbe'nis. See Paste of Iceland moss. 

P. Xiondlnen'sls. See London paste. 

P. paullln iae. Guarana. 

P. pectora'lls. 100 parts of Species pec- 
torales are macerated for twelve hours with 1000 
of water; 600 parts of gum arabic and 400 of 
sugar are added, and the mixture is wrapped in 
thick flannel, and steamed. *5 parts of Ext. opii 
dissolved in 20 of Aq. amygdalae amarw, G. Ph., 
are further added, and the mixture is treated in 
the same way as the Massa dejujubis. 


P. plum'bica. (L. plumbum, lead.) Heat 
50 parts of powdered lead oxide with 80 of 
acetum, B. Ph., to the consistence of a paste, 
and add 10 parts, either of glycerine, or 01. lini. 

P. pro tac'tu. (L. tactics, a touch.) Soft 
soap 2 oz., glycerine 2 oz., carbolic acid 1 dr., 
mixed and strained ; to this is added rectified 
spirit 2 dr. 

P. re'gia. An ancient kind of sugar-cake 
containing almonds. 

P. zin'ci. Mix carefully 50 parts of zinc 
oxide, 2 of salicylic acid, 15 of rice-starch, 15 of 
glycerine, and 140 of water, and heat them for a 
short time in a steam-bath. Used locally for 
eczema. Lassar has made a very similar paste 
with 2 parts of salicylic acid, 25 of zinc oxide, 
25 of starch, and 50 of vaseline. 

Pasta; turn. (ITao-Tjj. F. pastcte; G. 
Fleischbrod.) A kind of pasty. The same as 

Pastau's linimen turn styraci- 

num. 30 parts of prepared storax, 60 of olive 
oil. The prepared storax is heated with a third 
the quantity of rectified spirit in a water-bath, 
and the olive oil is then added. Used locally 
for Scabies. 

Paste'. {Pasta.) A soft, consistent phar- 
maceutical preparation, made with sugar, and 
gum or mucilage. 

Also, a viscid, tenacious mixture, usually of 
flour and water, for sticking on labels, &c. 

P., ar'senic. See Arsenical paste. 

P., Cagliar'i. Macaroni. 

P., Can quoin' s. See P., chloride of zinc. 

P., cans tic. The same as P., Canquoin' s. 

P., chlo ride of zinc. A caustic paste, 
used to destroy epithelioma, rodent ulcer, &c. 
It is prepared by dissolving 32 parts of zinc 
chloride in 4 of water, adding 8 parts of zinc 
oxide, and 24 of wheat-flour, and drying the 
mixture thoroughly. (Fr. Codex.) 

P., Cos'ter's. See Coster's paste. 

P., date. Composed of dates, gum arabic, 
sugar, orange-flower water, and water. (P. Ph.) 
It is used as a demulcent. 

P., dex trin. 100 parts of dextrin, 100 of 
glycerine, and 100 of water, mixed, and heated 
for half an hour in a steam-bath. Used as a 
basis for local applications, especially in skin 

P., Xtal'ian. Macaroni. 

P., landol'fi's. See Zandolfi's paste. 

P., Lon don. See London paste. It has 
been applied to growths in the larynx, enlarged 
tonsils, &c. 

P., Man'ec's. See Mancc's paste. 

P. of Iceland moss. (F. pate de lichen.) 
Made by boiling Iceland moss (Cctraria islan- 
dica) to the requisite consistence, and then 
adding sugar and gum arabic. 

P. of Iceland moss, o'piated. (F.pule 
de lichen opiacce.) This contains, in addition, 
opium 1-3 gr. to 1 oz. 

P. of ju'jubes. See Massa dejujubis, 

P., sen'na. Made by thoroughly beating 
up together figs and powdered senna to the con- 
sistence of a confection, and covering the mass 
with sugar. 

P., tooth. See Bcntifricium. 

P., Vien'na. See Vienna paste. 

P., Ward's. The Confectio piper is, B. Ph. 
Pas tern. (0. F. pasturon ; from pasture, 
a tether ; so called because the horse was tethered 
round this joint when let out to pasture. F. 

paturon ; I. pastoia ; G. Fesscl.) The part of 
the tarsus between the fetlock-joint and the 
hoof in the horse. 

Pasteur', Lou is. A very eminent 
French chemist and scientific discoverer, born 
at DOle (Jura), December 27th, 1822, now living 

P.'s fluid. Dissolve, in 100 parts of dis- 
tilled water, 10 of pure cane-sugar, 1 of am- 
monium tartrate, and the ash of 1 part of yeast. 
Used as a nutrient material for the artificial 
cultivation of micro-organisms. 

P.'s septicaemia. See Septicaemia, 

Pasteurisa tion. (Gr. Pasteurisiren.) 
The sterilisation of milk or wine, by which the 
contained micro-organisms are destroyed, and 
decomposition is thus prevented. 

Pas'teurism. The whole process in- 
volved in protective or preventive inoculation 
as carried out by Pasteur, with a virus which 
has been attenuated artificially, either by means 
of artificial culture-media or by inoculations 
through a series of living animals. The patient 
who is inoculated has the disease in question in 
a modified and mild form, and is thus rendered 
insusceptible to an attack of the unmodified 
disease. The word has also been used for an 
entirely distinct process, namely, that of curative 
inoculations for a disease which has already 
shown itself, as, for example, Koch's treatment 
for tuberculosis. 

Fas'til. (L. pastillus, a lozenge; dim. 
of panis, bread. F. pastille; I. pastiglia ; G. 
Pastille.) A mixture of nitre with various aro- 
matic substances, made into different shapes, 
and slowly burnt for the purpose of fumigation. 

Also, a lozenge, or troche (Trochiscus) . 
P.s, fu migating-. (L. fumigo.) See 

P.s of Jtenan'dot. See Pilvla de hy- 
drargyria, scammonio et aloe. 

P.s, Vich'y. Name for Trochisci sodii bi- 

Pastille'. The same as Pastil. 
Pastil'li. (Nom. plural of pastillus.) The 
same as Trochisci. See Pastil. 

P. digesti' vi Darcet'ii. Name for Tro- 
chisci sodii bicarbonatis. 

P. emetinae pectorales. See Tro- 
chisci enietince pectorales. 

P. fausti'ni. Described by Paulus 
-ZEgineta as made up of "auri pigmentum," 
sandarach and quick-lime, burnt paper, and 
pimento berries. Used as a caustic for exuber- 
ant granulation-tissue. 

P. fuman'tes. Fumigating pastils ; con 
taining benzoin, balsam of Tolu, &c. 

P. men'thae piperi'tee. Peppermint 

White sugar, peppermint water, distilled 
water, of each two ounces. Boil to the con- 
sistence of an electuary. Take, of fine white 
sugar in powder, four ounces, of vol. oil of 
peppermint, half a drachm. Mix, add the elec- 
tuary while warm. Drop it on marble, and dry 
the drops. (P. Ph.) 

Pastil'lum. See Pastil. 

Pastinaca. (Dim. of L. pasta; from 
pastus, food. F. panais ; G. Pastinake.) A 
Genus of plants belonging to the Order Bigynia. 
The Parsnip. 

Also, an old name, used as far back as Pliny 
the younger, for some species of Sting-ray. 


P. altis sima. The P. opoponax. 

P. ane'thum. The Anethum graveolens. 

P. graveolens. The same vtsP. anethum. 

P. basta'ta. The American Sting-ray, a 
fish which is one source of Oleum raice (q. v.). 

P., oil of. An ethereal oil, contained in 
the proportion of 2 to 2-5 per cent, in the fruit 
of P. sativa. Obtained by distillation, it appears 
as a yellow liquid with a pleasant smell, of 
sp. gr. -87, and boiling at 220° to 250° F. It 
consists mainly of ethyl butyrate. 

P. opa'ca. (L. opacus, darkened.) The 
P. sativa. 

P. opop'onaz. The systematic name of 
the plant formerly supposed to yield the gum- 
resin Opoponax, which latter, however, is now 
referredto the Opoponax ehironiwn. 

P. praten'sis. The P. sativa. 

P. satl'va. The parsnip. It has been 
given as a diuretic and demulcent in calculous 

P. sylves'tris. The P. sativa. 

P. sylves'tris tenuiro lia offici- 
nar'um. The Dattcus carota. 

Pastina'cin. The name given by Witt- 
stein to a volatile alkaloid, the properties of 
which are not yet known, obtained by distilling 
the fresh seeds of Pastinaca sativa with a dilute 
solution of potash ; found also by A. R. Porter 
in the root of Sit(m latifolium. 

Pasto-resin. Origin unknown. Im- 
ported from South America, where the Pasto 
Indians use it for varnishing wood. (Bous- 
singault.) It is viscid and can be pulled out 
into tenacious fibres, which gradually become 
hard, but not brittle. Heated to about 100° C, it 
becomes elastic, ignites, and burns with a smoky 

Pas'toril meat-ex'tract. One of 

the imitations of Liebig's extractum carnis. 

Patag'i'um. (Jlivraytiov, a hood attached 
to an upper garment. F. patagion ; G. Flug- 
haut.) Applied by Illiger to the membrane that 
performs the function of a wing in the Cheiro- 
ptera ; by Kirby, to two horny scales which, in 
the Lepidoptera, are fixed, one to either side. of 
the trunk exactly behind the head, and covered 
by a long tuft of hair. 

Patch, mu cous. See Mucous patches. 

P., o'pallne. The same as P., mucous. 

P., smo'ker's. A small, slightly raised, 
smooth patch, either red or covered with a yel- 
lowish crust, occurring in smokers, on the dorsum 
of the tongue, at the spot where the end of the 
pipe usually rests. The inside of the cheeks 
sometimes becomes affected in the same way. 
The patch is neither painful nor tender. The 
disease sometimes spreads until it becomes iden- 
tical with Leukoplakia. 

P.s, white. 1. Term for Leukoplakia. 2. 
Smooth patches seen in tertiary syphilis, occur- 
ring on mucous membranes, and due to the peel- 
ing off of opaque epithelium over a deposit of 
lymph. (Dunglison). 

Patchouli. (A Bcngalcse word, cor- 
ruption of " Patchey-ellcy," the leaves of the 
" Patchey." In the Malabar dialect, ouli,a leaf, 
and patchei, green.) Spelt also Patchouli/. The 
dried tops of the Pogostemon patchouli. They 
are used in the manufacture of the scent, 

P. cam prior. See under P. oil. 

P. oil. An ethereal oil distilled from the 
Pogostemon patchouli. It is yellow to brownish - 


yellow in colour, and has a most penetrating and 
lasting odour. It contains a hydrocarbon boiling 
at 257° F. It is a viscid oil, boils at 282" 
— 294° F., and separates out on standing as 
Patchouli/ camphor, C IS H ae O, in hexagonal 
prisms, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol 
and ether. 

Fatchoulin. C I5 H S4 . A hydrocarbon 
prepared from Patchouli camphor, either by 
heating it to 100° F. for some hours with glacial 
acetic acid and acetic anhydride, or by the action 
of acids. It boils at 252°— 258° F. under 743 
mm. pressure. It has no smell when pure, but 
a resinous smell when oxidised. It is strongly 

Patchou'ly. See Patchouli. 

Patella. (Dim. of L. patina, a pan, 
from its shape. L. rotula ; F. rotule ; I. rotula ; 
G. Eniescheibe.) The knee-pan. This bone is 
situated at the front of the knee-joint. Inferiorly 
itiaattached by a ligament or tendon, ligamentum 
patellar, to the tibia, and superiorly, to the quad- 
riceps tendon, in which it may be considered to be 
developed as a sesamoid bone. It has the form of 
a triangle with the base upwards, and is com- 
pressed antero-posteriorly. Its anterior surface 
is subcutaneous, having a bursa between it and 
the skin. The deep surface is coated, except 
at the inferior angle, with cartilage, for articu- 
lation with the femur, and is divided by a 
vertical elevation; the part external to this is 
the larger, and is concave transversely, the 
internal part is convex. This surface articulates 
with the condyles of the femur. 

In Zoology (F. patelle, motile; G. Teller- 
muscheV), a Uenus of the Gasteropoda mollusca, 
inhabiting a univalve shell ; a limpet. 

In Botany (F. patelle), a plain receptacle 
having a distinct border to the thallus, as in the 

P. brachia'lis. The Os patcllare. 
P., dislocation of. This is not common. 
It may occur outwards, inwards, vertically or 
edgewise, or upwards. The reduction may be 
easy, but in some cases has been impracticable. 
P. fix'a. The Olecranon. 
P., frac'ture of. Usually from indirect 
violence by sudden action of the extensors of 
the thigh in an attempt to save a fall. This 
fracture is transverse, and may unite by liga- 
ment or bone, usually the former. "Where the 
fragments are separated by more than about an 
inch and a half, they unite by thickened apo- 
neurosis only (Adams). The fracture occurring 
from direct violence is comminuted or simply 
longitudinal, and osseous union readily occurs. 

Patella'cea. Term applied by Menke to 
a Family of the Gasteropoda, having the Patella 
as their type. 

Patellar fos'sa. The depression on 
the trochlea of the femur which receives the 

P. plex'us. A nerve-plexus in front of 
the knee, formed by the union of the internal 
saphenous and middle and internal cutaneous 

P. re'flex. See Knee-jerk. 

Patellar ia scrupo'sa. The Vreeo- 
laria scrtiposa. 

Patellar'ic ac id. C 17 H,oO, 0 . An acid 
first isolated from the Pateltaria scruposa by 
Weigelt, in 1869. It occurs as a mass of small, 
colourless crystals, of acid reaction and stronger 
bitter taste ; soluble, hardly at all in water, with 


difficulty in carbon bisulphide, readily in alcohol, 
nmyl alcohol, ether, and chloroform. Of its 
salts, only those of the alkalies aro soluble in 

Patel lary fos sa. The Fossa hya- 

Patel'late. In Zoology, applied to the 
Tubulipora patellata, a polyp with an orbicular 

In Conchology, the Solarium patellatum is an 
orbicular and discoid shell, the internal aspect 
of which is like a small plate. 

In Entomology, applied by Kirby to the two 
anterior tarsi of insects, when they have certain 
joints dilated in the form of orbicular plates. 

Pateliif orm. (L. patella, a small dish ; 
forma, likeness. F. patelliforme ; G. schiissel- 
fbrmig.) Of the shape of a patella, or small 

Patelloi dean. The same as Patelli- 

Patel lule. (Dim. of Patella. F. patel- 
lule ; (i.Schiisselchen.) Botanical term synonym- 
ous with Patella. 

Pa tency of the fora men ovale. 

(L. pateo, to be open.) See Cyanosis. 

Pa tent. (L. pateo, to be open. 
tent ; G. offen.) Wide open, evident, public. 

P. gold. A double salt of chloride of lead. 

P. green. A compound of copper and 
arsenic salts. 

P. med icine. A medicine for the sale of 
which the manufacturer obtains from Govern- 
ment an exclusive privilege, under the patent 
law. A specification of his invention must be 
registered at the Patent Office. 

Many so-called patent medicines are not pa- 
tented ; and a considerable number contain such 
poisons as opium, belladonna, strychnine, &c, 
but are sold without a poison label (1893). 

P. yellow. A pigment containing the 
chloride and protoxide of lead ; also termed 
" Mineral yellow." 

Pafer om nium viven'tium. (Lit., 
"father of all living.") An old term for the 

Pat'era Diog enis. (L. patera, a 
bowl.) See Diogenes- cup. 

Pater na de la Rive ra. In Spain. 
This place is noted for a thermal spring, the 
water of which is at a temperature of 19-4° C. 
The water contains sulphuretted hydrogen -017 
parts, sodium chloride 6-076, magnesium sul- 
phate 5*2, and calcium sulphate 3*3 in 1000 

Pat'ernoster peas. The seeds of the 
Abrus preeatorius, and usually known as 

Pathe'ma. (Ila0os, suffering, sickness. 
F. patheme ; G. Leidenschaft.) Suffering, or 
disease. See Passion. 

Pathemat'ie. Belonging to Pathema. 

Pathemato'logy. {Pathema ; \6yot, 
a discourse. P . palhe'matologie ; G. Pathema- 
tologie.) A term for Pathology. 

Pathengenetlc. (flaOos, sickness ; 
lyyevt/s, inborn.) Resulting from, or produced 
by, disease. 

Pathetic insanity. (nat)>|i-tKos, 
belonging to irdOos, impassioned.) One of Dr. 
Arnold's ("Observations on Insanity," 1782) 
three main divisions of insanity. He divided 
insanity into Ideal, Notional, and Pathetic ; the 
last included the varieties of Melancholia. 

P. muscle. The Obliquus superior 
muscle of the eyeball, so named because it was 
fancifully supposed to express, by its action, the 
passions and affections. 

P. nerve. So called because it supplies 
the Pathetic muscle. See Nerve, trochlear. 

Path etism. (Ilad^TiKot.) Term for 
Magnetism, animal. 

Pathic. (TladiKot, remaining passive. 
F. pathique ; G. etwaserduldend.) Remaining 

Also (7ra0os), morbid suffering. 

Also, term for one who allows the crime of 
sodomy to be practised upon him. 

P. re'flexes. Reflex movements induced 
by the stimulation of afferent nerve-fibres. 

Pathisother'apy. See Isopathother- 

Pathoamine'. A basic, usually poi- 
sonous, substance, found in the urinary bladder 
in various pathological conditions. Also termed 

Pathocrati'a. (YladoKpaTiia, self- 
restraint. F. pathocratie.) Self-restraint. 

Patho ctonous. (Ila0os, passion ; 
KTtivw, to kill. F. pathoctone.) Restraining 
the passions. 

Pathogenesis. (IlaOos, an affection, 
disease; yti/tcris, origin. F.pathogenesie,patho- 
genie; \.patogenia,patogenesi ; G. Pathogenesie.) 
The origin, or production, of disease. 

Pathogenetic. The same as Patho- 

Pathogenic. Giving rise to disease; 
also, thriving in the midst of disease. 

Patho g enous. Syn. of Pathogenic. 

Patho'geny. Pathogenesis. 

Pathognomonic. (Ila0os, disease; 
yvw/nov, a judge. F. pathognomonique ; I. 
patognornonico ; G. pathogno-monisch.) A term 
for the peculiar and characteristic symptom or 
symptoms of any disease. 

PathOgnOS'tiC. (IlriOos; yiyvu><TKu>, 

to know.) The same as Pathognomonic. 

Pathograph'ical. Belonging to 

Patho g raphy. (ITa0os; ypatpv, a 
writing.) A history or description of disease. 

Pathological. (ITaOoXoyKcos, treating 
of diseases. F. pathologique ; I. patologico; 
G. pathologisch.) Belonging, or relating, to 
Pathology ; also, diseased, or the result of dis- 

P. ana'tomy. See under Anatomy. 
P. histology. The Histology of diseased 

Pathologist. One who specially studies 

Pathology. (n«8os, disense ; Xo'yos, a 
discourse. F. pathologic ; I. patologia; G. 
Pathologie.) The consideration of diseases, their 
nature, course, and effects ; in other words, the 
natural history of disease. Divided into General 
and Special ; the latter being again divided into 
Medical and Surgical. 

P., cell ular. See Cellular pathology. 

P., geographical. That branch of 
Pathology which deals with tho geographical 
distribution of diseases. 

P., humoral. See Humoral pathology : 

P., solid. See Solidism, 
Patho lysis. (li«tios; Xvw, to loosen.) 
The decomposition, under tho influence of dis- 
ease, of chemical compounds in the living body. 


Pathoma'nia. (ITdSos, affection, any 
violent feeling; fiav'ta, madneBB.) Insanity, 

Pathomyotom'ia. (Ilddos, affection ; 
uDs, a muscle ; to/i»i, a cutting.) The title of a 
book written by Dr. John Bulwer, 1649, so 
called because it was "a dissection of the sig- 
nificative muscles of the affections of the mind." 

Pathonomia. (Jl&dos; vo>os, law.) 
The study and classification of the laws of dis- 

Pathopatridal g"ia. (n«0os; Traxp/s, 
one's native land ; a\yo9, pain. F. pathopat- 
ridalgie ; I. patopatridalgia ; G. Heimweh.) A 
term for Nostalgia, or home-sickness. 

Pathope ous. Belonging to Pathopceia. 

Pathopho bia, (fldflos ; <£d/3os, terror. 
I. patofobia.) This term has been proposed for 
Hypochondriasis, because of the patient's idea 
that he is ill, or going to be ill. 

Pathopceia. (JluQoi; ttoUw, to make. 
F. pathopmie.) See Pathopoiesis. 

Pathopoet'ic. Relating to Pathopoiesis. 

Pathopoiesis. (Ild0os, suffering; 
Troitu), to make. F. pathopoese ; I. patopoesi.) 
The production of disease. 

Pa tience dock. The Rumex patientia, 

Pa'tient. (L.patiens, suffering.) Usually, 
a sick person under the charge of a doctor; 
sometimes, merely a sick person. 

Patientia. (L. patiens; patior, to 
suffer.) The specific name of Monk's rhubarb, 
Rumex patientia. 

Patien tia? mus cuius. See Mus- 
cuius patientiee. 

Pati na. The hard, blue-green deposit of 
cupric carbonate, of the same composition as 
malachite, which forms on copper or bronze that 
has been exposed to moist air or earth for a long 
time. An artificial imitation is made by wetting 
the metal with dilute acetic acid, nitrate of 
copper, salt of sorrel, &c, and then leaving it 
exposed to the air. 

Pat'ne. (1T«ti>»/, <£aTvi;, or Tradvi], a 
manger or crib.) Term for Alveolus. 

Pat' or nar'ium. (L. pateo, to be open ; 
nares, the nostrils.) The opening or cavity of 
the nostrils. 

Pat os. (ITd-ros, dirt.) Old name for 
sordes of the body, that is, sweat mingled with 
dust, as of the wrestlers and athletse in the 
gymnasium ; considered by Oribasius to be the 
best application for inflammation of the breast 
or the nipple. 

Patradjik. Another name for Hypati 
(q. v.). 

Patra'tio. (L. patrare, to accomplish.) 
Term for Coition. 

Patrimo'nium. (L. patrimonitm, an 
inherited estate.) An old term fancifully used 
by 1). Ludovicus for the male genitals. 

Patrin ia j ataman si. (Named Pa- 
trinia after E. L. M. Putrin, a naturalist and 
traveller of Lyons.) The same as Nard, Indian. 

Patrum cortex. The Bark of the 
Fathers ; a name for Cinchona, because made 
known in Europe by the Jesuits. 

Pat talus. (Ua-rrakias, a second year 
stag, when his horns begin to shoot ; from ird-r- 
ra\oi or irdo-o-aXos, a peg. F. paltale ; G. 
Spiess.) Illiger's term for the yet unbranched, 
solid horn of a young ruminant. 

Patterson's powder. A powder 

composed of a mixture of magnesia and sub- 
nitrate of bismuth. 

Patulous. (L. pateo, to be open.) Wide 

Patur'sa. A name for Syphilis used by 
early writers of the sixteenth century, and said 
by Freund to have been given because it was the 
name for syphilis among the Indians. 

Pau. The capital of the department of the 
Lower Pyrenees, situated inland, 50 miles from 
Bayonne. The spring there is mild, and cold 
winds are very rare. It is recommended as a 
winter resort for people with chronic bronchial 
and laryngeal affections. It is considered too 
changeable for consumptive and rheumatic 

Pauciartic'ulated. (L. paucus, few ; 
articulus, a joint. F. pauciarticule ; G. arm- 
gelenckt.) Applied to antennte when composed 
of a small number of joints. 

Pauclden'tate. (L. dentatus; from 
dens, a tooth. F. paucidenle ; G. armzdhnig.) 
Applied to leaves slightly dentated, having only 
one or two teeth at their summit. 

Pauciflo'rous. (L. paucus, few; Jlos, 
Jloris, a flower. F. pauciflore ; I. paucifloro ; S. 
paucifloro; G. toenigblumig.) Bearing few 

Paucifo liate. (L. paucus ; folium, a 
leaf. F. paucifolie ; G. armblatlrig.) Bearing 
few leaves. 

Pauci jugfate. (L.jugum, a yoke. F. 
paucijugue ; G. armgejochet.) Term applied to 
a compound leaf which is formed of only four or 
five pairs of folioles. Koch gave this epithet to 
TJmoelliferoe, of which each carpel of the fruit 
bears only five prominent lines. 

Paucirad iate. (L. radius, a ray. F. 
pauciradie ; G. armstrahlig.) Applied to the 
umbel, when it contains only a small number of 
rays ; also to a plant whose stigma is composed 
of few rays. 

Pauciru'gfOUS. (L. ruga, a wrinkle. 
F. paucirugueux ; G. weniggcrunzelt.) Pre- 
senting few wrinkles or ruga?. 

Pauclse'riate. (L. series, & row. F. 
pauciserie; G.armreihig.) Pot. Divided into a 
small number of rows. 

Paucispi'rate. (L. spira, a spire. F. 
paucispire ; G. armgewunden.) Applied to the 
operculum of the Mollusca, when it is formed of 
only one or two turns of a spire, increasing 
rapidly in breadth, the summit being nearly 

Paul's bet'ony. Name for the common 

speedwell, Veronica officinalis. 

Paul'a. (IIctu\a, a means of stopping, or 
bringing to an end.) Old name for a plaster 
efficacious against buboes and glandular swell- 
ings in the neck, according to Paulus ^gineta. 

Paulada'da. Term for a species of 
Terra sigillata found in Italy, formerly sold by 
the mountebanks who, boasting themselves to be 
descended of the family of St. Paul, named it 
Terra sigillata Melitea or Sancti Pauli. See 
also Bole. 

Faul'i Beto'nia. The Veronica offici- 

Pauli na confec'tio. (L. oonfoctw, * 
preparing.) A name for the Arislarchi anti- 
dotus Paulina. 

Paulli'nia. (After C. F. Paullini, a pro- 
fessor of Botany in Copenhagen. Bom 1643, 
died 1712.) A name for Ouarana. 


Also, a Genus of the Sapindacere (Paullnrke), 
many species of which are used medicinally 
where they are native. 

P. africa'na. Used as a haemostatic. 

P. aslat'ica. Used as a bitter and febri- 

P. curu'ru. Nat. Order Sapindacets. The 
juice of this plant is used by the savages of 
Guiana for poisoning their arrows. 

P. mexlca na. Used as a depurant. 

P. plnna'ta. Used for the same purpose 
as P. cururu. 

P. sor'bilis. A Brazilian climbing plant, 
from which guarana is prepared. 

P. triterna'ta. Used for the same pur- 
pose as P. cururu and P. pinnata. 

Paunch. (M. E. paunche ; 0. F. panche. 
L. pantex, the paunch. Eoot unknown. F. 
pause.) The first stomach, or rumen, of Bumi- 

Pauonta, (Jlavoo, to allay.) Term for 

Pause of the heart. (Pausis.) The 
time in the cardiac cycle during which the heart- 
muscle is relaxing, corresponding to the time of 
the ventricular diastole. The whole cycle being 
taken as one second, the period of relaxation is 
4-10th sec. ; the auricular systole occupying 
2-10th sec, and the ventricular systole, the re- 
maining 4 -10th sec. 

Pausime nia. (Pausis ; /uf;i>«, plural 
of fjLi'tv, originally, months, hence the menses of 
women.) The menopause. 

Paus'is. (Ilauuj, to make to cease. F. 
pause; G. Pause.) A pause; ceasing from a 

Fava'na. See Lignum pavance. 

Pavate . A name for the Pavetta indica. 

Pave ment epithe lium. See Epi- 
thelium, pavement. 

Pavet'ta in'dica. A Malabar shrub, 
Nat. Order Pubiacece. See Malleamotke. 

Pavette'. The Pavetta indica. 

Pav'ietin. C 10 H 8 O 5 , Eochleden. See 

Pav'iin. C 04 tT 7o O 4 i. See Fraxin. 

Pavil ion. (F. pavilion, a tent; L. pa- 
pilionem, acc. of papilio, a butterfly ; a redupli- 
cated form of the base pal, meaning to vibrate.) 
A large tent. 

Also, a small building separate from, but in 
dependence upon, a main building. 

Also, in Anatomy, a structure shaped like a 

P. of ear. Term for the Pinna of the 


P. of Fallo pian tube. The outer, or 
fimbriated end. See Fallopian tube. 

P., Tar'nler's. A pavilion designed by 
Tarnier of Paris for lying-in patients. There 
arc eight small rooms on two floors, each room 
being accessible only by passing through the 
open air. Corners are rounded off, and walls 
and floors are made of impermeable concrete. 

Pavimen tose. {Pavimentum. F. pavi- 
menteux ; G. gepflastert.) A geological term 
for that which has abundance of the mate- 
rial of which pavements are formed; e.g., the 
lava of volvic, of which the Paris footpaths are 

Pavimen'tum. (L. pavitum, rammed, 
well beaten, as floorsj A floor or pavement. 
P. eer'ebrl. The base of the brain. 
P. or'bltee. The floor of the orbit. 

Pavi na. The JEsoulm hippocastanum. 

Pavita'tion. (L.pavor, fear.) Tremu- 
lousness from fear. 

Pa'vo. (L. pavo, a peacock. F. paon;G. 
Pfan.) A Genus of the Order Oallinacece. The 

P. crista'tus. (L. crislalus, crested.) 
The pea-fowl. It was formerly used both in 
medicine and as food, and was called Avis me- 
dica, as described by Aldrovand. 

Pavo'nia odora'ta. A plant belong- 
ing to the Order Malvacece. Its root is aromatic 
and febrifuge. 

Pav'or. (L. pavor, fear. F. gale; G. 
Kratze.) An old term for Scabies. 
Also, Panophobia. 

P. noctur nus. Term for night-terrors. 
Pa'vy's disease'. The recurrence of 
traces of albumen in the urine at more or less 
regular intervals which chiefly correspond to the 
periods of digestion, in persons who are appa- 
rently in good health, and whose kidnevs appear 
to be perfectly sound. Described by Dr. Pavy 
as "cyclic albuminuria." Also called intermit- 
tent, or physiological albuminuria. 

P.'s solu tion. A solution used either as 
a qualitative, or quantitative test for sugar in 
urine. Composition : Copper sulphate 16 grains, 
potassium tartrate 32 grains, caustic potash 64 
grains, water 1 ounce. Either grape-sugar or 
maltose will reduce the copper and remove the 
blue colour of the solution ; half a grain of grape- 
sugar will reduce all the copper in 100 milli- 
grammes of the solution. 

P.'s test. Aqualitative test for the presence 
of sugar. An alkaline solution of ammonio-tar- 
trate of copper is used. This is first boiled, and 
then a few drops of the fluid supposed to contain 
sugar are added. If sugar be present, the copper 
solution is reduced, and a yellow or reddish pre- 
cipitate is formed. 

Paw paw. The same as Papaw. 
Paxcare te. A place in Spain which 
gives its name to a kind of sherry. 
Pax'wax. See Nucha. 
Paxywax'y. See Nucha. 
Pay ta-bark. One of the varieties of 
Cinchona pallida; cortex. It is obtained from 
the Peruvian sea- port Payta. 

P ay t amine. An amorphous alkaloid, 
isomeric with Paytine and obtained with it from 
Pay ta-bark. 

Pay'tine. An alkaloid obtained together 
with Paytamine from Payta-bark. As obtained 
crystallised out of a solution in alcohol or ether, 
;t occurs in colourless crystals, melting at 156°F. 
Hesse gives for it the formula C 2 |H 24 N.jO+H 2 0. 
It is readily soluble in alcohol, ether and chloro- 
form, and sparingly in water, and its crystals 
are IaBvo-rotatory. Calcium chloride solution 
gives with it a dark red colouration, afterwards 
changing to blue. 

Pay'ton. Also called Snowden. A place 
in Douglas Co., Oregon, noted for its alkaline 
mineral spring. 

Paz'ahar. See Pezonr. 
Ph. The chemical symbol for Plumbum. 
Pd. The chemical symbol for Palladium. 
Pea. (F. pois ; G. Erbsc.) Common name 
for the seed of Pimm sativum, also, for the plant 
itself. _ The composition of the seed has been 
investigated and, in common green-peas, dried 
and shelled, has been found to be 51'1 per 
I cent, of starch, dextrin and sugar, 217 of 


nitrogenous legumin, 1-9 of fatty matter, 2-8 of 
ush, 3-2 of cellulose, and 12-7 of water. 

P.» for issues. Small balls of tow or 
llax, rolled up with gum-water and wax. Occa- 
sionally, irritants were added, e. g. savin, or 
copper sulphate, or pips from unripe Curacoa 

P. towi. (M. E.fotd; Anglo-Sax. fugol, 
a bird. F. paon criste ; G. Pfau, Pfauhenne.) 
The Pavo cris/atits. 

P., gar den. The Pisum sativum. 

P., ground squirrel. The Jeffersonia 

P., hoar y. The Galega virginiana. 

P., love. The Abrus precatorms. 

P. nut. The Arachis hypogwa. 

P., partridge. The Cassia chamacrisla. 

P., tur'key. The Galega virginiana. 
Peach. (M. E. peche, peshe ; Low L. 
pesca ; L. persicum, a peach, so called because 
growing on the Persicus, or Persica arbor, the 
Persian tree or peach-tree. F. peche; G. 
Pfirsiehe.) The Malum persicum, or fruit of 
the Amygdalus persica. 

P. bran dy. A brandy distilled from the 
fermented juice of the fruit of Amygdalus 
persica; in wide use in the U. S. of Aorth 

P. tree. (F.pecher; G. Pfirsichbaum). 
The Amygdalus persica. 

P. -wood. Said to be derived from a species 
of Ccesalpinia. See Nicaragua. 

Peach wort. Name commonly used in 
America for the Polygonum persicaria. 

Pea'g"le. A common name for the cowslip, 
Primula veris. 

Pean's for ceps. A special kind of sur- 
gical pressure-forceps used for stopping haemor- 
rhage in operations, especially of the abdo- 
men. Made first, under M. Pean's directions, in 

P.'s exci sion of pylo'rus. This opera- 
tion was first performed on the human subject 
by Pean in 1879. The patient survived only 
five days. See Pylorus, excision of. 

P.'s opera'tion. The operation, intro- 
duced by Pean, of laparotomy for the removal 
of uterine fibroids. 

Pear. (M. TZ.pere; Anglo-Sax. pcra or 
pcru. L. pirum ; F. poire ; I. pera ; G. liirne.) 
The fruit of Pyrus communis. 

P., al ligator. The Persea gratissima. 

P., an chovy. The Grias caul'tjlora. 

P., avoca'do. The Persca gratissima. 

P.- tree. The Pyrus communis. 
Pearl. (M. E. perle; probably from 
Low L. perula, for pirula, dim. of L. pirum, a 
pear. F. perle ; G. Perle.) A spherical con- 
cretion, highly prized as an ornament, formed 
within the shell of the pearl-oyster. The forma- 
tion is pathological, and is due to irritation from 
the introduction of foreign bodies. The mother- 
of-pearl or inner layer of the shell accumulates 
round these foreign bodies in concentric layers, 
instead of forming thin layers over tho inner 
surface of the shell. Tho pearl is composed of 
calcium carbonate. It was formerly given in- 
ternally as an astringent in the form of powder. 
The most valuable pearl fisheries are round the 
Ceylon coast, and in the Persian Gulf near 
Olmutz. See also Margarita. 

P.- ash. (From its pearly-white colour. 
F. carbonate pota-ssique du commerce ; G. rohes 
Kohlensauret Kali.) Impure carbonate of pot- 


ash, prepared from crude commercial potash by 
dissolving in the smallest possible amount of 
cold water, allowing time for subsidence of 
impurities, and then evaporating the clear solu- 

P. bar'ley . The seed of Eordeum disti- 
ch/,, < deprived of its coats, and then rounded off 
and polished in a mill. See Eordeum decorti- 

P. disease', the. (F. phtisie calcaire, 
pommeliei e ; I. tisiperlacea ; G. Perlsucht.) Tu- 
berculosis of the serous membranes in cattle. 

P. eye. " Pearl in the eye." An old term 
for Cataract. 

P. mi ca. The same as Margarita. 

P., moth er of. See Mater perlarum. 

P. plant. The Lithospermum officinale. 

P. sa'go. This is prepared by passing the 
previously wetted meal through a sieve, and 
drying by prolonged stirring over a fire. It 
forms minute grains. 

P. tu'mour. A name for Cholesteatoma; 
also, for Psammoma ; also, for Pearl disease, the. 

P. white. See Bismuth oxychloride. Ac- 
cording to some, Bismuthi subnitras. 

P. -wort. The Lithospermum officinale. 
Pearl'y. Besembling a Pearl. 

P. bod ies. The " bird's nest " collection 
of cells found in epitheliomata. Also called 
cell-nests, or epithelial pearls. 

P. disease'. Syn. of Pearl disease. 

P. everlas ting. The Antennaria mar- 
garitacea. ' 

P. tu'bercle. Pathology. A synonym of 

P. tu'mour. The same as Pearl tumour. 
Pear son, Hichard. An English 
physician and medical author. Born 1765, died 

P.'s li quor arsenica'lis. A solution 
of '05 parts of arseniate of sodium in 30 parts of 
distilled water. 

Pear son's spring's. Lake County, 
California. There are five springs, all cold: a 
soda, a sulphur, a soda and sulphur, and two gas 
springs. The action of the waters is purgative. 
No analysis has been given. 

Peas'lee's opera'tion. A form of 
partial amputation of the cervix uteri, or 
Trachelotomy. . 

Peat. (Properly, beat ; from M. E. beten, 
to replenish a fire; Anglo-Sax. beian.) The pro- 
duct of the natural changes of dead plant-tissues 
occurring in soils where there is stagnant water 
or where there is a very moist atmosphere. 
Those remains gradually accumulate, and often 
form beds of large extent, varying in depth 
from a few inches to many feet. Peat varies in 
colour from light brown, where it consists almost 
wholly of the withered residue of plants, to black, 
where the organised structure of the plant may 
still be recognisable. Peat contains a large 
quantity of water, and this constitutes its chief 
disadvantage as a fuel. By dry distillation it is 
entirely decomposed, and yields gaseous products, 
tarry matters, a watery liquid, and a carbona- 
ceous residue ; these products are intermediate 
in their general characters between the corre- 
sponding distillation- products obtained from 
wood, and those obtained from coal. It contains 
sulphuric, phosphoric and humic acids; and it has 
been uied for making poultices and for preparing 
medicinal bnths. 

Pe brine. (Fr.) A disease of silkworms, 


due to the Micrococcus ovatus. Also called 

Pecan' nut. See Hickory nut. 

Pec'can nut. The same as Pecan nut. 

Pec'cant. (L. pcccans, pros. part, of 
peccare, to sin. G.verdorbcn.) Vitiated, morbid. 
Used especially by the "Humoral" pathologists, 
in respect of the bodily humours. 

Pec'co. (Signifying, in Chinese, " white 
hair.") A name for the youngest leaves of the 
tea plant. See Thea sinensis. 

Pech blende. Uranium oxide. 

Pechegue ra. (Span.) A rapidly fatal 
pulmonary disease of infants, occurring in South 

Pechiag"'ra. See Pechyagra. 

Pechu rim bean. Sec Pichurim bean. 

PechyagT'ra. (n?"^?, the forearm ; 
uypa, a catching. P. pechyagre.) Old term 
for gout of the forearm. 

Pe'chys. (njjxus, the forearm. P. cubit; 
G. Ellenbogen.) Old term for forearm. 

Pechytyr'be. (nr;x<^ ; Tupfiii, disorder.) 
Old name for Scurvy. (Forest.) 

Pec'ora. Nom. plural of Pecus (q. v.). 

Pec quet, Jean. An eminent French 
anatomist and surgeon of Dieppe. Bom 1622, 
died 1674. 

P., duct of. The Thoracic duct. 
P., res'ervoir of. The Receptaculum 

Pec'tase. An organic albuminoid fer- 
ment found in unripe fruits and roots, which 
determines the Pectic fermentation. It occurs 
in a soluble form in the carrot and beet, and in 
an insoluble form in acid fruits. Precipitated 
by alcohol, soluble pectase becomes insoluble, 
but is still active. 

Pec'tate. Term for any salt of pectic 

Pec ten. (L., from pcctare, to comb hair.) 
A comb. 

Also, a term for the Os pubis, which is a dis- 
tinct bone in the foetus ; so called from its sup- 
posed likeness to an ancient comb. 

Also, a vascular fold of the choroid present in 
the eye of reptiles and birds, analogous to the 
processus falciformis in the eye of fishes, and 
apparently having an important relation to the 
nutrition of the retina and contents of the eye- 

Also, an active, lamellibranchiate mollusc, the 

P. den'tium. Term for a row of teeth. 

P. ma'nus. Term for the Metacarpus. 

P. os sis pu'bls. The pubic crest. 

P. pu'Mcum. The pubic crest. 

P. veneris. The Scandix cerefalium. 
Pec'tic. (IIijktos, congealed.) Belonging 
to a coagulum. 

P. ac'ld. An acid obtained by treating 
gum-tragacanth with one per cent, hydrochloric 
acid, precipitating with baryta, and decomposing 
the precipitate with hydrochloric acid. Fremy 
prepared pectic acid from fruits. It belongs to 
the class of pectous substances, which are pro- 
bably gelatinising carbohydrates. (E. Reichart.) 

P. fermenta'tlon. This is brought about 
by Pectose, which converts the pectin of unripe 
fruits, &c, into Pectic and Pectosic acids. 

Pec'tides. (Hi/ktos, congealed, thick- 
ened.) The congealed part of a fluid (Krauss) ; 
jelly, gelatine. 

Pec tin. (n>)/<Tos, congealed. F.pccline; 

the grossalin of Guibourt.) The gelatinising 
agent in vegetable j uicos. It is a white, neutral, 
non-crystallisable substance, soluble in water 
and insoluble in alcohol. It is converted by 
acids into metapectic acid, by pectose, into pec- 
tosic acid, by boiling water, into parapectin. 

Pectina'ceOUS. The same as Pectinous. 

Pectinae'us. The same as Pectineus. 

Pectina'liS. The Pectineus muscle. 

Pec'tinate. (L. Pectinatus, from pecten. 
G. kammfarmig.) Comb-shaped; term applied 
to leaves. 

P. lig ament of i'ris. The trabecular 
connective tissue filling up the angle between 
the iris and cornea for a short distance from their 
point of union. 
Pec'tinated. The same as Pectinate. 

P. mus cles. See Musculi pectinati. 
Pectina'to-pin'nate. (L. pectinatus, 
from pecten ; pinnatus, from pinna, a feather. 
P. pectinatopenne.) Applied to a linear leaf that 
has, on each side, small, regular and rather deep 

Pectina tus. The Pectineus muscle. 

Pectin ese. A Family of the Elato- 
branchii, having the Pecten for their type. 

Pectine al. (L. pectinalis, belonging to 
the pecten, or os pubis.) Belonging to the os 

P. bur'sa. The bursa situated under the 
tendon of insertion of the pectineus. 

P. fas'cia. A process of the fascia lata of 
the thigh which covers the pectineus and ad- 
ductor longus, and is attached to the pubic crest. 

Pectine'o-fem'oral band. The 
Lig amentum pubo-femorale. 

Pectine us, {Pecten, the os pubis. F. 
pectine ; I. pettineo ; G. Kamm-muskel.) Be- 
longing to the os pubis. Term for a flat, ob- 
long muscle arising from the ilio-pectineal 
eminence and the bone just in front of this, 
and inserted by a flat tendon into the femur just 
behind the small trochanter, and into the upper 
part of the line leading from the small tro- 
chanter to the linea aspera. Supplied by a con- 
stant branch from the anterior crural nerve, and 
by an inconstant branch from the obturator 

Pectinibran chiate. (L. pecten, a 
comb; branchiatus, having branchiee.) Having 
comb-like branchiae ; applied to an Order of the 
Mollusca gasteropoda, in which the branchiae are 
made up of narrow segments laid parallel to each 
other like the teeth of a comb. 

Pectinicor'nate. (L. pecten, a comb; 
cornatus, from cornu, a horn. G. kammhornig .) 
Applied to an insect having pectinated antenna, 
or horns. 

Pectini'dae. Name applied by Lamarck 
and Latreille to the Pectineal. 

Pectini'ferous. (L. pecten; fero, to 
bear.) Zool. Comb-beaiiim. 

Pectinifo'lious. (L. pecten; folium, 
a leaf. G. kammbldtlrig .) Having pectinate 

Pectin'iform. (L. pecten ; forma, 
shape.) Comb-shaped. 

P. sep tum. The median dorso-ventral 
and longitudinal connective tissue septum 
between the two corpora caverno3a of the 

Pectiniros'trate. (L. pecten, a comb; 
rostratus, from rostrum, a beak. G. kamm- 


schnabelt.) Having a comb-shaped snout or 
beak ; term applied to certain fishes. 

Pectinoid. (Pecten ; termination, oid, 
from eloos,- form, likeness. F. pectino'ide ; G. 
kammiihnlich.) Resembling one of the shells 
termed Pecten. 

Pec'tinous. (From pectin.) Belonging 
to, or resembling, Pectin. 

Pec toral. (L. pectus, pectoris, the chest.) 
Belonging to the chest. In Ichthyology, applied 
to those fins that correspond to the anterior ex- 
tremities of quadrupeds, the Pectorals, or Pec- 
toral fins. 

P. aor'ta. Term for Aorta, thoracic. 

P. arch. The shoulder- girdle. 

P. cuta neous nerves. The cutaneous 
divisions of the P. intercostal nerves. 

P. decoc tion. The same as Decoctum 
hordei composition, B. Ph. 

P. flow'ers. Name for the capitula of the 
Tttssilago and Gnaphalium dioicum which con- 
tain a gummy matter and an astringent bitter 
principle, are sedative, and are used as bechics 
under the above name. 

P. frem itus. See Fremitus, pectoral. 

P. fruits. Term for a mixture of equal 
parts of dates, jujubes, Corinthian raisins, and 
tigs cut up together. Given as a demulcent for 
sore throats. 

P. gird le. The shoulder-girdle. 

P. glands. A group of the axillary lymph- 
atic glands lying at the lower border of the pec- 
torales muscles, on the serratus magnus near the 
long thoracic artery, and receiving the lymph- 
atics from the mamma and front of the chest. . 

P. intercos'tal nerves. Name applied 
to the upper six intercostal nerves, because they 
supply only the thorax. 

P. lam inae. Zool. Syn. for coxse. See 

P. limb. (F. membre thoracique ; I. arto 
toracico; G. Brustglied.) The upper limb, so 
named because it is attached to the trunk by 
means of the P. arch. 

P. moss. The Lichen pulmonarius. 

P. mus'cles. The Pectorales. 

P. nerves. The Thoracic nerves. 

P. ridge. The outer lip of the bicipital 
groove of the humerus ; so named because the 
tendon of insertion of the pectoralis major is 
attached to it. 

P. tea. (L. species pectorales. G. Brusl- 
thee.) A mixture used in the preparation of a 
special demulcent infusion, prepared, according 
to the P. G., from a mixture of liquorice, 
altham, orris-root, colt's-foot, anise, and mullein 
flowers ; also made from a mixture of althcea, 
mullein, mallow, colt's-foot, mouse-ear, poppy, 
and violet flowers (Fr. Codex). 

P. tu bercle. Name for the roughened 
anterior surface of the inner half of the clavicle, 
to which the pectoralis major is attached. 

Pectorale. (L. pectoralis, -e, pertaining 
to the breast.) Term for a Corset. 

Pectora les. (Nom. plural of L. pecto- 
ralis.) Term usually denoting the Pectoralis 
major and P. minor together. 

P. pedicula'tl. (L. pediculus, a foot- 
stalk.) Having pediculate pectorals', applied 
to a Family of the Acanthopterygii, because in 
them the carpal bones form a kind of base for 
the support of the pectoral fins. 

Pectoralis ma jor muscle. (F. 
grand pectoral ; I. grande pctlorate ; G. grosser 

Brustmuskel.) A large fan-shaped muscle form- 
ing the main fleshy mass of the chest on either 
side. It consists of a clavicular portion arising 
from the anterior surface of the inner half of the 
clavicle, and a sterno-costal portion arising from 
the anterior surface of the sternum, the upper 
six rib -cartilages, and the aponeurosis of the 
obliquus externus abdominis. It is inserted by 
a flat tendon of two layers into the pectoral 
ridge of the humerus. Its nerve-supply is from 
the internal and external anterior thoracic 
branches of the brachial plexus. 

P. min imus mus cle. An extra muscle 
sometimes present, which arises from the first 
rib and is inserted into the coracoid process of 
the scapula. (Gruber.) 

P. minor mus'cle. (F. petit pectoral ; 
I. piccolo pettorale ; G. hleiner Brustmuskel.) 
A flat, triangular muscle situated beneath the 
P. major, arisiug at its base by tendinous slips 
from the upper margins and a portion of the 
external surfaces of the third, fourth, and fifth 
ribs near their cartilages, and inserted at its 
apex by a narrow tendon into the anterior half 
of the inner border and upper surface of the 
coracoid process. Its nerve is from the internal 
anterior thoracic branch of the brachial plexus. 

Pec'toralS. (L. pectoralis, pertaining 
to the breast.) Drugs used in the treatment of 
chest-affections ; also used in the same sense as 

Pectori'loquism. Pectoriloquy. 
Pectori loquous bronchopho- 
ny. Term for Pectoriloquy. 

Pectoriloquy. (L. pectus, pectoris, 
the chest; loquor, to speak. F. pecloriloquie ; 
I. pettoriloquia ; G. Bruslreden.) The distinct 
transmission through the chest-wall to the ear 
(whether directly or by the stethoscope) of 
articulate sounds. When the voice is used, 
Bronchophony usually accompanies pectoriloquy ; 
but when the words are whispered, pectoriloquy 
(by some, termed Whispering pectoriloquy) alone 
is heard, and is thus more distinct. Pectoriloquy 
is a sign of the presence of consolidation or a 
cavity near the surface of the lung ; but a very 
similar sound (F. pectoriloquie aphonique) is 
occasionally heard over a sero-fibrinous pleuritic 
effusion. (Douglas Powell.) Pectoriloquy may 
be heard in health, over a bronchus ending near 
the surface, in a thin person. This term, as well 
as Bronchophony, was invented by Laennec, who 
made three artificial divisions of pectoriloquy ; 
perfect, imperfect, and doubtful. 

P., whis pering. See Pectoriloquy. 
Pectoro'SUS. (L. pectus, pectoris, tha 
chest.) Broad, or large- chested. 

PectO'sate. (Peclose.) Generic term 
for all salts of Pectosic acid. They are non- 
crystallisable, gelatinous bodies. 

Pec'tose. A substance occurring in green 
fruits, carrots, &c, mixed with the cellulose. 
It is insoluble in water, but becomes converted 
into the soluble Pectin by the action of heat or 
weak acids. 

Pectosic acid. An acid formed, and 
precipitated in a gelatinous state, by the addition 
of pectase or an alkali to a solution of pectin. It 
is soluble in boiling water, very slightly in hot 
water below the boiling-point ; and, on cooling, 
it resumes its gelatinous state. By the action 
of pectase or of alkalies, or by boiling, it becomes 
converted into pectic acid. 

Pectun'culus. (Dim. of Pectus.) 


Arnold's term for a row of minute longitudinal 
furrows along the wall of the aqueduct of Syl- 
vius, visible under a low magnifying power. 

Fec'tUS. (L. pectus, pectoris ; from Gr. 
ttij/ctos, made out of pieces joined ; jointed.) 
The thorax, or chest. In insects, the ventral 
surface of the thorax, which was formerly di- 
vided, for the purpose of description, into ante- 
pectus, mediopectus, and postpcctus. 

P. carina turn. (L. carina, a keel.) See 

Pectus'culum. (Dim. of L. pectus, 
from likeness in shape to the side of a thorax.) 
Old term for the Metatarsus. (Turton). 

Pecu lium. (L. peculium ; dim. oipecu- 
Mia, money; a small private property.) Term 
for the penis. 

Pec'us. (L. pecus, pecoris. Apparently 
allied to ttIkoi, wool, and to tt£ku>, to comb, or 
shear ; and so pecus was probably first applied 
to sheep.) Cattle. The Pecora include all 
Herbivora ; Linnaeus applied the term exclu- 
sively to the Suminantia. 

Pedagr'ra. Old term for Tartar, impure 
acid tartrate of potash. 

Ped al, (L. pedalis ; from pes, a foot.) 
Eelating to the foot. 

P. aponeuro sis. See Fascia dorsalis 

P. ar tery. The Dorsalis pedis artery. 

P. ganglia. The infra-ocsophageal ner- 
vous ganglia of Mollusca. 

Pedalia'ceae. (Lindley.) The same as 

Peda'liform. (L. pedalis; forma, like- 
ness.) Applied by De Candolle to leaves whose 
nervures have no vessels, and whose cellular 
tissue is disposed similarly to the nervures of 
Pedalinervate leaves. 

Pedali neae. (L. pedalis ; from pes, a 
foot.) A Suborder of the Gesneraceee. 

Pedaliner vate. (L. pedalis ; nervus, 
a nerve or sinew.) Applied by De Candolle to 
leaves in which the longitudinal nervure remains 
quite short, but from each side of it two strong 
lateral nervures diverge, presenting little or no 
nervure on the external side, but on the internal, 
or upper surface of the leaf, giving off secon- 
dary nervures which run nearly parallel to one 

Peda'lium. (L. pedalis; from pes, a 
foot. F. pedalion ; G. Schtvanzftnne.) Illiger's 
term for a horizontal dermal appendage of the 
caudal extremity in Cetacea. 

Also, in Bot., a Genus of the Suborder Pe- 

P. mn'rez. Order Gesneraceee ; Sub- 
order Pedalineee. Hab., East Indies. A large, 
succulent, herbaceous plant, the seeds and leaves 
of which contain much mucilage, and are used 
in the treatment of urinary diseases. 

Ped'ate. {Pedatus ; from L. pes, a foot.) 
Shaped like a bird's claw. 

Pedat'ind. (L. pedatus ; findo, to cleave. 
G . fusszersaltend.) De Candolle' s term for leaves 
that have pedate nervures, and are divided into 
lobes for nearly half their length. 

Fedat'iform. The same as Pedaliform. 

Peda'tion. {Pedatio ; from L. pes, a 
foot.) Fabricius' term to denote the way in 
which the tarsus of insects is developed, the 
number of articulated pieces of which it is made 
up, and the form and uses of the different parts. 

Pedatipar'tite. (L. pes; partitus, 

from pars, a part. G. fussgetheilt.) De Can- 
dolle' s term for a leaf with pedate nervures and 
lobes divided beyond the middle, the paren- 
chyma being uninterrupted. 

Pedatisec ted. (L. pes; seco, to cut. 
G. fussgeschnitten.) De Candolle's term for 
leaves with pedate nervures, and with lobes 
separate almost to the middle, the parenchyma 
being interrupted. 

Ped'erast. One who practises Pederasty. 

Pederas'tic. Pertaining to Pederasty. 

Ped'erasty. See Paderastia. 

Ped'erist. The same as Pederast. 

Pede'sis. (IDjoato, to leap.) The beating 
of the heart ; pulsation. 

Also, applied by 3 evonsto Br ownian movement. 

Pedestres. (Nom. plural of L. adj. 
pedester, on foot.) Applied by Scopoli to the 
Diptera ; by Gravenhorst, to a Tribe of the 
Ichneumonida, corresponding to the Apterous 
Ichneumonidce of Fabricius. 

Pedeth'mos. (IMato, to leap.) Old 
term for pulsation. 

Also, the same as Subsultus. 

Pedet'ic. Belonging to Pedesis. 
P. move ment. Brownian movement. 

Pedise'us exter nus. Term for the 
Extensor brevis digitorum pedis. 

P. inter'nus. The Flexor brevis digito- 
rum pedis. 

Pe'dial. (L. pes, pedis, afoot.) An epithet 
applied to the feathers that grow on the feet of 
some birds. 

Pedial'g"ia. (IleSiov, the metatarsus ; 
aXya, pain.) Pain in the sole of the foot. As 
a neuralgia of the foot {Pedionalgie), this occur- 
red on a large scale in 1762 at Savigliano in 
Piedmont, and in 1806 among the soldiers at 
Padua. (Dunglison.) 

Fediar'is. The same as Pedate. 

Pediatri'a. See Peedialria. 

Ped'icel. (L. pedicellus, dim. of pediculus, 
a flower-stalk.) Bot. A foot-stalk or pedicel ; 
that is, the partial flower-stalk, or the ultimate 
division of a general flower-stalk which imme- 
diately bears the flower or flowers. Applied also 
to the capillary support of the urn in mosses. 
Zobl. Applied by Kirby to the second joint of 
the antenna in insects. 

Pedicellar ia. {Pedicellus, a pedicel.) 
In Echinodermata, a small, bifid, pincer-like 
dermal appendage. 

Pedicella'ta. (Nom. plural of pedicel- 
latum.) Having a Pedicel. Cuvier's term for 
an Order of the JRadiata echinodermata, the 
individuals of which have hundreds of small 
tentacula, or organs of progression. 

Pedicel lule. (Dim. of pedicel.) H. 
Cassini's term for the filiform support that serves 
as a Pedicel to the ovary of certain Synanlhereee. 

Ped'icle. (L. pediculus, a little foot, dim. 
of pes, a foot. F. pedicule ; I. pediccinolo ; G. 
Stiel.) A stalk ; used especially for the stalk 
of a tumour. 

P., neu ral. Term for Neural arch. 
P. of ver tebra. The narrow, thickened 
portion of the neural arch between the lamina 
and the body of the vertebra. 

P., vitelline. The Vitelline duct. 

Pedic ular. (L. pediculus, a louse.) Be- 
longing to the Pediculus. 

Pedicular ia. (L. pediculus, a little 
foot.) The Delphinium stapnisagria. 

Also, term for Pediculosis. 


Pedicular'is. The louseworts, a Genus 
of the Scrophulariaeea. 

Pedic ulated. (L. pediculus, a foot- 
stalk. G. gestielt.) Having a foot-stalk, or 

In Pathology, the same as Pedunculated. 

Pedicula tion. (Pediculus, a louse.) 

Pediculi'dae. Principal Family of Sub- 
order Parasitica. 

Pediculi'dea. (Nom. plural, of pedicu- 
lideum.) Leach's name for a Family of apterous 
insects, of which the type is Pediculus, and which 
corresponds to Latreille's Parasita. 

Pediculina. The same as Pediculidw; 
also, a term for Lice. (Century Diet.) 

Pedic Uline. Pertaining to Pediculina. 

Pediculopho'bia. {Pediculus; tytpos, 
fear.) Term for a morbid dread of Pediculosis, 
associated with the delusion of its being present 
when it is not so in reality. 

Pediculo'sis. {Pediculus.) The same 
as Phtheiriasis. 

Pedi'culus. (Dim. of L. pes, a foot; in 
the case of the louse, from its many small feet, 
and of a foot- stalk, because the flower or leaf is 
supported on it as on a foot. F. pedicule ; G. 
Stiel.) The foot-stalk of a flower, leaf, or fruit. 

Also (F. pou ; I. pidocchio ; G. Laus), a Genus 
of the Order Hemiptera ; wingless, parasitic, 
non-metamorphosing insects, which live on the 
surface of the body, feeding by suction on the 
blood and the cutaneous secretions. 

P. capitis. The Louse, head. This is 
considerably smaller than P. vestimenti seu cor- 
poris, being about 2 mm. by 1 mm., and its legs 
are larger in proportion to its body. The abdo- 
men is distinctly divided into seven segments. 
It propagates with extreme rapidity. The fe- 
males deposit their ova in capsules which they 
fix to the hairs ; these capsules are called nits. 
It produces eczema by irritation ; abundant 
crusts are formed, and the hairs become glued 

P. cor'poris. See P. vestimenti. 
P. inguina lis. (L. inguen, the groin.) 
The same as P. pubis. 

P. palpebrar um. The louse of the eye- 
lashes ; a doubtful variety, generally considered 
to be identical with P. pubis. 

P. pu'bis. Also called Pthirius pubis. The 
crab-louse ; about 1 mm. by 1 mm., or some- 
times rather longer. The body is nearly square ; 
the six legs are furnished with claws. The eggs 
are affixed to the pubic hairs close to the skin. 
Like the other species, it causes itching and often 
gives rise to eczema. It has also been found 
among the hairs of the whiskers and beard and 
armpits, and of the legs and thighs, and also those 
of the eyebrows and eyelashes. 

P. tabescen'tium. (L. tabescens, wast- 
ing ; lit. " of the wasting," i. e. of those who are 
wasting from illness.) The Louse, distemper. 
This is pale yellow, has a rounded head and 
long antennae, a large, quadrangular thorax, and 
large abdomen, the segments of which are closely 
united. It is possibly British. 

P. vestimenti. (L. vestimentum, cloth- 
ing.) Also culled P. corporis, and, sometimes, P. 
vcslimentorum. The Louse, body. It is from half 
a line to two lines long, whitish in colour, with a 
long body and broad abdomen, the margins of 
which are lobulated, and beset with minute hairs. 
Tho thorax is narrow, and carries three pairs of 

logs, which are hairy, jointed, and furnished 
with claws. The insect hides among the folds 
of the underclothing, and causes extreme itching 
when feeding upon the skin. It often causes a 
pruriginous eruption, usually round the waist, 
and on the neck, back, and shoulders, in which 
parts the underclothes usually lie in folds, and 
in these the shining, opaque-yellow eggs are de- 
posited. Any chronic skin disease favours the life 
and propagation of these insects. 

Pedicure. (L. pes; cura, care.) The 
surgical care and treatment of the feet; also, 
one who carries out Buch treatment. 

Ped'icus. (L. pes, pedis, a foot.) Name 
for the Extensor brevis digttorum pedis muscle. 

Pedi'fera. (Nom. plural. L.pes;fero, 
to bear.) Applied to a Family of the Mollusca, 
established by Rafinesque, which comprehends 
those in which the foot is large, compressed, 
tendinous, and not byssifcrous. 

Pedi'ferous. {Pes ; fero.) Provided 
with feet, as the ovary in certain aynantherece, 

Also applied to an animal that has feet or 
analogous appendages. 

Ped'iform. (L. pes ; forma, likeness.) 
Applied to a part, as the palpus of the spider, 
the shape of which somewhat resembles that of 
a foot. 

Pedigam bra. The same as Ysambra. 
Pedilan thus tithymaloi des. 

{H(8i\ov, a boot ; ai/0os, a flower ; TittiifiaXos, 
euphorbia ; terminal, otoss, from tloos, form.) A 
West Indian plant. Order Euphorbiaccce. Called 
Jewbush ; also, Lpecacuanha. Used for amenor- 
rhea and, in Curacjoa, as a decoction, for gonor- 

Ped ilated. Bearing a Pedile. 

Ped'ile. (L. pes.) Mirbel's name for a 
sort of slender support formed, in the Synan- 
thereee, by the shrinking of the limb of the calyx 
to the bottom of the pappus, as in Tragopogon. 

Pedilu'vium. {L. pes; lavo, to wash.) 
A foot-bath. 

P., cold. Has been used to stop a com- 
mencing inflammation. The feet are held for 
several hours in water kept at a low tempera- 

P., hot. Employed as a derivative, in 
ophthalmia, anginal attacks, headaches, &c. 

Pedi manous, {L.pcs; manus, a hand.) 
Hand-footed. Vicq d'Azyr's term for a Family, 
the Pedimani, of the Mammifera, which have 
an opposable hallux. 

Pedi meter. See Pedometer. 

Ped iolus. (Dim. of pes.) See Petiole. 

Ped ion. (Ueoiov, a plain; from Trt'rW, 
the earth.) The sole of the foot. The plantar 
surface of the metatarsus, according to Galen ; 
the tarsus, according to Bartholin ; used by 
Casp. Hofmannus for the metatarsus. 

Pedional g-ia. See Pedialgia. 

Pedioneural'g-ia. See Pedialgia. 

Pedipal puS. (L. pes ; palpus.) Name 

fiven by Cuvier, Latreille, and Lamarck to a 
amily, the Pedipalpi, of tho Arachnida, com- 
prehending those that have palpi in the form of 
a claw or arm. 

Also, Leach's term for that part of the mouth 
in Crustacea, called by Fabricius the exterior 
palpus, and by Latreille, the exterior foot-jaw. 

Pedlsymptomat'ic. See Podosym- 

Ped'ium. {Utoiov, a plain.) See Pedion. 


Pedogen esis. (ruts, a child ; genesis.) 
Also spelt Pedogenesis. Reproduction by means 
of larva. 

Pedometer. (L. pes; Gr. ni-rpov, a 
measure.) An instrument for recording the 
number of paces walked. 

Pedonoso losy. See Pcedonosology. 

Pedora. {fltdov, the earth; from the 
same origin as Trows, iro&os, a foot.) Old term 
for sordes of the eyes, ears, and feet. 

Pedo trophy. See Pcedotrophy. 

Ped uncle. (L. pedunculitis, a foot-stalk, 
dim. of pes, a foot. F. pedoncule ; I. peduncolo ; 
G. St tel.) The foot-stalk of a flower or fruit, 
but not of a leaf. See Petiole. 

Also, in Anatomy, any stalk-like process by 
which an organ or part of an organ is attached. 

P.s, inferior, of cerebellum. The 
Restiform bodies. 

P.s of brain. The P.s of cerebrum. 
P.s of cerebellum. See Cerebellum, pe- 
duncles of. 

P.s of cer'ebrum. The Crura cerebri. 
P.s of cor'pus callo'sum. See Corpus 

P.s of medulla oblongata. The Rest i- 
form bodies. 

P.s of op'tic thal amus. Term some- 
times used for the radiating fibres passing out 
from the optic thalamus along the outer medul- 
lary lamina to join the fibres of the internal 
capsule, and to pass thence to the surface of the 
hemispheres. They have been described as four 
sets : anterior, inferior or internal, posterior, 
and superior. 

P.s of pl'neal gland. See Pineal gland, 
peduncles of. 

P.s of sep'tum lu'cidum. Keichert's 
term for a band of white fibres in front of the 
septum lucidum on each side, passing upwards 
to join the corpus callosum. 

P., ol'ivary. See Olivary peduncle. 
Peduncular. 1. De Candolle's term 
for Cirri that give origin to abortive peduncles, 
as in Vitis. 2. That which has long peduncles ; 
relating to a peduncle or peduncles. 

P. ar teries. Small vessels supplying the 
Crura cerebri, or Cerebral peduncles, derived 
from the posterior communicating and either the 
posterior cerebral or choroid arteries. 

P. lam inae. Term for the pineal gland 
together with the portion of its stalk which is 
solid, that is, above the pineal recess in the roof 
of the third ventricle. 

P. lobe of cerebel'lum. The same as 

P. sul'ci. The lateral sulci of the cms 
cerebri which separate crusta from tegmentum. 
The inner is also named Sulcus pedunculi me- 
dinlis or oculo-motor sulcus; and the outer, Sulcus 
lateralis mesencephali. 

P. tract. The same as Pyramidal tract. 
Pedun'culated. {Peduncle.) Attached 
to a peduncle. 

P. hydatid. Term for Morgagni, hy- 
datid of. 

Pedun'culi conar ii. (Norn, plural 

of Pedunculus.) See Pineal gland, peduncles of. 

Pedun'culus. A Peduncle ; also, a person 
somewhat splay-footed. 

P. cerebelli infe'rior. Term for either 
of the Restiform bodies. 

P. cerebel li me'dlus. The Cerebellum, 
middle peduncle of. . 

P. cerebel'li supe'rior. The Cerebellum, 
superior peduncle of. 

P. cer'ebrl me'dlus. The Cerebrum, 
middle peduncle of. 

P. cer ebri supe rior. The Cerebrum, 
superior peduncle of. 

P. conar'il. See Pineal gland, pe- 
duncles of. 

P. cor'porls mammillar is. A super- 
ficial bundle of white fibres connecting the two 
corpora mammillaria across the middle line. 

P. floc'culi. The same as pedicle of floc- 
culus. See Flocculus. 

P. gan'glii haben'ulae. The bundle of 
nerve-fibres sent from this ganglion to the inter- 
peduncular ganglion. See Ganglion of habenu/a. 

P. hypophys'eos cer'ebrl. Term for 
the infundibulum, or peduncle of the hypophysis 
or pituitary body. 

P. medul'lae oblongatae. Term for 
either of the Restiform bodies. 

P. nu'elei g lobo si. The narrow, stalk- 
like anterior portion of the nucleus globosus of 
the cerebellum. 

P. oli'vae. See Olivary peduncle. 

P. pulmo'nis. Term for Lung, root of. 

P. sep'ti pellu'cidl. See peduncles of 
Septum lucidum. 

P. substan tioe ni grae. Term for the 
white fibres of the crusta of the crus cerebri which 
pass upward to the caudate nucleus of the corpus 

Pee'nash. Name applied in the Tropics 
to the disease caused by the larvae of Lucilia 
hominivorax, when deposited in the nose. See 
Lucilia hominivorax. 

Pe'gra. (ITijy);.) See Pege. 

Feganelee'on. (Tlijyavov, rue ; t\aiov, 
oil.) Old term for Oil of rue. 

Peg-ane'rum. (Jlriyavov, rue.) Old 
term lor a plaster in which rue was used ; de- 
scribed by Paulus JEgineta and by Aetius. 

Pegr'anite. Native aluminium phosphate 
from Strigis, near Freiberg in Saxony. 

Pe ranum. (II>iyai/oi/,rue; from7rjjyi/t//u, 
to make hard ; so named because the whole 
plant and seed are dry and hard.) The Genus 

P. liar mala. The Assyrian wild rue, 
similar in properties to Ruta graveolens. 

Pe'gre. (II>iyr;, a spring; hence metaphor., 
" 7rijyai (pi.) nXavaaTcov, SaKpvuiv," the source, 
or fount, of tears, i. e. the eyes.) Old name for 
the inner Canthus of the eye. 

Peg-elog'ia. See Pegologia. 

Pegr-leg:. (F. pilon.) The form of arti- 
ficial wooden leg which consists of a socket and 
a slightly tapering, turned stick, enlarged at the 
lower end into a sort of peg. 

Peg"'li. A winter resort for invali, in the 
Riviera, about one mile to the west of Genoa. 

Peg'ma. (Ut'iywfii, to make hard.) A 
concretion, as, for example, a gall-stone or 
urinary calculus. 

Peg mat'ic. (Ylijyua, a coagulum.) Ec- 
lating to, or causing, coagulation. 

Peg-O'Iogry. (n>)yj(, a spring; Xo'yos, a 
discourse. F. pegologie ; G. Quellenlchre.) The 
hygienic application of the uses of springs. 

"Pegromanti'a. (riijyii, a fountain ; 
navTtia, prophesying.) Term for divination 
based on the condition of springs. 

Pee'u catechu. The Catechu of the 
U.S. Ph. 


Peg' WOOd. The Euonymus atropur- 

Pei den. A town in the canton Grisons, 
Switzerland. It has two mineral springs. The 
Frauenquelle contains, in 1000 parts, and at a 
temperature of 16° C, sodium sulphate - 39 parts, 
magnesium sulphate 1-2, bicarbonate of calcium 
2-11, and bicarbonate of iron *04. The St. 
Luciusquelle contains, in 1000 parts, of the same 
salts as the above, *95, *35, 1-79, and - 02 parts, 
respectively, at a temperature of 9° C. 

Peina. (Uiiva, hunger.) Old term for 
fames, or hunger. 

Peina'leous. Belonging to Peina. 

Peinat ic. The samo as Peinaleous. 

Pei ne. See Peina. 

Peinotherapi a. (Jltiua, hunger ; 
depatrtia, a remedy.) Hunger-cure. 

Pei ra. ([liipa, an experience gained by 
an attempt or trial.) Old term for Empiricism. 

Peira'ma. (IT up a/ia, atrial. F.peirame; 
G. Erfahrungssatze.) Old term for the result 
of experience. 

Peiramo logy. (Jlt'tpa/ia ; Xo'yos, a 
discourse.) The doctrine of experience. 

Peira sis. (Udpao-n, an attempt.) An 
attempt, experiment. 

Peiras'ma. See Peirama. 

Peis senberg". A town in Bavaria, in 
which there is a spring, the Sulzbrunnen, or 
"Brine spring," containing -006 parts of sul- 
phuretted hydrogen per 1000. 

Pe'jo. In the Southern Tyrol, noted for its 
chalybeate spring, which contains, in 1000 parts, 
2*2 of stable ingredients, of which - 18 parts con- 
sist of carbonate of iron. 

Pekan -nut. See Peccan nut. 

Pe'la. Chinese name for China wax. 

Fela'da. (Origin uncertain. F. pelade; 
I. pelatina.) Applied to varieties of Alopecia, 
especially to syphilitic alopecia. 

Pelade'. See Pelada. 

Pelade'ro. (Sp. peladera, shedding of 
the hair. So called from its causing loss of hair 
and nails in animals after eating it, and of beak 
and claws in birds.) The ergot of maize, Pas- 
palum ciliare, occurring in Columbia, giving rise 
to the disease Pelatina. 

Pela'gia. Term for a scaly eruption of 
the hands or legs, also, of the face ; possibly the 
same as Pellagra. 

Pelagian. (L. pelagus, the open sea ; 
the same as Gr. irt'Xayos.) Applied to shells 
met with at various depths in the open sea. 

Also, to birds that seek their food out at sea. 

Pelagic. (JJiXayos, the deep" sea.) 
Marine. Also, Brongniart's term for soils, in- 
cluding those of a sedimentous kind, either from 
the deep sea, from the chalk, or calcareous from 
the gryphite exclusively. 

Pelag'ra. See Pellagra. 

Pelargon'ic acid. (G. Pelargon- 

saure.) 9 "fj^O. It exists in the volatile 

oil of Pelargonium roseum. It is formed, among 
several volatile acids, when nitric acid is dis- 
tilled with either choloidic or oleic acid; also 
by oxidation of oil of rue by nitric acid; also 
in small quantity, together with many other 
volatile acids, in the putrefaction of yeast. It 
is a colourless, oily acid, solidifying at 10° F., and 
boiling at 260° F. It has a slight butyrio acid 
smell. It is slightly soluble in water, readily 
in ether and alcohol. 


Pelarg-O'nlum. (rieXapydv, a stork; 
from the appearance of its capsules.) A Genus 
of plants of the Order Oeraniacem, from several 
of which are obtained pelargonic acid and an 
essence used to adulterate otto of roseB. 

P. an'ceps. (L. anceps, two-headed.) A 
South African plant. The Malays use a decoc- 
tion of this plant for amenorrhoea, and as an 

_ P. antidy senter'lcum. Native of South 
Africa. Used for dysentery by the natives, who 
boil it in milk. 

P. cuculla turn. (L. cucullus, a cowl.) 
A plant native to Table Mountain, Africa. 
Given, as decoction, in colic, suppression of urine, 
and Bright' s disease. See Herha althaea. 

P. ro seum, This, as well as several of 
the other species, has been distilled to make an 
essence which is used to adulterate otto of roses, 
and is called oil of rose-geranium. 

P. trls'te. A plant growing at the Cape 
of Good Hope. The root is astringent, and is 
also useful as an anthelmintic. 

Pelar'gonyl. Chem. Also termed Ennyl, 
and Nonyl. The radical C 9 H 19 . 

Pelar'ium. (II?;Xos, clay; so named 
from its consistence.) Old name for a certain 
collyrium described by Aetius, according to 
Gomeus and Paulus JEgineta ; also, for a plaster 
made of the dross of silver. 

Pelati'na. The same as Pelada. 

Also, a disease allied to gangrenous ergotism, 
occurring in Columbia, and believed to arise 
from eating maize which is infested with the 
peladero, or ergot of maize. 

Pelecani dffi. A Family of the Palmi- 
pedes, having the pelican as their type. 

Peleca'nus. (TlzKtKdw, to hew with an 
axe.) The pelican ; a bird originally so called, 
because supposed to use its beak like an axe. 

Also, old name for an instrument used for ex- 
tracting teeth, having a curved extremity like a 
pelican's beak, described by Pare. 

Pelias be rus. The Viper chersea of 

Pelican. See Pelecanus. 
P. flow er. Name for Aristolochia ser- 

Peli'cide. Term for Mel coctum. 

Pelicochirometre sis. See Pelyco- 

Pelico'logy. (ITiXtg or tteXi'k)), a wooden 
bowl, the pelvis ; \6yos, a discourse.) A dis- 
course or lecture treating of the pelvis. 

Pelico'meter. (n*Xi£ or tteXiVji, a 
wooden bowl.) See Pelvimeter. 

Pelidno ma. See Pclioma. 

Pelidnophidro'sis. (ntXiovds, livid ; 
i(pl6pio(Tit, a perspiring.) Copious sweating, 
with lividity. 

Pelidnos. (ITtXitfi/d^ livid.) Discoloured 
by extravasated blood; livid. 

Pelidnosypbilopsy drax. (Pelid- 
nos; syphilopsydrax.) lerm for a livid Sypht- 

Pclioma. (ITtXi'co/ua or irtXiovw/ia, a 
livid spot from extravasated blood.) Old term 
for a livid patch due to extravasated blood. 

Pel'iOB. The same as Pelidnos. 

Peliosis. (IltXfaio-is, extravasation of 
blood, or a livid spot. F. peliose; I. peliosi ; G. 
Blutfleckenkrankheit.) The formation of Pc- 
lioma. Also used for Pelioma; also, for Pur- 


P. hacmorrhagr lea. Purpura hcemor- 

P. rheumat ica. (F. peliose rheuma- 
tistnale.) Purpura rheumatica. 

Pella. (IliWa, a hide.) The skin ; also, 
the prepuce. 

Pella cia. (F. allotriophagie.) Old term 
for Pica. 

Pella'gra. (IliXXa, a hide ; aypa, a 
catching. F. pellagre ; G. mailandische Jtose.) 
An endemic disease observed in Lombardy, pro- 
bably due to eating diseased maize. There is a 
chronic desquamative erythema of the skin, 
accompanied by neuroses and digestive troubles. 
See also Mai de rose. 

Pellagreuse', Pol'ie. French term 
for the chronic cerebro-spinal symptoms occur- 
ring in Pellagra, which are somewhat like those 
of a late stage of general paralysis of the insane. 

Pellagri s mor phine reac tion. 
Used as a qualitative te6t for the presence of 
morphine in a solution. A purple colour is 
obtained by adding one drop of concentrated 
sulphuric acid to a solution of morphine in con- 
centrated hydrochloric acid. 

Pella grin. A person suffering from Pel- 

Pella gTOUS. Pertaining to, or suffering 
from, Pellagra. 

Pellar'sis. A Latinised term for Pellagra. 

Pel'le di Lix a. (F. peau de poisson.) 
Italian name for a kind of confluent small-pox 
occurring in Brazil. The eruption begins on 
the face, which is the only region where pustules 
develop. On the limbs and trunk, small black 
spots occur in place of pustules, and in other 
places the skin becomes hard and scaly like that 
of fishes. In many parts the skin becomes slightly 
raised into large, shallow bullae, which, when 
they burst, leave considerable excoriations. The 
malady very rarely lasts longer than seven days. 
In many cases there is a continuous state of 
stupor, in some there is muttering delirium, in 
some the intellect remains clear. 

Pellentia medicamen'ta. (L. 
pello, to drive ; medicamentum, a remedy.) Re- 
medies given to favour the catamenial flow, the 
haemorrhoidal discharge, or the expulsion of the 

Pellet, homoeopathic. Term for 
the small globules so commonly used by homoeo- 

Pellet's solution. Used for the quan- 
titative estimation of glucose. It consists of 
68 - 7 grammes of copper sulphate, 200 of sodium 
chloride, 100 of absolutely dry sodium carbonate, 
and 6 - 87 of ammonium chloride, dissolved in hot 
water, the solution being diluted to the volume 
of one litre. 100 c.c. correspond to *05 grammes 
of glucose. 

Pellet ier, Pierre' Jo seph. An 

eminent chemist of Paris. Born 1788, died 1842. 
He was the discoverer of the active principles of 
several plants; pelletierine (named after him), 
strychnine, quinine, &c. 

Pelletierine. (After Pelletier.) The 
alkaloid of the pomegranate, Punica granatum. 
It is obtained from the powdered bark by mixing 
with milk of lime to form a thick paste, wash- 
ing with water, shaking up with chloroform, 
treating the chloroform solution with a dilute 
acid, and evaporating the salt of the alkaloid 
thus obtained in a vacuum over concentrated 
sulphuric acid. The free alkaloid is obtained 

by adding potassium carbonate to a solution 
of one of tho salts of the former, and shaking 
up with chloroform. Dose, 3 to 6 grains. The 
sulphate, nitrate and hydrochlorate of pelletierine 
are crystalline, very hygroscopic, substances. 
Action, see Oranati radicis cortex. 

Pelletieri'na. Pelletierine. 

Pelletieri nee hydrobro'mas. 
(Ex. Ph.) A viscid, brown liquid. It has been 
found useful in ophthalmoplegia. Dose, 5 to 8 

P. sul phas. (Ex. Ph.) Obtained as a 
brown, viscid liquid, readily soluble in water. 
Used as a vermifuge for the tapeworm, in a dose 
of 5 to 8 grains, taken on an empty stomach, 
and followed up by a dose of jalap. It has been 
also recommended (5 gr. sub cutem) for Meniere's 
disease, hydrophobia, tetanus, &c. 

P. tannas. (Ex. Ph.) Obtained as a 
greyish amorphous powder. It is insoluble in 
water. Given for tapeworm in one dose of 
8 grains, usually followed by a dose of castor oil. 
Galeozowski states that it has occasionally caused 
diplopia, when administered internally. 

Pellicle. (Pellicula. F. pellicule; I. 
pellicola; G. Hautchen.) A thin film, or very 
delicate membrane. 

Pellic ula. (Dim. of L. pellis, a hide.) 
A pellicle. 

P. o'vl. See Membrana putaminis. 
P. sum'ma. Term for the Epidermis. 
P. supe'rlor. The same as P. summa. 
Pellic ula? cor'dis. (Norn. pi. of Pel- 
licula.) The valves of the heart. 
Pellic ular. Of the nature of a Pellicle. 

P. enteri'tis. See Enteritis, pellicular. 
Pellionel la. See Tinea pellionella. 
Pellis. (Il£\Aa,ahide.) The Cutis, or skin. 

P. sum'ma. Term for the Epidermis. 
Pellitory. (S. pelitre. L. pyrethrum ; 
Gr. iTupiQpov, a hot, spicy plant, the feverfew.) 
See Xanthoxylum fraxineum. 

P. Amer ican. The Parielaria pennsyl- 

P., bas tard. The Achillea ptarmica. 
P. of Spain. The Anacyclus pyrethrum. 
P., wall. The Parielaria officinalis. 
Pellous. (IltXXos, dusky.) Dusky; term 
applied to the skin. 

Pellu'cid. (L. pellucidus ; from perlucco, 
to shine through.) Transparent, or semi-trans- 

P. zone. See Zona pellucida. 

Pel ma. (YliXfia, the sole of the foot.) 
Old name for the sole of the foot. 

Also, name formerly used for the stalk of an 

Also applied by Hippocrates to an artificial 
sole of leather or other material. 

Pel matogram. (IltXfia, -btos, the 
sole of the foot; ypdfip.a, a written character.) 
Term for a foot- print. 

Pelohae'mia. (n E Xo'y, or TrtXXJs, dark- 
coloured ; difia, blood. F. pelohemie ; I. pc- 
loemia.) A thickened, dark condition of the 
blood, said to occur in patients suffering from 

_ Pel'or. (TliXwp, a monster.) A monster, 
either very large, or with excessive development 
of some part. 

Pelo'riades. (ntXwptfa, the giant- 
mussel.) Term for very large oysters. 

Pelo'ric. Belonging to Pelor, monstrous. 

Pelo'rion. The same as Pelor. 



Pelo'ron. The same as Pelor. 

Pel'osin. C, e li a ,N0 3 . A bitter alkaloid 
found in the root of Pareira brava, closely allied 
to or identical with Bebeerin and the same as 
Cissampelin. Its physiological action has not 
been investigated ; out it is known to be bitter, 
and is believed to be laxative and diuretic. It 
is obtained from the root by exhausting with 
dilute sulphuric acid, precipitating with a mode- 
rate amount of sodium carbonate, dissolving the 
precipitate in ether, and evaporating the solu- 
tion. It forms a transparent, amorphous solid, 
insoluble in water, slightly alkaline, inodorous, 
but having a bitter-sweet taste. 

Pel'ta. (tltXrii, a small shield without a 
rim.) Name given to a variety of the Calyculus, 
called the shield, which is the fruit in licnens. 

Peltalis cartila'g-o. (Fella.) Term 
used for both the thyroid and xiphoid cartilages. 

Peltan'dra virgin'ica. (IU\t>i, a 
kind of small shield ; avvp, avdpos, a man, the 
sign for an anther.) The Virginian arum, or 
Wampee, Order Aracece. The seeds and the 
fresh root are acrid and stimulant ; the root is 
also said to be diuretic and diaphoretic. 

Pel'tate. (Pelta.) Shield-shaped, having 
the 6talk inserted into the disk of the leaf in- 
stead of into its base. 

Peltid'ea amplis siraa. (JIIXtv, a 
kind of small shield.) The Pelligera canina. 
P. aphtho'sa. The Pelligera aphthosa. 
P. cani'na. The same as P. amplissima. 
P. leucorrhlz'a. The P. amplissima. 
P. mala'cea. The P. amplissima. 
P. spu ria. The P. amplissima. 

Peltifo'lious. {Pelta; L. folium, a 
leaf.) Having peltate leaves. 

Pel'tiform. {Pelta; L. forma, likeness.) 
Applied to apothecia that are shield- shaped ; also, 
in Mineralogy, to couches or beds that are convex, 
and inclined on the slope of a mountain. 

Pelti'g'era cani'na. A cryptogamous 

plant, Order Lichenes. It was long thought to 
be a cure for Rabies, hence the name canina. 
It has also been used in asthma and in acute 

P. apbtbo'sa. (From aphtha.) This 
species is supposed to be cathartic and anthel- 

Pel'todon radicans. Hab., Brazil. 
This plant is used as an antidote for snake- 
bites, and in asthma. 

Fel'toid. (IltXTT), a small shield without 
a rim ; elSos, form.) Shield-like. 

Pelu'de. The same as Pelicide. 

Pel'veo peritonitis. The same as 
Pelvic peritonitis. 

Pelvic. {Pelvis.) Belonging to the 

P. abscess. See Perimetric abscess, also 
Parametric abscess. 

P. aponeuro sis. See Fascia, pelvic. 

P. arcb. (G. Beckcngurtcl.) The Pelvis. 

P. articula tions. The various joints of 
the Pelvis. 

P. ax'ls. See Pelvis, axis of. 

P. bandage. A strong belt used after 
rupture of pelvic articulations. 

P. brim. See Pelvis, inlet of. 

P. brim, ln'dex of. Sec Index, pelvic. 

P. canal'. See Pelvis, canal of. 

P. can cer. Term introduced by Matthews 
Duncan for cancer afh-cting the pelvic brim, 
arising in the bones or elsewhere. 

P. cav'ity. See Pelvis, cavity of. 

P. celluli tis. See Parametritis. 

P. connec'tive tls'sue. This includes 
the Fascia, pelvic, and the loose subperitonea. 
connective tissue round the neck of the uterus 
and between the layers of the broad ligament. 

P. contrac tion, absolute. Used to 
denote a contracted pelvis with a true conjugate 
of less than 2 - 75 inches. 

P. contrac'tion, rel'ative. Determined 
by the relation of the foetal head to the pelvis, 
and by its position, size, and malleability. 

P. dia meters. See Pelvis, diameters of. 

P. diaphragm. See Diaphragma 

P. fas'cla. See Fascia, pelvic. 

P. floor, projec tion of. Term for the 
amount of projection of the pelvic floor in sagittal 
mesial section, beyond the antero-posterior dia- 
meter of the outlet. 

P. floor, seg'meats of. Term employed 
in Obstetrics and Uynajcology. These segments 
are two, the pubic and sacral. The pubic seg- 
ment consists of the bladder, urethra, anterior 
wall of the vagina and peritoneum covering the 
bladder. It is attached in front to the pubes. 
The sacral segment consists of the rectum, and 
perineum, together with muscles and connective 
tissue, and is attached behind to the sacrum and 

P. g-ir die. See P. arch. 
Also, term for P. bandage. 

P. glands. Under this name are included 
the following lymphatic glands: — 1. The gland 
at the isthmus uteri (Cbampionniere). 2. The 
hypogastric glands. 3. The sacral glands. 4. 
The collection of small glands at the obturator 
foramen ("obturator gland" of Guerin). The 
lymphatic vessels from all the above open into 
the lumbar glands. 

P. bae matocele. Term restricted by 
some, and especially by Matthews Duncan, to 
an effusion of blood into the recto-uterine pouch 
of the peritoneum ; by others, used to include 
also P. hematoma, as defined below. See He- 
matocele, pelvic. 

P. baemato'ma. Term often used as 
synonymous with Hematocele, pelvic ; restricted 
by Matthews Duncan to effusion of blood into 
the connective tissue between the two layers of 
the broad ligament of the uterus. 

P. her nia. See Hernia, pelvio. 

P. ln'dex. See Index, pelvic. 

P. inflamma tion. See Parametritis and 

P. lie. The relation of the longitudinal 
axis of the foetus to that of the uterus, at the 
beginning of labour, in cases where the pelvio 
extremity of the foetus is downwards. 

P. limb. The lower or hinder extremity. 

P. meas urements. See Pelvimetry. 

P. mem'bers. Term for the lower or 
hinder extremities. 

P. ouf let. See Pelvis, outlet of. 

P. peritonl'tls. See Perimetritis. 

P. plex us. (G. unteres Beckengcflcchl.) 
The inferior hypogastric plexus of the sym- 
pathetic, or the continuation of the hypogastric 
plexus downwards on the internal iliac artory. 
There aro thus two pelvic plexuses, one on each 
side ; they are situated by the side of the rectum, 
and of the vagina also in the female. Tho nerves 
of the two sides communicate frequently, form- 
ing small enlargements where they meet; they 


are also joined by spinal branches, and by somo 
offsets of the sacral ganglia. From the plexus 
many nerves are distributed to the viscera of the 
pelvis, corresponding with the branches of the 
internal iliac artery, and joining to form secon- 
dary plexuses, hemorrhoidal, vesical, &c. 

P. presenta'tlon. A Presentation in 
■which the foetus lies with its long axis corre- 
sponding roughly with that of the uterus, but 
with its head upwards. It includes breech pre- 
sentation and the two sub-varieties of this, 
namely, knee and foot presentation. See Breech 
presentation, Presentation, foot, and Presenta- 
tion, knee. 

P. re gion, ante'rior. A term for the 
region including the lower part of the hypogas- 
trium, and extending laterally to the anterior 
edge of the tensor fascia? femoris on either side. 

P. strait. The outlet of the pelvis as 
spoken of in Obstetrics. It is considered as 
bounded behind, not, as is the anatomical outlet, 
by the tip of the coccyx ; but by the lower end of 
the sacrum. 

P. sur'face of Il ium. The internal sur- 
face, which faces the so-called cavity of the false 
pelvis (see P. cavity), and to which the iliacus 
muscle is attached. 

P. thrombus. See P. hematoma. 
P. tumour, sanguin eous. See P. 

P. ver'sion. See Version, pelvic. 

Pelvicelluli tis. Pelvic cellulitis. 

Pel'vicle. {Pelviculus, dim. of pelvis.) A 
little pelvis. 

Pelvico'logfy. See Pclicology. 

Pelvic ula oc'uli. (Dim. of pelvis.) 
Term for the orbit. 

Pelvi dymus. (L. pelvis ; Gr. Svu>, to 
get into, or mix with.) A double monster, 
joined at the pelvis but separate above. 

Pel viform. (L. pelvis ; forma, likeness.) 
Pelvis- shaped. 

Pelvigraphy. (L. pelvis; Gr. yp&<pos 
= ypttfifia, a drawing.) The making of a 
drawing of the outline of the pelvic wall. 

Pelvimensura tio. The same as 
Pelycometresis. / 

Pelvimeta'tio. The same as Pelvimen- 

Pelvi'meter. (L. pelvis; Gr. ixtTpov, a 
measure. G. Beckenmesser.) An instrument 
for measuring the diameters of the pelvis. 

P., great, of Stein. This was made up 
of two unequal, separable arms, and was intended 
to be used in the same way as the P. of Cou- 

P. of Bau'delocque. See Baudelocque's 

P. of Coutou'ly. An instrument resem- 
bling, in appearance, the wooden foot-measure 
used by shoemakers. The two branches were 
introduced, approximated, into the vagina, and 
then separated until the tip of one touched the 
sacral promontory, and the other, the posterior 
surface of the pubes. It was manifestly un- 

i" ustifiable to use such an instrument on the 
iving subject. 

P. of Green'halgh. This consists of a 
metal rod which is attached to, and can be moved 
upon, a flexible metal band fitting round the 
hand, and which has a curved portion to em- 
brace the radial side of the base of the index 
finger. When the examining index finger 
touches the sacrum, the rod is withdrawn, until 

its curved part abuts against the back of the 
pubes. The hand is then witlidrawn, and the 
length measured off along the index finger. 

P. of Schul'tze. An instrument, like 
that of Baudelocque, used for external measure- 
ments. It can be folded up, for convenience in 

p., small, of Stein. This had a graduated 
stem, and was intended merely to measure the 
antero-posterior diameter of the inlet. 
Pelvimet ric. Relating to Pelvimetry. 
Pelvi'metry. {Pelvis; Gr. /utVpijcris, 
measurement.) The measurement of the 
various diameters of the pelvis. See Pelvis, 
diameters of. 

Pelvio'tomy. {Pelvis; Gr. touv, a 
cutting.) The operation of section of the pelvic 
bones. See Symphysiotomy. 

Pel viper itoni tis. Pelvic peritonitis. 
Pelvi-prostat'ic fas'cia. The pro- 
cess of the recto-vesical fascia which forms the 
sheath of the prostate gland. 

Pel'vis. (L. pelvis, a basin ; Gr. irtXXts or 
■niWa, a wooden bowl.) The large bony girdle 
by which the lower or hind limbs articulate 
with the trunk. It is made up of the two ossa 
innominata with the sacrum and coccyx. The 
human pelvis is described as divided into two 
parts by a plane passing through the sacral pro- 
montory, the ilio-pectineal lines, and the sym- 
physis pubis. This plane constitutes the circum- 
ference of the brim or inlet of the true pelvis 
which lies below it ; the space above it, between 
the iliac fossae, is called the false pelvis, and forms 
part of the abdomen. The cavity of the pelvis 
contains the lower bowel, the bladder, the greater 
part of the generative organs, together with 
nerves, blood-vessels, &c. The anterior wall 
formed by the back of the pubes is Only about 
1| inches long; the posterior wall formed by the 
concave anterior surface of the sacrum is about 
5 inches long. The outlet of the pelvis is 
bounded by the tuberosities of the ischia on 
either side, the sub-pubic arch in front, and the 
coccyx behind; and, between the sacrum and 
coccyx and the ischial tuberosity on each side, 
the space is bridged over in the recent state by 
the sacro-sciatic ligaments. 

Also, certain structures resembling in shape 
the bony pelvis; namely, the pelvis of the kid- 
ney, and also the basal part of the calyx in 
Also, a Genus of the Mollusca. 
P. sequabll'lter jus'to ma'jor. (Lit., 
the pelvis uniformly and in right proportion 
larger, i. e. than normal.) An adult female 
elvis uniformly larger than normal, in all its 
iameters. A large pelvis is generally propor- 
tionate. It occurs usually in women who are 
broad and have the feminine characteristics 
well developed, not in those who are specially 

P. sequabil iter jus'to mi nor. (Lit., 
the pelvis uniformly and in right proportion 
smaller, i. e. than normal.) An adult female 
pelvis that is uniformly less than normal in all 
its diameters. Usually a pelvis so classed from 
its appearance is found, when measured, to be of 
slightly abnormal proportions ; the conjugate is 
sometimes relatively contracted. It occurs most 
commonly in cretins, and is duo to premature 
arrest of growth. It is sometimes associated with 
absence or imperfect development of the genera- 
tive organs, and in these cases the bony parts 


of tho pelvis continue sometimes through adult 
life to bo united only by cartilage. 

P. au'rls. (L. auris, an ear.) A name 
for the Tympanum. 

P. au'rlum. Term sometimes used for the 

P., ax'es of planes of. The axis of any 
plane of the pelvis is an imaginary line indi- 
cating the direction in which the centre of the 
foetal head is normally advancing during labour 
at the moment when it lies in that plane. Such 
an axis may be defined as " the tangent to the 
curved axis of the pelvis at the point where tho 
latter cuts that plane " (Galabin). 

P., ax'is of. An imaginary line indicating 
the direction of the festal head as it passes through 
the pelvis during the first two stages of labour. 
The centre of the head descends almost in a 
straight line until it meets the lower, curved 
portion of the sacrum, and then passes down- 
wards and forwards in a curved line having its 
concavity forwards. 

P., beaked'. See P., triradiate. 

P., bones of. See Pelvis. 

P., brim of. See Pelvis. 

P.i caout chouc. A model of the pelvis 
in caoutchouc, used to illustrate changes pro- 
duced in the shape of the pelvic bones in moUities 

P., cav'ity of. (F. cavile pelvienne. G. 
Beckenhohle.) The space included between 
the inlet and outlet of the pelvis. Spiegelberg 
has divided this cavity, for purposes of clinical 
description, into : 1, peritoneal; 2, subperitoneal; 
and 3, subcutaneous. 

P. cer'ebri. A name for the Infundibulum 
of the brain. 

P., circum'ference of. A measurement 
sometimes made round the pelvis externally, 
from the spine of the last lumbar vertebra, 
between the iliac crest and great trochanter on 
either side, to the symphysis pubis. It is of 
hardly any value. 

P., connec'tive tis'sue of. See Pelvic 
connective tissue. 

P., contrac ted. The main varieties of 
contracted adult female pelves are the following : 

1. Flattened pelves. 

a. The simple flattened pelvis. 

a. Eeniform. 
/3. Elliptic. 

b. The pelvis of double congenital dislocation 

of the hips. 

c. The split pelvis. 

2. Generally contracted pelves. 

a. The pelvis aequabiliter justo minor. 

b. The infantile polvis. 

c. The generally contracted rickety pelvis. 

d. The masculine pelvis. 

3. Triradiate pelves. 

a. Malacosteon. 

b. Rickety or pseudo-malacosteon. 

4. Oblique pelves. 

a. The scoliotic oblique pelvis. 

b. The oblique pelvis from disuse or short- 

ening of one leg. 

c. The oblique pelvis of Nagele. 

5. Transversely contracted pelves. 

a. Robert's pelvis. 

b. The kyphotic pelvis. 

c. Infundibuliform pelvis. 

6. The spondy lolisthetic pelvis. 

7. The pelvis whose cavity is obstructed by 
growths; osteo-sarcoma, carcinoma (secondary 

growth sV exostosis, or osteophytes (in osteo- 

P., diameters of. Three diameters of 
each plane are described. The measurements 
here given are the average measurements of 
normal adult female pelves. 

Diameters of the brim. — 1. The antero-pos- 
terior or true conjugate (C. v. = Conjugata vera) 
is measured from the centre of the promontory of 
the sacrum to a point on the posterior surface 
of the symphysis pubis half an inch below its 
upper border. There are three ways of directly 
estimating the true conjugate in the living 
woman. The first and most usually applicable 
is to introduce two fingers into the vagina 
and touch the promontory of the sacrum with 
the tip of the fore- or middle-finger. An in- 
dentation iB then made with the fore-finger 
nail of the other hand on the spot where the 
radial border of the hand in the vagina touches 
the lower border of the symphysis pubis. The 
hand is then withdrawn, and the distance on it 
measured. From this, the diagonal conjugate, 
the true conjugate is obtained by subtracting 
half an inch. The second way is applicable 
only in cases where the abdomen is lax, its walls 
are thin, and the patient is not pregnant. The 
hand is pressed upon the abdomen just above the 
pubes until the tip of the middle-finger touches 
the promontory of the sacrum. The distance is 
then measured off as above. It gives a measure- 
ment slightly over the true conjugate. The 
third way is applicable only immediately after 
delivery. The whole hand, excepting the thumb, 
is passed into the vagina in the conjugate dia- 
meter, as far as possible ; the point where it was 
arrested is noticed, the hand is withdrawn, and 
the distance measured off. In the dry pelvis, 
the true conjugate is directly measured from the 
mid-point of the promontory of the sacrum to the 
posterior upper border of the symphysis pubis. 
The true conjugate may be indirectly estimated 
from the diagonal conjugate (fairly reliable), from 
the external conjugate (unreliable), or from the 
general size of the pelvis, and the relation be- 
tween the distance of the spines and the distance 
of the crests. 

2. The oblique is measured between the point 
where the sacro-iliac synchondrosis cuts the 
brim, and the ilio-pectineal eminence of the 
opposite side. The right oblique diameter starts 
from the right synchondrosis, and the left, from 
the left synchondrosis. 

3. The transverse is measured from a point on 
the brim halfway between the sacro-iliac syn- 
chondrosis and the pectineal eminence on one 
side, to the corresponding point on the other 

4. The diagonal conjugate {C. d.) is measured 
from the lower border of the symphysis pubis to 
the centre of the promontory of the sacrum. In 
the normal pelvis it is three quarters of an inch 
longer than the true conjugate. 

Diameters of the cavity. — The antcro-posterior 
is measured from the mid- point of the posterior 
wall of the pelvis (middle of ant. surface of 
sacrum, i. e. at junction of second and third 
sacral vertebras) to the middle of the posterior 
surface of the symphysis pubis. 

The oblique is unimportant and uncertain. It 
is not taken between two bony points. Spiegel- 
berg gives it from the middle of the upper edge 
of ono great sciatic notch to the upper edge of 
the obturator foramen of the opposite side. 


The transverse is measured between those 
points of the acetabula which, in the erect posi- 
tion, are highest. (Spiegelberg.) 

The sacro- cotyloid diameter is measured from 
the sacral promontory to a point corresponding 
with the centre of the acetabulum on either side. 

Diameters of the outlet. — The antero-posterior 
is measured from the anterior surface of the tip 
of the sacrum to the lower border of the sym- 
physis pubis. 

The oblique is unimportant and uncertain. It 
is measured from the middle of one great sacro- 
sciatic ligament to the opposite pubo- ischiadic 

The transverse is measured between the inner 
surfaces of the two tubera ischiorum. 

External diameters. — The External conjugate 
(C. e.) is measured from the tip of the spine of the 
last lumbar vertebra to the front of the sym- 
physis pubis. To obtain, roughly, the length of 
the true conjugate from this, in inches, subtract 

The distance of the spines {Sp. II., or Dist. 
Sp. U.) is measured between the two anterior 
superior iliac spines. 

The distance of the crests {Or. II., or Dist. Cr. 
II.) is measured between the points of the two 
iliac crests which are widest apart. 

The external oblique diameter is measured from 
the anterior superior iliac spine of one side to the 
posterior superior of the other. It is used for 
comparison of the two sides to detect any asym- 

Average measurements. — Internal diameters. 
Brim, antero-posterior, 4 - 25 inches; oblique, 
4'8 inches ; transverse, 5*2 inches. 

Cavity, antero-posterior, 4 - 7 inches; oblique, 
5-2 inches; transverse, 4-75 inches; sacro- 
cotyloid diameter, 3 - 5 inches. 

Outlet, antero-posterior, 4'4 inches; oblique, 
4'5 inches; transverse, 4 inches. 

External diameters. External conjugate, 1\ 
inches. Distance of the spines, 10 inches. Dis- 
tance of the crests, 10f inches. 

P., di aphragm of. Term for that part 
of the floor of the pelvis which is formed by the 
levatores ani muscles with the pelvic and anal 

P., dilata tion of. See Pelvic cavity. 

P., disloca tions of. In consequence of 
severe blows upon or compression of the pelvis, 
the sacro-iliac joint, or, less frequently, the sym- 
physis pubis may be dislocated. The diagnosis 
is readily made from the resulting deformity. 

P., dwarf. It is in this form that general 
contraction is most usually found clearly marked. 
The bones are generally small and slight, and 
are often united by cartilage, especially the sacral 
vertebrae, even in adult life. The general 
characters of the female pelvis are well marked. 
It is a rare form. See P. eequabiliter justo 

P., enlarged'. Generally equally enlarged 
in all diameters (see P. eequabiliter justo major) ; 
in some cases it is relatively wide, and especially 
in several cases of double uterus in which it has 
been measured. 

P., false. See Pelvis. 

P., fe'male. Compared with the adult 
male pelvis, the adult female pelvis is thinner 
and less strong, and the prominences for mus- 
cular attachment are less marked. It is shal- 
lower, wider, and less funnel-shaped, and the 
outlet is larger in proportion to the inlet, the 

tubera ischiorum being farther apart. The iliac 
fossae are more spread out. The pubic arch is 
much wider, and the perpendicular height of the 
symphysis is less. The sacrum is wider and less 
deep. The obturator foramen is more triangular. 
The usual shape of the brim is the outline of an 
obtuse "ace of hearts" (Spiegelberg}; but other 
forms are found not infrequently which cannot 
be considered pathological, as parturition is not 
appreciably affected by them. Such are : 1. A 
shape markedly elliptical in the transverse dia- 
meter. 2. A shape elliptical in the antero-pos- 
terior diameter. 3. A shape which is almost 
circular ; usually occurring in very roomy pelves. 
These characteristics are most marked in the 
Caucasian or Mediterranean race, and in the 
Chinese ; least in Australian aborigines and the 
African negroes, Hottentots, and Bushmen. 

P., tig ure-oi-8 rachit ic. This is a 
very rare form. It has the general characters 
of the P., generally contracted, flattened, of the 
reniform variety ; but there is also an inward 
depression at the symphysis pubis. The brim 
has the shape of an unequal figure of 8, the 
sacrum projecting inwards more than the pubes. 

P., flat. The same as P., flattened, simple. 

P., flat tened, sim ple. This variety of 
pelvis is contracted in its conjugate diameter, 
but not notably in any other diameter. It is 
divided into two varieties, the elliptic and the 
reniform. The brim of the former resembles an 
ellipse flattened on the posterior face ; the brim 
of the latter is kidney-shaped from sinking in- 
ward of the sacral promontory. The latter is 
the commoner variety. Both kinds are probably 
due to slight rickets. 

P., floor of. This is constituted, in the 
human subject, as follows : the external genitals 
with the skin, the superficial fascia, the deep 
fascia with the perineal muscles, the pelvic viscera, 
the obturator internus, levator ani and coecygeus 
of both sides, with their fascias, and finally, the 

P., frac'ture of. This occurs only from 
great and direct violence, as by the passage of a 
cart over the pelvis, crushing in railway col- 
lisions, &c. The fracture generally occurs at 
the rami of the pubes and ischium in front, and 
across the ilium in the region of the sacro-iliac 
joint behind, generally on the opposite side 
to that of the fracture of the pubic and ischial 
rami. The soft parts on the side of the iliac 
fracture are liable to severe stretching, lacera- 
tion, &c. Sometimes a portion of the iliac crest 
only is broken ; sometimes the rami in front are 
broken without any posterior fracture — such 
partial fracture cannot arise from a crush. The 
bladder or urethra may be torn, as may also 
muscles, blood-vessels, and nerves. However 
good subsequent union may be, lameness is apt 
to result from injury to muscles at the time of 

P., tun nel-shaped'. Excluding the P., 
kyphotic, this form of pelvis is extremely rare. 
The brim and cavity are usually of normal dimen- 
sions ; but the outlet is abnormally small, espe- 
cially in the transverse diameter. In shape, tliis 
variety is very like the P., infantile. 

P., gen erally contrac ted. The same 
as P. eequabiliter justo minor. 

P., generally contracted, flat- 
tened. The most typical form of the rickety 
pelvis. There is general contraction together 
with flattening. The bones are usually small 


and thin ; but tho antero-posterior thickness of 
the sacrum may be increased. The brim is more 
often reniform than elliptic. The pubic arch is 
widened, and the relative length of the trans- 
verse diameter of the brim and outlet are both 

P., great. The same as P., false. 

P., lnclina'tion of. The normnl dip or 
inclination downwards and forwards of the pelvis 
in the erect position. It is measured by the 
angle which the piano of the brim, in the erect 
position, makes with the horizon ; this is, on an 
average, 60°. (Meyer.) 

P., in dia rub ber. The samo as P., 

P., infan'tile. An adult female pelvis that 
is contracted in all its diameters and approaches 
in general shape tho pelvis of the infant. The 
sacrum is relatively narrow, with small alae ; 
its longitudinal curve is less, and the transverse 
concavity of its anterior surface is greater than 
normal ; the ilia are nearly vertical (in the up- 
right position), and their crests are hardly at all 
curved ; the pubic arch is narrow, and the length 
of the conjugate is relatively small. This may be 
the result of any disease interfering with the 
general nutrition during childhood. 

P., infe rior. Term for true pelvis. See 

P., infundibu'liform. (Infundibulum.) 
The same as P., funnel-shaped. 

P., infundibu'liform, inver'ted. A 

very rare form, in which there is a contracted 
brim, with an outlet of normal, or even slightly 
increased, dimensions. 

P. infundibulifor'mis jus'to major. 

Term for a variety of the P. cequabiliterjusto ma- 
jor in which the diameters of the brim and cavity 
are increased, but those of the outlet are normal. 

P., inlet of. See Pelvis. 

P. inver'sa. A severe form of P., split 
(Spiegelberg) . 

P., kyphotic. {Kyphosis.) A form of 
transversely contracted pelvis which results from 
lumbar kyphosis, generally due to caries. There 
is often compensatory lordosis of the dorsal ver- 
tebrae ; where there is no such compensation, the 
plane of the brim of the pelvis is nearly perpen- 
dicular to the general spinal axis, and the brim 
becomes consequently, in order to preserve the 
balance, almost horizontal. Both the longitudinal 
and transverse curves of the anterior surface of the 
sacrum are considerably increased. The antero- 
posterior diameter of the pelvic brim is increased ; 
out those of the cavity and outlet are diminished. 
The anterior inferior iliac spines and the points 
of attachment of the ilio-femoral ligaments are 
markedly developed. 

P. major. Term for the false pelvis. See 

P., malacos teon. Sec Malacosteon. 
See also, P., triradiate, malacosteon. 

P., male. For differences between tho 
male and female pelvis, see P., female. 

P., mas'cullne. A form of the adult 
female pelvis uniformly contracted, and approxi- 
mating towards the male type. In marked 
cases, all the internal diameters may be reduced 
by as much as one- fourth of the normal. This 
form of pelvis usually occurs in strong women of 
a somewnat masculine typo and tall in propor- 
tion to their breadth. 

P., measurements of. See P., dia- 
meters of. 

P. ml'nor. Term for the true pelvis. 

P., oblique'. There are three kinds gone- 
rally described : the P., scoliotic oblique, the P. 
oblique, from disuse or shortening of one leg, and 
the Oblique pelvis of Nagele (see Niigele's 

P., oblique', from disuse' or short- 
ening of one leg. Very similar to the sco- 
liotic oblique pelvis. The pelvis is tilted down 
on the side of the shortening, the line of the 
body-weight is displaced towards that side, and 
the shortened leg is overweighted. Where one 
leg is useless, a similar effect is produced ; but is 
manifested on the sound side. 

P. obtec'ta. (L. obtectus, covered.) A 
variety of P., kyphotic in which the pelvic brim 
is roofed-in by the lumbar vertebrae, which are 
in a position of compensatory lordosis. This 
condition is present in cases where the kyphosis 
occurs as low as is possible. If the bodies of the 
lumbar vertebrae become destroyed by caries, the 
column sinks in, so as to become approximated 
to the symphysis pubis ; this condition has been 
termed Spondylolizema. 

P. ocularis. See Scaphium oculare. 

P. of double congenital "disloca- 
tion" of the hips. The pelvic inclination is 
increased and there is compensatory lumbar lor- 
dosis; the iliac fossae are abnormally upright, 
the pelvis is moderately flattened, widened 
slightly at the inlet and more markedly at the 
outlet, and the tubera ischia are abnormally far 
apart. This condition hardly ever causes any 
obstruction in labour ; but may favour the oc- 
currence of " pendulous belly " during preg- 

P. of kid ney. See Kidney, pelvis of. 
P. of Na gele. See Ndgele's pelvis. 
P. of Robert. See Robert's pelvis. 
P. of unilat'eral disloca tion of hip. 

In congenital dislocations, the sacrum inclines to 
the affected side, and this half of the pelvis is 
therefore narrower. In early-acquired disloca- 
tions, where there is much atrophy and the legs 
have not been used, the sacrum inclines to the 
affected side of the pelvis, which is also narrower 
than the other. In other forms of dislocation, 
the sacrum inclines towards the healthy side, or 
else remains fairly central, and the affected side 
of the pelvis is either wider than or as wide as 
the sound side. These pelves resemble those 
that are oblique from hip-joint disease. 

P. os'teo-mala'cic. {Ostco-malacia.) 
The same as P., triradiate malacosteon. 

P., outlet of. See Pelvis; also, Pelvic 

P. ova'lis. The elliptical fossa on the 
inner wall of the middle ear or tympanic cavity 
situated above the promontory. In its lower 
part is the fenestra ovalis. 

P., pseu'do-malacos'teon. See P., tri- 
radiate rachitic. 

P., rachitic. Sea P., generally contracted, 
flattened ; P.,fgure-of-8 rachitic ; and P., tri- 
radiate rachitic ; also, P., flattened, simple. 

P. renalis. (L. rents, the kidneys.) Per- 
taining to the kidneys. See Kidney, pelvis of. 

P., reniform rachitic. See P., gene- 
rally contracted, flattened ; also P., flattened, 

P. re'num. (Gen. of renes, the kidneys.) 
The same as P. renalis. 

P., rlck'ety. Tho same as P., rachitic. 
P., roofed'-in. The same as P. obtecta. 


P., ros trated. (L. rostratus, beaked.) 
See P., triradiate malaeosteon. 

P., rup'ture of. This occasionally occurs 
daring delivery, the seat of rupture being almost 
invariably the symphysis pubis. With this there 
is either a straining or a partial rupture of one or 
other sacro- iliac synchondrosis. The rupture 
is usually complete, and is most common in 
generally contracted pelves; it has occurred 
both in instrumental and non-instrumental 

P., scolio tic oblique'. In consequence 
of scoliosis of the spine, the line of the body- 
weight upon the pelvis is displaced to the same 
side as the vertebral bodies. Thus the acetabulum 
becomes thrust inward on that side, and the sym- 
physis pubis is displaced towards the other side. 
The ilium and the sacral wing on the over- 
weighted side are thicker and shorter than on 
the other side, the pelvic brim is pushed up on 
the former side, the iliac crest is higher, the iliac 
fossa looks more inward, and there is inward 
bulging opposite the acetabulum. There is usually 
also some flattening of the brim. See Scoliosis. 

P., scolio tic rachit ic. A variety of 
the P., scoliotic oblique, which is more markedly 
asymmetrical and has general rickety characters 
more developed. 

P., skolio tic. The same as P., scoliotic. 

P., small. A term for P., true. 

P. spinosa. (L. spinosus, prickly.) Also 
called acanthopetys (Kilian). A form of rickety 
pelvis (P., generally contracted, flattened) in 
which tnere is either a very sharp pubic crest, or 
a spine at the junction of the pubes and ilium, 
for the insertion of the tendon of the psoas 
parvus. These spines may be of serious danger 
in parturition, by causing bruising or laceration 
of the uterus or vagina. 

P., split. In this variety of pelvis there 
is merely fi brous, not bony, union between the two 
pubes, owing to faulty development. Associated 
with this, ectopia vesicae and imperfectly deve- 
loped sexual organs are usually found ; conse- 
quently it is not of obstetric interest, except in 
illustration of the action of mechanical forces in 
the development of the characteristic shape of 
the pelvis. This pelvis is relatively wide and 
is slightly flattened. 

P., spondylolisthet'ic. In this variety, 
the body of the fifth lumbar vertebra is dis- 
located forwards upon the sacrum and occa- 
sionally downwards on the anterior surface of 
the latter, and the other lumbar vertebral are 
carried forwards with it. The available con- 
jugate is thus greatly diminished ; it is measured 
from the last lumbar vertebra, or from that 
lumbar vertebra which is nearest to the sym- 
physis pubis, instead of from the sacral promon- 
tory. This is an extremely rare variety. For 
causation, see Spondylolisthesis. 

P., spondylollzemat'ic. (JSpondyloli- 
zema.) See P. oblecla. 

P., supe'rlor. Term for False pelvis. See 

P., transverse'ly contrac'ted. See 

under P., funnel- shaped. P., kyphotic, and 
Robert's pelvis. 

P. trilo ba. The P., triradiate rachitic. 

P., triradiate malaeosteon. This 
▼ariety is due to the pushing inward of the 
sacrum and acetabula in cases of Malaeosteon or 
mollities ossium. The peculiar shape is due to 
the uniform and complete softening of the bones, 

and to the fact that the patient (almost always an 
adult woman) is standing and walking during 
the early stages of the disease. The centre of 
the sacrum and the acetabula are sunk inwards, 
and the pelvis becomes beaked, transverse con- 
traction predominating. The tubera ischia are 
also approximated. See Malaeosteon. 

P., trira'dlate rachitic. Two varieties : 
1. This is also called Pseudo-malacosteon ; it 
closely resembles the P., triradiate malaeosteon. 
It is produced in a forrn of rickets in which the 
softening of the bones is greater, more general, 
and more prolonged than in ordinary rickets. It 
is distinguished from the malaeosteon by other 
signs of rickets, the history of the case, the firm- 
ness of the bones, the small size of the pelvis 
and especially of the two iliac fossae, and by the 
reversal of the normal relation of the distance 
between the anterior superior iliac spines to that 
between the points on the two crests which are 
furthest apart. (See P., diameters of.) 2. Ra- 
chitic and malaeosteon. In this, after the usual 
changes have occurred in a rickety pelvis, the 
adult pelvis becomes affected with malaeosteon, 
and is changed into a soft, irregular mass. 
P. ve'ra. The true pelvis. See Pelvis. 

Pelvisa'cral. Belonging to the pelvis 
and sacrum. 

Peivister nal. Eesembling, or belong- 
ing to, a Pelvisternum. 

Pelvister'num. {Pelvis; sternum.) A 
art of the pelvic arch supposed to be a serial 
omologue of the omosternum of the pectoral 
arch. It may be osseous, cartilaginous, or liga- 
mentous. The fibro-cartilage of the human 
symphysis pubis is regarded as a pelvisternum. 
(Century Dictionary.) 

Pelvitom'ia. See Pelviotomy. 

Pelvitrochante rian. (Pelvis ; tro- 
chanter.) Pertaining to the pelvis and the great 
trochanter of the femur. 

P. re'gion. The space between the great 
trochanter of the femur and the pelvis posteriorly, 
occupied by the quadratus femoris, pyriformis 
and two gemelli, and the internal and external 
obturator muscles. 

Pelycochirometre'sis. (IIeXu£ = 

irtWa, a wooden bowl; x tl Pi the hand; /utx- 
/jijo-is, a measuring.) Measurement by the hand 
of the available diameters of the pelvis. 

Pelyco'graphy. (m\u£; ypa<pv, a 
drawing or description.) The detailed descrip- 
tion of the pelvis. 

Pelycolog-y. See Pclicology. 

Pelycometer. (Ili\u£ ; ficrpou, a mea- 
sure.) See Pelvimeter. 

Pelycometre'sis. (n;\u£, a wooden 

bowl ; /utT/orjo-is, a measuring.) Pelvimetry. 

Pelycotom'ia. Pelviotomy. 

Felymet'rum. Pelvimeter. 

Pelyochirometresis. (IK\u£; x*<>, 
the hand; fxiTpii<ris, a measuring.) See I'cly- 

Pelyo'meter. Pelycometer. 

Pelyometre'sis. See Pelycometresis. 

Pelyotom'ia. Pelviotomy. 

Fem'ican. See Pemmican. 

Pem ma. (Tlififia, dressed food of any 
kind.) Any kind of dressed food ; but mostly used 
in the plural for pastry, cakes, or sweetmeats. 

Pemmican. (American Indian.) A 
form of dried meat, containing a large propor- 
tion of nourishment in a small compass, made by 
drying thin slices of lean meat o vor the smoke of a 


wood fire, pounding them, find then mixing them 
with nearly an equal weight of their own fat. 

Pem'pelos. (JltniriXos, nn epithet for 
very old persons ; perhaps from the same root as 
Svcririfi<pe\oi, rough and strong.) An epithet 
applied to very old persons who have become 
infirm and decrepid. 

Pemphig o'des. (Pemphigus ; Ahot, 
form, likenessT) Full of blisters, resembling 
blisters (Hipp.). 

Also, an ancient epithet for pyrexia accom- 
panying Pemphigus. 

Pemphi goid. Resembling Pemphigus. 

Pemphi'gous. {Pemphigus.) Having 
the disease Pemphigus. 

Pemphi gus, (IIf></>i£, a blister. I. 
petifigo ; G. Blasenausschlag.) A skin disease 
characterised by the formation of bulla, some- 
times on a rose-coloured or slightly injected 
ring of skin, sometimes on perfectly natural skin, 
never upon an actively inflamed or swollen sur- 
face. These bulla? are very various in size, 
appear irregularly over all parts of the skin, 
and though the contents often become turbid, 
they are never actually purulent. It is usually, 
in adults, a very chronic disease, occurring with- 
out any general constitutional disturbance, and 
lasting for months or years. 

Also, a Genus of Plant-lice. 
P. acu'tus. A form occurring nearly 
always in children. It usually runs its course 
in two or three weeks. 

P. apyret icus. ('A, negative ; ■nvptTo's, 
a fever.) Pemphigus occurring without any rise 
of temperature. 

P. cachec'ticus. A term for pemphigus 
occurring in cachectic subjects. It usually has 
an unfavourable if not fatal termination. 

P. chron'icus. A distinguishing term 
for the common form of the disease as occurring 
in adults. 

P. chron'icus mor'ta. The same as P. 

P. confer tus. (L. confertus, thick and 
close together.) In this form the bulla? are in 
closely-set groups. 

P. contagio'sus. A term used by Willan 
for P. helveticus. 

P. diphtherit'icus. A variety in which 
round the bases of the bulls there is a yel- 
lowish layer of epidermis resembling wash- 

P. disscmina tus. In this form there 
are many bulla? distributed over a wide area. 

P. dlu'tinus. (L. diutinus, lasting.) 
Ordinary pemphigus in which the eruption lasts 
longer than usual. 

P. le'brllis. The same as P. acutus. 

P., feigned'. The condition in which, 
in order to feign disease, bullae have been arti- 
ficially produced by means of strong acids, and 
especially nitric acid. 

P. folia'ceus. A very rare form of pem- 
phigus in which the epidermis is undermined, 
and the bulke are flaccid and not much raised. 
These bulla usually soon coalesce and then 
rupture ; they are very widely distributed, and 
succeed one another very rapidly. 

P. gangreeno'sus. A fatal form, occur- 
ring in cachectic subjects. fDuhring.) 

Also, term incorrectly applied to Rupia etcha- 

P. glandularis. Term used by Good for 
P. helveticus. 

P. gyra tus. The bullae are arranged in 
irregular, serpentine figures. 

P. haemorrhag icus. In this form the 
bulla? are filled with a sanious fluid. 

P. helvet icus. According to Cullen, a 
name for Sore throat, putrid. 

P. hungar icus. Term for Malignant 

P. infan tilis. Term used by Good and 
Willan for a form of pemphigus occurring in 
infants a few days after birth, and proceeding to 
suppuration, and afterwards to ulceration and 

P. lepro'sus. Term for the formation of 
cutaneous bulla? which occurs during the prod- 
romal stage of ana?sthetic leprosy. 

P. loca'lis. The variety in which crops 
of bulla? appear successively in the same region. 

P. ma'jor. Term for P. vulgaris. 

P. malig'nus. In this variety large bullae 
form rapidly and then ulcerate. Haemorrhage 
is not infrequent, and the general health is 
seriously impaired. 

P. mi nor. Another term for P. vulgaris. 

P. mor'ta. The same as Morta. 

P. of conjuncti'va. This is very rare. 
It has been seen with Pemphigus of other parts, 
but is not known to occur as a separate disease. 
There are pain, lacrymation, and photophobia, as 
the bulla forms; and afterwards the affected 
portion of conjunctiva degenerates and under- 
goes cicatricial contraction. Such attacks may 
recur until the whole conjunctiva is destroyed, 
and the lids have become adherent to the globe. 
Opacity or staphyloma of the cornea gradually 
results. Entropion may form. The treatment 
is entirely palliative. 

P. prurigiuo'sus. (L. pruriginosus, 
itchy.) This term was formerly incorrectly 
applied by Hardy to Herpes gestationis. It is 
now applied to the variety of P. vulgaris in 
which itching and burning sensations are present 
in a marked degree, instead of being slight or 

P. serpigino'sus. The same as P. gy- 

P. solitar'ius. A variety of P. vulgaris 
characterised by the successive eruption of single 

P. syphiliticus. The eruption so called 
is not a true pemphigus, but simply Syphilo- 
derma bullosum. 

P. variolo des. The variety of Varicella 
termed coniformis. 

P. veg etans. A fatal variety of pem- 
phigus, in which a few bulla? first form, then 
break, and in their place warty, condyloma-like 
growths form. 

P. vulgar is, The commonest variety of 

Pemphix. (nt></u£, a blister.) The 
same as Pemphigus. 

Pem phyx. The same as Pemphix. 

Pemptee'a fe'bris. (il^TTTaToy, on 
the fifth day.) Ague, quintan. 

Pemptee'ous. (llc/en-Tnlo?.) On the 
fifth day; applied formerly as an epithet of in- 
termittent fever, in which the paroxysm re- 
curred every fifth day (Pemptaafebris). 

Pen. (Mid. E. penne, a feather ; Anglo- 
Sax, pinn; Low. h.penna, a quill for writing.) 
A large feather of the tail or wing of a bird. 

Also, a quill. 

Also, an internal structure found in certain 


of the Cephalopoda, homologous with the cultlo 
bone of Scipio ; also called gladius, and cala- 

P. -feather. See Pin-feather. 
P. pal sy. Scriveners' palsy. 
Penae a. (After Pena, a French bota- 
nist.) A Linn. Genus of plants, Class Tetran- 
dria, Order Monogynia. 

Also, name of a species of Polygala. 
P. mucrona'ta. The plant which is said 
to yield the Sarcocolla brought from Arabia 
and 1'ersia. See Sarcocolla. 

P. sarcocolla. See Sarcocolla. 
Penag'ui'la. In Spain. It has a sulphur 
spring of a temperature of 17"5° C. 

Pen'cil-flow'er. The Stylosanthes ela- 

P.s, med ical. {Crayons d'azotate d'ar- 
gent mittige. Fr. Codex.) Pencils composed of 
nitrate of silver mixed with various proportions, 
from 10 to 75 per cent., of nitrate of potassium. 

P. -wood. The wood of Juniper is com- 

Pendac tylous. The same as Penta- 


Pendin'ski sore. See Pendjeh sore. 

Pendjeh sore. The same as Delhi boil. 

Penduliflo'rous. (L. pendulus, hang- 
ing ; flos, fioris, a flower.) Having pendent 
flowers, from incurvation of the peduncles. 

Pendulifo'lious. (L. pendulus ; folium, 
a leaf.) Having pendent leaves. 

Pen'dulous. (L. pendulus, hanging.) 
Han ging down from some support. 

P. abdo men. See Abdomen, pendulous. 
P. bel'ly. The same as P. abdomen. 
P. u'terus. The anteverted uterus oc- 
curring in P. belly. 

Pen dulum pala'ti. The Velum pen- 
dulum palati. 

P. move'ments. Obstet. Term for the 
to-and-fro or up-and-down movements sometimes 
necessary in delivery by forceps, or in extraction 
in a breech case. 

Penea'nous. (Ylivi\<;, one who works 
for daily bread ; hence, a poor man. F. peneen.) 
Applied by Brongniart and Omalius to a group 
of soils, generally poor in metalliferous beds and 
in the debris of organised bodies. 

Pen etrating". (L. penetrare, to make 
one's way into.) Entering into from without. 

P. med icine. Term used for a medicine 
absorbed through the skin. 

P. wound. A wound entering one of the 
visceral cavities. 

Penetra'tion. (L. penetrare, to make 
one's way into.) In Physiology, and in Forensic 
Medicine, entrance of the male organ within 
the labia majora of the female. In Optics, the 
power of an objective to give a definition of 
several planes of any object at the same time. 

Pengha war. A drug used formerly as 
a styptic, especially in Holland, obtained from 
several kinds of Javan tree-ferns. 

P. djam'bl. The name for the hairy stem 
of Cibolium, the East Indian tree-fern ; used as 
a hemostatic. 

Pe'nial. The same as Penile. 

Penicillar'ia spica'ta. Order Ora- 
mineee. The grain of this plant and of Sorghum 
vulgare form a staple food among the negroes of 

Pcnicil late. (L. penicillum, a painter's 
brush.) Applied both in Zoology and Botany to 

a body presenting a mass of hairs in the form of 
a painter's brush. 

Penicil'li lie'nis. (Nom. plural of L. 
penicillus ; lien, the spleen.) Term for the tufts 
into which the minute arteries of the spleen 
break up. 

Penicilliform. (L. penicillum ; forma, 
likeness.) Arranged in a brush or tuft. 

Penicil'lig'er. (L. penicillum ; gero, to 
bear.) Bearing a brush or tuft of hairs. 

Penicil'lium. (F. pinceau.) Term for 
a tuft-like mass of vessels or fibres spreading 
out from one point. 

Also, a Genus of saprophytic fungi, of the Class 
Ascomycetes. The branches of the mycelium are 
septate, and end in a row of conidia ; rarely 
spores are formed in asci. 

P. glau'cum. Blue mould. The com- 
monest species of all the mould-fungi. Mr. 
Berkeley thinks that the yeast of beer, Torula 
cerevisia, is a modification of P. glaucum due to 
the medium in which it is developed. 

Penicil lous. The same as Penicillate. 

Penicillum. See Penicillus. 

Penicillus. (L. penicillum or penicillus, 
a painter's brush.) Applied to the arrangement 
of minute ramifications of the vena ports in the 
lobules of the liver. 

Also, a pessary. 

Also, a tent or pledget. 

Fenic'ulus. (Dim. of L. penis.) A tent 
or pledget. 

Pen'ides. (See Penidius.) Term for 
Saccharum hordeatum. 

Fenid'ius. (From L. penis, a tail; so 
named from the shape.) Old term for Saccharum 
penidium, vel hordeatum. Its mode of prepara- 
tion is described by Schroderus. 

Pe'nile. Pertaining to the penis. 
P. cal culus. See Calculus, preputial. 
P. fis tula. See Fistula, penile. 
P. horns. See Penis, horny excrescences 


P. por tion of ure'thra. See under 


P. sheath. Term for the prepuce. 
Pe'nis. (L. penis, prob. from pendeo, to 
hang down.) The male organ of copulation. It 
is made up of two erectile bodies, the corpora 
cavernosa, placed side by side, and, between and 
below them, the corpus spongiosum, through the 
length of which passes the penile part of the 
urethra. It is covered by loose skin and con- 
• nective tissue free from fat, and, at the distal 
end, the skin is reflected on itself, forming the 
prepuce, the reflected layer being attached round 
the corona glandis (see Glaus penis). 

P., amputa'tion of. This operation 
is most commonly required for cancer. Very 
rarely it may be required for other tumours 
of the penis — cysts, na3\d or fibromata — when 
these are large. It is usually performed with 
the knife ; though the ecraseur has occasionally 
been used. The removal should be performed 
near the root of the organ, so as to be well clear 
of the disease, and some efficient mode of com- 
ression should be employed, in order to restrain 
leeding. Contraction of the urethral opening 
is obviated by slitting up with scissors the pro- 
jecting corpus spongiosum and urethra of the 
stump left after amputation, spreading out the 
flaps thus formed, and tying them with catgut to 
the skin below and corpora cavernosa above. 
P. bone. (L. os penis. G. Penisknochen.) 


An ossification occurring in the corpora caver- 
nosa found in many of the mammalia. 

P., can cer of. Almost invariably squa- 
mous-celled epithelioma, which usually grows 
from the sulcus behind the glans ; it aflects the 
body of the organ only by extension. It may 
occur either as a papillary growth, or as a Hut 
tubercle. Congenital phimosis is believed to 
predispose to this disease. The inguinal glands 
are affected early. 

P. cer ebri. Old name for the Pineal 

P., clubbed'. Term for a deformity of the 
penis consisting in a permanent deflection to- 
wards the scrotum. It has been remedied by 
the operation of removing a wedge-shaped piece 
with the base upwards, t. e. dorsally, from the 
corpora cavernosa. 

P., cru'ra of. See under Crura. 

P., crus of. See under Crus. 

P., erec tion of. This is due to over- 
filling of the blood-vessels, so that the volume of 
the penis is increased four or five times, and 
there are also increased blood-pressure, a higher 
temperature, pulsatile movement with increased 
hardness, and erection. The first factor is dila- 
tation of the arteries, brought about either by 
local nervous or by cerebral excitation, and the 
act is completed by the contraction of the erector 
penis, deep transversus perinei and the ejaculator 
urinse. The congestion of blood is not complete. 
The dilatation of the arteries is controlled by the 
Nervi erigentes, and the centre for erection, 
situated in the lumbar region of the cord, is 
further controlled by the vaso-motor centre in 
the medulla. 

P., facti'tious. See Fascinum. 

P. femin'eus. The Clitoris. 

P., g-an'grene of. True idiopathic gan- 
grene is very rare. It has generally occurred 
in old or broken-down subjects, or in those who 
have had some local affection of the penis and 
have been attacked by pyaemia, or by some acute 
fever. It is probably, in some cases, secondary to 
embolism. When the glans only is affected the 
prognosis is less grave than when the body of the 
organ is attacked ; deatli is very likely to occur 
by haemorrhage in the latter class of cases. 

Sloughing of the integuments to a variable 
extent is not uncommon as the result of inflam- 
matory phimosis or syphilitic phagedaena in 
cachectic subjects. 

P., her pes of. See Herpes preputialis 
and H. progenitalis. 

P., hor ny ezcres'cences of. Horny 
growths have been observed, springing from the 
glans penis. 

P. llpoder'nius. (T<) \ittos, fat; Stpfia, 
the skin.) Paraphimosis. 

P., lymphat ics of. The superficial set 
begin in tho prepuce and beneath the skin of the 
glans and the urethral mucous membrane, and 
form three vessels, one on the dorsum and one 
on either lateral aspect of the penis, which unite 
and again subdivide, and send branches to the 
oblique inguinal glands of the corresponding 
side. Tho deep set pass under tho pubic arch 
with the pudic blood-vessels to the lymphatic 
glands on the internal iliac artery. 

P., malforma tions of. The penis lias 
been seen adherent to the scrotum. 

Also, see Epispadias, Hypospadias, and Phi- 
mosis . 

P. mulieb'rls. The Clitoris. 

P. succeda'neus. (L. succcdaneus, sup- 
plying the place of.) See laseinum. 

P., suspensory ligament of. See 

Ligamentum suspensorium penis. 

P., tu'moura of. Fatty, nsevoid, seba- 
ceous and fibrous tumours have all been observed. 

Peni'tis. (L. penis.) Inflammation of 
the penis. 

Penja'var yam'bi. The hairs of several 
of the Cyatheas (Filices) from the Moluccas, 
used under the above name as haemostatics. See 
Penghawar djambi. 

Penj'deh ul'cer. See Pendjeh ulcer. 

Pen na. Lat. for a pen, feather, or wing. 

Penna'ceous. (L. penna, a feather. J?'. 
pennace ; G. gefiedert.) In Botany, marked with 
longitudinal stains looking like feathers. 

Pen'nagre. (Penna.) The same as 

Pennar'ious. (Penna.) In Zoology, 
having folds displayed like the barbs of a 

Pen'nate. See Pinnate. 

Pennat'icised. (L.pennatus, feathered; 
ccedo, to cut.) Applied to leaves that are cut 
into small teeth or notches. (Mirbel.) 

Pennati ferous. (L. penna ; fero, to 
bear.) Bearing feathers or feather-like ap- 

Pennat'ifid. (L. pennatus, winged or 
feathered ; findo, to cleave.) Applied to leaves 
and bracts with pennated nervures, and divided 
into lobes for nearly half their length ; also ap- 
plied to spines which have aculei disposed on the 
two opposite sides; also, to cotyledons that are 
divided into many lobes. 

Pennatifo lious. Having pennat 'ifid 

Pennatistip ulate. Having penna- 
tifid stipules. 
Pennes' electro- chemical bath. 

Considerably used in France. The proportions 
for one bath are, sodium carbonate 300 grammes, 
sodium phosphate 8, sodium sulphate 5, sulphate 
of iron 3 grammes, and 1 gramme of each of the 
following, potassium bromate, calcium carbonate, 
alum, oil of rosemary, oil of lavender, and oil of 
thyme. (Dorvault.) 

P.'s antlsep'tic flu id. A mixture of 8 
parts of carbolic acid with 2 of hydrobromic acid. 

Peunicor nate. (L. penna, a feather ; 
cornatus, from cornu, a horn.) Having pennate 
or plumose antennae. 

Penni f erous. (L. penna; fero.) 
Covered with feathers; an epithet of Blainville's 
for birds. 

Pen'niform. (L. penna ; forma.) Fea- 
ther 8baped. Applied to such muscles as have 
fibres arranged diagonally on each side of the 
tendon ; e. g. the rectus femoris. 

Pen'nlpede. (L. penna; pes, a foot.) 
Term applied to an insect whose legs are ciliated 
and penniform. 

Pennsylva nia, min eral wa ters 
of. See Bedford, Carlisle, Cresson, Gettysburg, 
Minnequa, and York. 

P. sumach. See Rhus glabra. 

Pen'nule. (Dim. of penna.) A small 
feather with a short stem and with barbs reach- 
in gnlmost to the base. 

Pen'nycress. See Thlaspi. 

Penny royal. (F. pouhot. Q. Pohi- 
munze.) The Mentha pulegium. 


P., Amer ican. See Hedeoma pulegio'ides. 
P., American, oil of. See Oleum he- 

P., hart's. The Mentha cervina. 

Pen nywort. The Cotyledon umbilicus. 
P., Asiat ic. The Hydrocotyle asiatica. 
P., marsh. The Hydrocotyle vulgaris. 
P., wall. The Pennywort. 

Penon de los Banos. See Mexico, 
mineral springs of. 

Pen-palsy. See Pen palsy. 

Pensaco la. A town in Florida. The 
climate is fairly equable and mild, and is less 
liable to north-easterly storms than is St. Augus- 
tine. It is recommended for a certain class of 
phthisical cases. 

Pen sile. (L. pensilis, hanging down.) 
Hanging down. 

Pensil ia. (Nom. plural neuter of pen- 
silis.) The external male genital organs. 

Pen'sy. See Pansy. 

Pen'ta-. (IlEi/i-as or tteVts, five.) A 
prefix used in Chemistry to denote the presence 
in a compound of five atoms of the element 

Pentacam arous. (IIe'i/tos, five ; «a- 
fiapa, anything with an arched covering.) Ap- 
plied by Mirbel to etairia formed each of five 

Pentacan thous. (TltWt, five; aicav- 
Oa, a prickle.) Applied to a fish which has five 
spinous rays to one of its fins, either the dorsal 
or anal. 

Pentacaps'ular. Pot. Having five 


Pentacarpel lary. Pot. Made up of 
five Carpels. 

Pentacar'pous. (Iltm-as, five ; Kapiros, 
fruit. G. fiinffruchtbar.) Epithet applied to a 
fruit composed of five carpels. 

Pentachai niura. {Yltv-re, five; &, 
rjriv. ; -^aww, to open wide.) Term for a simple 
fruit formed by an ovary adherent to the calyx, 
separating, when mature, into five lobes. 

Pentachelate. (n<-Vr«9, five ; x>iX>5, a 
hoof or claw.) Applied by Klein to a Family of 
the Mammifera, comprehending those with rive 

Pentacho tomous. (Jlivvaxa or irtv- 
"raxVt in fi^e divisions ; Ttpvui, to cut.) De 
Candolle's term for cymes in which each ter- 
minal flower has under it five bracteae, and gives 
origin to five branches. 

PentacOCCOUS. (Tlem-a? or ttIvtc, 
five ; ko'kkos, a kernel.) Composed of five Cocca. 
See Coccum. 

Pentacontahed'ric. Belonging to a 

Pentacontahedrum. (TltvTVKovra, 
fifty; 'iSpa, a base.) A crystal the surface of 
which is made up of fifty facets. 

Fentacy'clic. (fltuTas; KtiK\os,acircle.) 
In Botany, having five turns, or whorls. 

Pentadac'tylon. (rUy-rus; SuktuXos, 
a finger.) Name for the Potentilla reptans, or 
cinquefoil; also, for the Picinus communis, or 
castor-oil plant, the leaf of which is like a hand. 

Pentad ac tyle. (Pentadactylon) . In 
Comp. Anat. 1. Having five free rays on 
each pectoral fin. 

2. Having five divisions in each wing. 

3. Having five digits to the manus, or to both 
the manus and pes. 

Bot. Applied to leaves that have five divisions. 

Pentadel phous. (Ilti/rds ; &St\rp6?, 
a brother.) Applied to stamons, when the flower 
presents rive androphora, each charged with 
many anthers. 

Pentadyn'amous. (Tlevrds; Suvapn, 

power.) Epithet applied to a plant that has ten 
stamens, one five of which aro longer than the 
other five. 

Pentaesthesei'on. (Jltvre, five ; 
alaQavopai, to perceive by the senses. G. 
Fiinfsinnenwerk.) The title of a book on the 
five senses, published by Jul. Casscrius in 1609. 

Pentagyn'ia. (J\evt&<s; y^ij, a woman, 
the symbol of the female organ in flowers.) A 
Class of plants in the Linnrean system the flowers 
of which are characterised by having five styles. 

Pentagyn'ic. See Pentagynious. 

Pentagyn'ious. (TIei/tos; yvvn, a 
woman, the symbol of the Pistil, or female organ 
of flowers.) Having five pistils. 

Pen'tal. C 5 H, 0 . Trimethylethylene. Pre- 
pared by treating tertiary amyl alcohol with 
oxalic acid. It has been used as an anesthetic, 
but is not a safe drug. Narcosis comes on 
quickly, and soon passes off. Pental boils at 
38° C. Dose, 5 to 10 grains. 

Pentalep idous. (Ilti/rds; \e7t£s, a 
scale.) In Zoology, applied to a part that bears 
five scales. 

Penta'merous. (Ilti/Tas; /u£>os,apart.) 
Pot., Zo'61., and Entom. Composed of five similar 

Fentamethylenedia'mine. Cada- 

Penta myron. (ITEvrds ; pvpov, a sweet 
oil, or ointment. F . pentamuron ; G. Fiinfstealbe.) 
Old name for an ointment described by Aetius, 
containing five ingredients, namely, storax, opo- 
balsamum, wax, gum-mastic, and ungueutum 

Pentan'dria. (Tiim-t, five; Avvp, AvSpos, 
a man, the symbol of the stamen or male organ 
of flowers.) The 5th Class of plants in the Lin- 
noean system, characterised by the flower having 
five stamens. 

Pentan'drous. Having five stamens. 

Pen'tane. (C 5 H 12 .) The fifth member 
of the Paraffin, or CnH 2 n+ 2 , series. See also 
Amyl hydride, which is the same substance. 

Pentaneu'ron. (IIei/t«s ; vtvpov, 
originally a sinew, later, a nerve.) The five- 
nerved ; a name applied to the Plantago lanceo- 

Pentanthe rous. (UivTt ; anther, 
from &v6iipov, flowery, blooming.) Applied to a 
plant, of whose stamens five only bear anthers. 

Pentan'thous. (n ti/TE ; avQos, a 
flower.) Applied to a plant each of whose 
peduncles bears five flowers. 

Pentaphar macon. (Tlty-rds ; (j>ap- 
paKov, a drug.) Anciently applied to any medi- 
cine consisting of five ingredients. 

Pentaphyl lum. (TlEirrris ; <pu\\ov, a 
leaf.) A name for the Potentilla reptam, or 
common cinquefoil. 

Pentapleu rum. (Jlevrds ; n\ivp6v, a 
rib.) The five-ribbed ; a name for the Plantago 

h Pentar rhenous. (Jlun-at ; appnv, 
appevoi, male.) The same as Pentandrous. 

Pentasper'mous. (Jlwra? ; <nrtppa, 
a seed.) Term used for a fruit, or one compart- 
ment of a fruit, which contains five seeds. 

Penta'stoma. {lliirrd<TTopot, with five 


mouths or openings.) The characteristic genus 
of the Pentastomidce. 

P. constric'tum. (L. constrictut, con- 
tracted or constricted.) This is found in the 
larval form in the solid abdominal and thoracic 
organs of the human subject. It occurs in some 
parts of Europe, Egypt, and the West Coast of 
Africa. The larva is about five to eight lines in 
length, and one line in diameter. There are 
twenty to thirty irregular spiral constrictions at 
regular intervals. The head is flattened and 
square, and is marked on its ventral surface by 
several spots, which are in reality small claws. 
The caudal extremity is blunt and rounded. 
This larva tends to cause death from pneumonia 
and acute peritonitis. 

P. denticula'tum. The larva, or sexually 
immature form of Pentastoma tcenio'ides (Leuck- 
art), found in the liver and small intestines. 
It is only about one-eighth or one-twelfth the 
size of P. constrictum. It has an armature of 
integumentary spines. As it occurs endemically 
in Germany in the human liver, Frerichs con- 
siders it as harmless and devoid of clinical 

P. taenioi'des. This parasite is 3 or 4 
inches long ; it has the general structure of the 
Pentastomidce, and it infests man and various 
animals. It has been found encysted in the 
human lungs and liver. 

Pentastomi dce. The same as Lingua- 

Penta'stomous, Having five mouths 
or openings. 
Penta stomum denticula'tum. 

See Pentastoma dentieidatum. 

Pentasul phide. (IIei/tos; sulphide.) 
A sulphide containing five atoms of sulphur. 

Pentateuch, sur'g-ical. (Utm-a- 
Ttuxos, consisting of five books in one volume.) 
Term, by analogy, for the division into five 
classes, of external diseases ; namely, wounds, 
tumours, ulcers, fractures, and dislocations. 

Penta'theton. Old name for a certain 
plaster, mentioned by Aetius, which was used 
for bruises and excoriations of the skin. 

Pentathi'onate. (Ilsi/ras, five ; Otiov, 
sulphur.) Any salt of Pentathionic acid. 

Pentathionic acid. Old term for 
Dithionic acid. 

Penta toma. (ITsi/tos; toco's, cutting.) 
The typical genus of the Pentatomidce. 

Pentatomi'dae. A Family of the PLete- 
roptera, of very wide geographical distribution. 
Most of its members are plant-feeding bugs. 

Penta'tomum. (Iltirrds, five; tohv, 
a cutting.) A name for the Potentilla reptans 
or cinquefoil, because its leaves are cut into five 

Pen'tene. See Amylene. 

Pentho'rum. (ritin-e-, opos, a limit.) 
A Genus of the Crassulacece. 

P. sedoi'dea. (Sedum ; Gr. tlSot, like- 
ness.) The Virginia stonecrop. It is astringent. 

Pentico'sa. See Panticosa. 

Pentor'obus. (JltvTt, five ; opopos, the 
bitter vetch ; because it has seeds like that plant.) 
A name, found in Dioscorides and Pliny, for 
the Pceonia officinalis. 

Pen tsa o. A spirituous extract of un- 
ripe oranges, prepared originally by Tiedemann. 

Pen'tyl. The samo as Amyt. 
P. a'cetate. See Amy I acetate. 
P. al cohol. See Alcohol, amylic. 

P. hy dride. See Amyl hydride. 

Pen'tylene. The same as Pentyl hydride. 

Pe'nula. (L. pmnula, or penula, a kind of 
cloak.) The Rumen, or paunch. 

Penum'bra. (L. pene, or pane, almost; 
umbra, shade.) Astron. A faint shadow, or 
the extreme edge of a perfect shadow, as in an 
eclipse. Nat. Philos. A false shadow sur- 
rounding the true; a gradual transition from 
light to darkness. 

Penzance. Cornwall. Considered a 
suitable winter residence for phthisical patients. 
The average temperature ia 5'6° higher than 
that of London in winter, and 2° lower in 

Pe ony, See Pceonia. 

Pe'os. (IIe'os.) The Penis. 

Peo'tomy. (IIe'os; touv, a cutting.) Am- 
putation of the penis. 

Pe'pa de cua jo. Spanish name, used 
in Brazil and Venezuela/for the Myrislica punc- 

Pepan'sis. (Jlnraivta, to make ripe.) 
Old term for maturation, or ripening; applied 
to the " humours" of the body, and also to dis- 

Pepan'tic. See Pepastic. 
Pepasmus. (Iltiraoyios.) Maturation, 
ripening ; used of diseases. 
Also, suppuration. 

Pepastic. (Tlvwaivw, to make ripe.) 
Concocting, or maturing. Formerly applied to 
medicines believed to promote Pepamis. 

Pepei'rus. (ntVttjOos, ripe.) Ripe or 
matured. Epithet for a disease at the crisis, 

Pep'erine. See Piperine. 

Pepi'ta nux. (F.feve de Sainte-lgnace.) 
St. Ignatius' bean, the seed of Strychnos 

Pep'liS. (IlETrXt's.) The Euphorbia peplis. 

Also, the same as Peplus. 

Peplus. (JIeVAos, woven cloth.) The 
Euphorbia peplis or peplus. Also, the perito- 

Pepo. (IIeVcoi/, a kind of melon.) The 
common pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo. Also, term 
for a fleshy, succulent pericarp, having its seeds 
inserted into the sides of the fruit. Also, the 
seeds of the Cucurbita pepo (U.S. Ph.). 

P. lagrenar'lus. The Lagenaria vulgaris. 
P. vulgaris. The Cucurbita pepo. 

Pepon'ida. The same as Ptpo. 

Peponi feree. (Pepo; L. fero, to bear.) 
Agardh's name for a Class of Phanerogams all 
of which have for fruit a Pepo. 

Pepohium. The same as Pepo. 

Pep'oresin. A hard substance discovered 
by Haeckel in the husk of the seed of Cucur- 
bita pepo ; it is a vermicide. (Villaret.) 

Pepper. (L. piper.) The berries of 
Piper album and P. nigrum, powdered. Used 
as a condiment and carminative. 

P., adultera'tlons of. Of these, a great 
variety have been enumerated by various authors, 
namely : linseed-meal, rice, mustard, sago, wheat- 
flour, woody fibre, chillies, potato, rapeseed, 
spices, capsicum, maniguette, rye, chicory, pow- 
dered laurel-leaves, the stones of olives, sea- 
salt, bone-dust, and different mineral adultera- 

P., African. The Capsicum annuum. 
P.-affar'lc. See Agaricus piperatus. 
P., black. The Piper nigrum. 


P., bush, sweet. Tho CUthra alnifolia. 

P., Cayenne'. Tho powdered berries of 
Capsicum annuum. 

P., chil'H. The Capsicum annuum. 

P., cu bed. The Piper cubeba. 

P., decorticated, Fulton's. See 
Piper nigrum. 

P., dul ce. Common name for Laurencia 

P., false. The Schinus molle. 

P., grass. The Lepidium iberis. 

P., Guln'ea. The same as P., Cayenne. 

P., Jamai ca. The Eugenia pimenta. 

P., Japan'. The berries of Fagara pi- 

P., long:. The Piper longum. 

P., Malaguet ta. Name applied to the 
seeds of several of the Zingiber aceai, and also to 
the Pimento; generally used as synonymous with 
Grains of Paradise. 

P., melegue'ta. The same as P., Mala- 

P. mush room. The same as P., mele- 

P., pod. The same as P., Cayenne. 
P., poor man's. The Polygonum hydro- 

P.-root. A name for the root of Anthemis 

P., wa'ter. The same as P., poor man's. 

P. -wood. Term arising from the name 
used by the French workmen in Brazil for the 
wood of Licaria guyanensis, on account of its 
pungent dust. 

Pep'peritlg e-bush. The Berberis vul- 

Pep'permint. (F. menthe poivree ; I. 
menta piperita ; G. Pfeffermunze.) The Mentha 

P. cam phor. See Menthol. 

P. drops. (Eotula mentha piperita, 
P. G. F. pastilles de menthe d la goutte ; I. 
pastiglie di menta.) See Eotula menthce pi- 
perita, P. G. 

P. test. Used for detecting leaks in soil- 
pipes. Oil of peppermint is poured down the 
pipe, followed by some hot water. The place of 
leakage is recognised by the characteristic odour 
of the peppermint. 

P. tree. The Eucalyptus amygdalina. 

P. -wa'ter. See Aqua mentha piperita). 
Pep'perpod. The Capsicum annuum. 

P., poor man's. The Polygonum hydro- 

P., tailed'. The Piper cubeba. 
P., tur nip. The Arum triphyllum. 
P., wall. See Sedum. 
P., wa'ter. The Polygonum hydropiper. 
P., wa'ter, American. The Polygonum 

P., white. The Piper album. 
Pep'perwort. The Lepidium iberis. 
Pep'sic. See Peptic. 

Pep'sin. (IHtttw, later pres. for ■jriaa-w, 
to cook, digest.) A constituent of the gastric 
juice. It is the characteristic enzyme or hydro- 
lytic ferment that dissolves proteids in an acid 
medium, and is a colloid, albuminoid substance. 
It is formed in the chief cells of the fundus-glands 
of the stomach, not as pepsin itself, but as a 
" mother-substance," pepsinogen-substance, or 
pro-pepsin. This pro-pepsin nas no action on 
proteids ; but, treated with hydrochloric acid or 
common Bait, it is changed into pepsin. The 

pepsin and dilute hydrochloric acid of the gastric 
juice, at the temperature of the body, transform 
proteids into soluble and diffusible peptone. 
Pepsin is official in the B. Ph. 

P., acid glycerine of. A mixture 
composed of pure pepsin 1 ounce, hydrochlorio 
acid 2 drachms, glycerine 8 ounces, and water 12 

P. and bis muth tab'lets. Each con- 
tains 3 grains of bismuth subnitrate added to a 
Pepsin tablet. Dose, 1 or 2 tablets. (Ex. Ph.) 

P., Bou'dault's. (F. pepsine amylacee.) 
A French preparation of pepsin, in which it is 
mixed with starch. 

P. elixir. See Vinum pepsines. 

P. es'sence. (Liebreich's.) The curdling 
ferment in dilute glycerine solution ; it is weakly 
proteolytic. Dose, 1 to 2 drachms in water, after 
meals. (Ex. Ph.) 
Also, a name for Vinum pepsina. 

P., g-lyc'erite of. Glyceritum pepsinae. 
Pepsin 640 grains, hydrochloric acid 80 minims, 
glycerine 8 fluid ounces, purified talc 120 grains, 
water up to 16 fluid ounces. Each fluid drachm 
of the mixture is equivalent to 5 grains of 
pepsin. (Cooley's Cyclopcedia of Practical Ee- 
ceipts, 1892.) 

P., li quid. Made in two different ways : 
(1) by adding water, dilute hydrochloric acid, 
and glycerine to pepsina saccharata ; (2) by 
macerating the mucous membrane of a pig's 
stomach in water, dilute hydrochloric acid, and 

P., medicinal. (F. pepsine medicinale.) 
Pepsin, Boudault' s. 

P., sac'charated. See Pepsina sac- 

P. tab'lets. Each contains 3 grains of 
pepsin made up with chocolate. (Ex. Ph.) 

P. wine. See Vinum pepsina. 
Pepsina. Pepsin. 

P. amyla'cea. (F. pepsine acide amylacee, 
ou poudre nutritive.) Pepsin, B. Ph., with the 
addition of starch, the mixture being slightly 
acidulated with hydrochloric acid. Dose, 5 to 
15 grains. (Ex. Ph.) 

P. por'cl. (L. porcus, a hog.) Pepsin 

Prepared from the stomach of the pig. See 

P. sacchara'ta. Sugar of milk is added 
to the mucous membrane of the calf's or pig's 
stomach to help in its desiccation. Used pre- 
ferably to ordinary pepsin in the United States. 
Dose, 5 to 15 grains. (Ex. Ph.) 

Pepsinogen. (Pepsin; Gr. ytuos, de- 
scent.) The zymogen which is continually being 
formed by the protoplasm of the gastric glands, 
and is converted, during secretion, into pepsin, 
and discharged from the gland-cells. 

Pepsi num. Pepsin. 
P. sacchara turn. See Pepsina, saccha- 

Pep'sis. (ritTTTU), to cook, digest.) Di- 

Pep 'tic. (TltiTTw. F.pcptique; I. pep- 
tico ; G. peptisch.) Concerned in, or promoting, 

P. cells. See Cells, peptic. 

P. glands. See Glands, peptic. 

P. persua'der. Name for Pilula aloes et 
hinm hinm. 

Peptog-en'ic. (rhVru>; yfi/£<ris, origin.) 
Pepsin-producing. Term used for those sub- 
stances which, introduced into the stomach, 



stimulate the secretion of the pepsin of the gas- 
tric juice. 

Pep ton. Ger. for Peptone. Albumen- 
pepton is peptone derived from albumen. 

Pep tonate. {Peptone.) An organic 
metallic salt which is obtained by the action of a 
peptone on a metallic salt of an inorganic acid, 
and in which the inorganic acid-radical is re- 
placed by the peptone-radicul. 

Pep tonated. Transformed into peptone. 
P. iron, solu'tion of. The same as Pep- 
tonized iron, solution of. 
Pep tone. See Peptones. 
Also, a preparation of peptones. A white or 
light brown powder, soluble in water, made from 
the proteids and albuminoids of meat, either by 
acidification followed by the action of heat under 
pressure, or by artificially digesting with trypsin 
or pepsin, the resulting peptone being afterwards 
freed from saline substances. It is used as a test 
for bile constituents in urine, and is also added to 
jelly for artificial germ-cultivation. (Ex. Ph.) 

P., salt of, Bou dault s. Mix 400 
grammes of sodium chloride with water to form 
a thick paste, add 200 of pepsina porci, and dry 
at 40° C. Then mix another 400 of chloride of 
sodium with 5 of citric acid and add to the first 
mixture. Sift the still warm mixture, and mix 
the powder with 25 drops of essence of celery 
(G. Seller ie-essenz). 

P. test for bile. Dissolve powdered pep- 
tone 30 grains, salicylic acid 4 grains, acetic 
acid 30 minims, in 8 ounces of distilled water ; 
filter the solution until it becomes clear. Urine 
containing bile salts added to this solution gives 
an opalescence, diminishing on boiling, and com- 
pletely disappearing on the addition of citric or 
acetic acid. For quantitative estimation, the 
urine is added to the extent of one-third the 
volume of the reagent, and the amount of opales- 
cence gives, by comparison, the amount of bile 
salts. (Ex. Ph.) 

P. test pa'pers. Used for testing urine 
for albumen. Filter paper impregnated with 
peptone, potassio-mercuric iodide, potassium 
ferrocyanide and sodium tungstate. (Ex. Ph.) 

Pep tones. The soluble, diffusible bodies 
into which proteids are transformed in the pro- 
cess of gastric and pancreatic digestion. They 
are white, amorphous substances, readily soluble 
in water, forming a faintly acid solution in- 
soluble in alcohol. With alkaline and earthy 
bases they form neutral compounds. Their 
faintly acid solutions are not coagulable by boil- 
ing, nor are they precipitated by alcohol, the 
mineral acids, sulphate of sodium, or neutral 
acetate of lead; but they are precipitated by 
mercuric chloride and by tannic acid. They 
are laevo-rotatory, and they afford the xantho- 
proteic reaction and give a precipitate with 
\[illon's reagent. See also Dyspcptone and Para- 

Peptonized-, Transformed into pep- 
tones ; usually used of artificial digestion. 

P. beef. (Ex. Ph.) Prepared by artificial 
digestion of beef with acidified fresh gastric juice, 
and concentration of the product. It has the 
odour of bejf-extract. It is too bitter to bo 
readily taken by the mouth, but is useful as a 
nutritive enema. 

P. beef jelly. (Ex. Ph.) A beef extract 
containing a large proportion of the fibrin partly 
digested or changed into peptone by trypsin. 
Dos?, 1 teaspoonful at a time. 

P. beef suppositories. (Ex. Ph.) 
Each contains about 50 grains of P. beef, mixed 
with isinglass. In this way it is possible to ad- 
minister as much as 2 ounces of proteids a day. 

P. bismuth. Bismuthum peptonatum, 
Ex. Ph. A dry, brown powder containing 3-5 
per cent, of soluble oxide of bismuth. Dose, 80 

P. foods. These are given in cases where 
the digestion is feeble. Tryptic is preferable to 
peptic digestion, because the latter destroys the 
flavour of the food, and forms bitter bye-pro- 
ducts. See P. beef, &c. 

P. l'ron, solu'tion of. Liquor ferri pep- 
tonati. Dried egg albumen 10 grammes, pepsin 
•5, solution of dialysed iron 90, syrup 30, brandy 
100, distilled water to 1000 grammes. Dose, 1 
to 4 drachms. Mode of preparation, see Extra 
Pharmacopoeia, 1891. 

Pep tonizing- pow ders. Powders 
containing dry pancreatic extract, with a proper 
amount of carbonate of soda. They are prepared 
and kept ready for use by various chemists. 

Pep'tonoids of beef. Finely minced 
lean beef 8 ounces, pepsin 60 grains. Add to 
the mixture 2 drachms of dilute hydrochloric 
acid and 1 pint of water. Digest this for three 
hours at 130° F., neutralize with sodium bicar- 
bonate, and strain. (Ex. Ph.) 

Pepto num car neum cacaoti 
num. In a solution of 250 grammes of pep- 
tone, dissolve, with a gentle heat, 180 of white 
sugar, and add to the solution 100 to 125 of 
powdered cocoa, free from oil. Flavour with 
vanilla or essence of orange. On cooling, the 
mass solidifies to the consistence of a firm paste. 
(H. Sanders.) It is dissolved, as required, in 
hot water or milk, and some chocolate is added. 

Peptonu'ria. (Peptone; Gr. ovpov, 
urine.) The presence of peptone in the urine. 
Peptone is present in some albuminous urines, 
and in some non-albuminous urines. It is present 
in cases where there is suppuration, when this 
is passing off ; in these cases it comes from the 
disintegrating pus-cells. Peptonuria occurs also 
when many leucocytes become broken up in the 
blood, being common after parturition. If has 
no clinical significance. 

Pepto'sin. A concentrated preparation 
of pepsin, used in America for preparing pepsin- 
syrup, pepsin-wine, &c. 

Peptotox'in. (IltTrxo's, digested; to 
to^Uov [to£ik6s, belonging to the bow], poison 
for smearing arrows with.) A poisonous alkaloid 
formed from peptones during digestion, and be- 
coming decomposed later on, as putrefaction 
takes place. 

Per-. (L. per, through, also, thoroughly, 
completely.) In Chemistry, a prefix denoting 
an oxygenated compound containing the greatest 
possible number of atoms of oxygen that can re- 
main in it in a state of combination, without the 
addition of some other element or compound- 
radical. Thus, per-oxides, per-salts, per-acids. 

P. a 'num. By the anus. 

P. infortu nium. (L. infortunium, mis- 
fortune.) In Medical Jurisprudence, by misad- 
venture ; applied to excusable homicide, or death 
as the consequence of a lawful act done without 
any intention to hurt. 

P. rec tum. By the rectum. 

P. sal turn. (L. saltus, a jump.) By a 
jump. Term applied to the intermittent flow of 
the blood from a cut artery. 


P. ure thram. By the urethra. 

P. vagi nana. By the vagina. 

P. vl'as natura les. By the natural 

passages or channels. 

Pe'ra. (Jlfipa, a leathern pouch, especially 
for victuals.) Term for the stomach. 

Peraceph alus. (L. per, thoroughly, 
completely; Gr. aKtijiaXos, without a head.) 
Term for a class of monsters which are not only 
acephalous, but in which there is also a com- 
plete absence of the upper extremities, the 
thorax also being very imperfectly developed, or 
even absent. 

Peracute'. (L. per, thoroughly, acutus, 
acute.) Extremely acute. 

Perarticula'tion. (L. per, tho- 
roughly ; articulus, a joint.) The same as 

Peratodyn'ia. {Perm; 68uvi], pain.) 
Pain in the stomach, cardialgia. 

Perbro'mate. A salt of Perbromic acid. 

Perbro'mic a'cid. (L. per ; bromine.) 
BrO, . OH. An oily, colourless liquid. It is 
formed by the action of bromine on perchloric 

Perbro'mide. That bromide of a poly- 
atomic element or compound radical that con- 
tains the largest possible number of bromine 
atoms in combination. 

Per'ca. (fllpKi], the perch. F. perche; 
G. Barsch.) A Genus of the Order Acantho- 
pterygii. The perch. 

P. fluviat'ilis. A species of Perca com- 
mon in European rivers ; its flesh is edible, and 
has a pleasant flavour. 

Percar'buret. (L. per, thoroughly; 
carburet, which is the same as carbide.) An old 
term for a combination of carbon with another 
element, the compound containing the greatest 
possible number of molecules of carbon (e. g. 
light carburetted hydrogen is percarburet of 
hydrogen. See under Hydrogen.). 

Percar'buretted. Epithet applied to 
an element in combination with carbon in the 
condition of a Percarburet. 

Per'cepier. (F. percer, to pierce ; pierre, 
a stone.) Old name for the Alchemilla arvensis, 
given on account of a supposed solvent action on 
calculus, or stone. 

Per'cept. (L. perceptus.) In Psychol., 
the thing perceived. 

Percep'ta. (L. nom. plural neuter, sig- 
nifying doctrines, or principles.) A general term 
for Sensations or Perceptions. 

Percep'tible. Capable of being per- 
ceived ; that is, of giving rise to Perceptions. 

Perceptibility. (L. perccptio, a re- 
ceiving; habilitas, aptitude.) Power of receiv- 
ing Perceptions ; also, sometimes used for the 
state of being Perceptible. 

Percep'tion. (L. pcrcipio, to feel, per- 
ceive. G. Wahrnehmung .) The impression 
received by the cerebral cortex, with the conse- 
quent alteration in consciousness, resulting from 
stimulation of an afferent nerve-ending, or an 
organ of special sense. The mental operation of 
gaining knowledge from the action of any object 
upon the mind. 

Also, used to mean simply the referring of a 
sensation to the object- world ; that is, the giving 
it an objeotive significance. Originally, merely 
thought and sense in general. 

Percep'tive faculties. (L.percipio; 
facullas, capability; from facilis, easy.) Those 

faculties that take cognizance of the existence 
and physical qualities of external objects. 

Perceptivity. {Perceptive.) The 
power of receiving Perceptions ; that is, of per- 

Perch. See Perca. 

Per cha lamella ta, P. G. {Percha, 
the Malayan name for the tree Isonandra gutta ; 
lamella, dim. of L. lamina, a plate of metal.) 
Gutta-percha formed into thin, flat, transparent 
sheets ; also called gutta-percha paper. (G. Out- 
taper chapapier.) 

Per'chepier. Another spelling of Per- 

Ferchi'dae. See Percidee. 
Perchlo'rate. (L. per, signifying com- 
pletely ; chlorate.) A salt of Perchloric acid. 
Perchlore'thane. Chloroform, or 

Carbon terchloride. 

Perchloric acid. HC10 4 . Name 
given to an acid discovered by Count Stadion, in 
1816, and obtained by distilling perchlorate of 
potassium with an equal weight of sulphuric 
acid diluted with a fourth part of water. Also 
called Oxychloric acid. It is formed by the de- 
composition of Chloric acid on exposure to heat 
or light. 

Perchlo'ride. That chloride of a 
polyatomic base which contains in combina- 
tion the greatest possible number of chlorine 

P. of for'myl. A name for Chloroform. 
See Formyl. 

Perchlo ridum. L. form of the word 

Perchlorme'thane. See Carbon 

Perchlo'ruret. Old name for Per- 

Perci'dce. (L. perca, a perch.) A Family 
of the Acanthopterygii, having the Perca for 
their type. 

Fercip'iolum. (L. percipio, to per- 
ceive, comprehend.) Paracelsian term for an 
approved remedy. 

Percola'tion. (L. percolare, to strain 
through.) The process, used especially in the 
preparation of the official tinctures of the B. Ph., 
of placing the substance, the soluble active prin- 
ciples of which it is desired to extract, in a 
powdered state in a percolator, and pouring 
over it successive quantities of menstruum, until 
all the soluble matters are extracted, and are 
present in solution in the various portions of the 

Per'colator. (L. percolare.) A conical 
vessel used fur percolation. 

Percuss'. To perform Percussion. 

Percus'sion. (L. perculio, to strike.) 
The striking of one body sharply against another. 
Percussion has been used in Surgery in the treat- 
ment of ununited fracture of bone. See P. in 
ununited fracture. 

In Medicine, the method of striking the sur- 
face of the body in order to produce a sound that 
shall indicate the condition of the subjacent 
organs. Medical percussion was known to Hip- 
pocrates, but was only used in abdominal dis- 
eases. It was not until the time of Auenbrugger 
that its use was suggested for* diseases of the 

In Therapeutics, striking or tapping with the 
hand or with an instrument, as a part of mas- 



P., auscul'tatory. See Acouophonia. 

P.i deep. Forcible percussion, used to 
throw into vibration the deeper layers of the 
part percussed. 

P., direct'. The same as P., immediate. 

P. ham'mer. See under Plessor. 

P., imme diate. This is performed by the 
fingers striking directly upon the surface to be 

P. In un united frac ture. H. 0. 

Thomas introduced percussion of the ends of 
the bones, by means of a copper mallet, for un- 
united fracture, the skin heing protected over the 
fracture by a piece of felt. It is done under an 
anaesthetic, and may be continued for ten minutes. 
The limb is put up, as after a recent fracture, for 
four or six weeks. 

P., me diate. In this method, the fingers 
strike a plessor, placed flat upon the surface to 
be percussed ; the plessor being either an instru- 
ment made for the purpose, generally of vul- 
canite, or a finger of the other hand placed in 
accurate approximation to the surface. 

P. nols'es. Percussion sounds devoid of 

P. note. A percussion sound possessing 
tone, characterised by a certain intensity, dura- 
tion, and pitch. 

P. resis'tance. The sense of resistance 
perceptible by the percussing fingers. It is in- 
versely proportional to the compressibility of 
the part percussed. 

P. res'onance. The resonance produced 
by percussion of the fairly tense walls of an air- 
containing cavity. The term is used as syno- 
nymous with P. tone. 

P. sounds. Sounds produced by percus- 
sion. In all such sounds are recognised loud- 
ness or intensity, pitch, and duration, and in 
some percussion sounds tone is also to be reco- 

P., superficial. Light or gentle per- 
cussion, used to throw into vibration only the 
superficial layers of the part percussed. 

P. thrill. The thrill generated by deep 
percussion of the front of the chest, in cases in 
which the chest-walls are yielding. It is an 
invariable concomitant of the " cracked-pot 

P. tone. A tone, or musical sound, gene- 
rated by percussion. All percussion tones are 
produced by resonance ; hence, in percussion, 
the two words tone and resonance are syn- 

P. tone, os'teal. See Resonance, osteal. 
P.-wave. See under Pulse. 

Per'cuteur. See Heurteloup 1 s percuteur. 

Perde'sis. (TUpdrjari^ (Hipp.) ; from 
irip&opai, to break wind.) A breaking wind. 

Perde turn. Old name for the root of 
Sium sisarum. 

Perdicar'ia. The same as Perdicium. 

Perdi ceao. Applied by D. Don to a Tribe 
of the Labiates, having the Perdicium for their 

Perdicium. (Ilip8t£, a partridge; so 
named, because partridges were Baid to feed upon 
it.) Old name for the Parietaria officinalis. 

Perdi'tio. (L. per do, to lose, or cast 
away.) Old term for Abortion. 

Per'dix. (Jliplii}-.) See Partridge. 
P. clner'ea. The groy, or common part- 
ridge. This bird is found pretty generally over 
England and Scotland. 


P. ru'bra. The red partridge. Found in 
some parts of England, also in various parts of 
Asia, Africa, and Southern Europe. It is ac- 
cused, in England, of driving off the common 
partridge, which, it is feared, may in time be- 
come extirpated by it. 

Perdo nium. Old term for wine medi- 
cated with herbs. (Paracelsus.) 

Perei'ra, Dr. Jon athan. An emi- 
nent English pharmacologist, born 1804, died 

Perei'ra. (After Dr. Pereira.) The 

Geissospermum Iceve. 

P. med'lca. The Coscinium fenestratum. 

Perei'ria. The same as Pereira mediea. 

Perei'rin. A bitter alkaloid obtained, to- 
gether with geissospermin, from the Pao Pereiro. 
It is a febriluge. 

Perei'ro. A Brazilian name for several 
species of native trees, whose bark has a febri- 
fuge action. See Pao Pereiro. 

Perembryo. (L. per; embryo. F. 
perembryon.) Link's name for the portion of 
the embryo in Monocotyledons which contains in 
its interior the radicles and plumule, not appa- 
rent externally. 

Peren chyma. (Jlepi, around ; lyxvua, 
that which is poured in.) Hagel's term for the 
cellular tissue of mature plants. 

Perennial. (L. perennis, everlasting. 
F. perpetual ; G. bestandig.) Lasting through 
years; generally applied to those plants the 
roots of which produce annually herbaceous 
stems which die down to the neck, or life-knot, 
each season. 

Perennibranchia'ta. (L. perennis, 
perpetual; branchiae, the gills.) A Group of 
Amphibia whose branchiae persist throughout life. 

Perete'rion. (riE,o»iT»;oioi', a borer.) An 
ancient kind of sharp, straight trephine men- 
tioned by Hippocrates, one special use of which 
was to make an opening into the chest in cases 
of pleurisy. 

Pere'zia. A Genus of the Composites. 

P. adna'ta. Hab. Mexico. The rhizome 
and rootlets are purgative. See PipUzahoac. 
P. fructico'sa. A syn. for P. adnata. 
P. na'na. Contains Pipitzahoic acid. 
P. Wrlght'li. Contains Pipitzahoic acid. 
Perflation. (L. perfio, to blow through.) 
A blowing through. 
Also used for Perspiration. 
Perfolia ta. A name for the Buplcurum 

Perfoliate. (L. per, through ; folium, a 
leaf.) Applied to plants whose leaves have the 
stem running through them; also, to opposite 
leaves united at their bases. 

Per'forans. (L. perforo, to bore through. 
Y.perforant; G. durchhohrend.) Perforating. 

P. Casser'U. Name for the Musculo- 
cutaneous nerve of the arm. 

P. ma nus. The Flexor pr ofundus digilo- 
rum muscle. 

P. mus cuius. Term used both for the 
Flexor profundus digitorum and Ffcxor longus 
digitorum pedis muscles. 

Perforated. (L. perforatus.) Bored 

P. membrane. See Fenestrated mem- 

P. space, ante'rlor. The P. spot, an- 


P. space, posterior. The P. spot, pos- 

P. spot, ante rior. See Locus perforates 

P. spot, poste'rlor. See Locus perforatus 

Per forating 1 . (L. perforo.) Boring 

P. ar'teries. See Arteria perforans, and 
Arterice perforantes. Also, see under separate 

P. cuta'neous nerve. A slender branch 
from the fourth sacral nerve, passing backwards 
through the great sacro-sciatic ligament, and 
then turning.upwards round the lower border of 
the gluteus maximus, to supply the skin over its 
lower and inner part. 

According to Schwalbe, this nerve is a branch 
of the Pudic. 

P. ul cer of foot. A local disease ap- 
parently due to impairment of the nutrition of 
the foot, either from degeneration of the nerves 
leading to it, or of the corresponding part of the 
sensory columns in the spinal cord. It usually 
begins by a corn opposite the head of the first 
metatarsal bone. This inflames and suppurates, 
leaving a sinus which is found to lead down to 
bare bone. The disease is painless, and there is, 
more or less widely, anaesthesia of the foot, and 
perhaps also of the lower part of the leg. There 
is a tendency for the disease slowly to extend, 
sometimes perforating the foot ; the whole foot is 
cold, and liable to profuse, foetid sweatings. 

A similar ulceration has been known to affect 
the hand, and occasionally both feet are affected 
by it. The sensory nerve-fibres are mainlv, if 
not solely, affected. (Savory and Butlin.) it is 
now believed to be in most cases a symptom of 
Tabes dorsalis. 

P. ves'sels of bone. The vessels run- 
ning in Volkmann's canals of bone. 

Perforation. (L. perforo, to bore 
through.) 1. A hole passing through the whole 
thickness of any structure. 2. The formation of 
such a hole, as through the wall of the intestine, 
stomach, &c. 3. Sometimes used for the opera- 
tion of trephining . 4. In Obstetrics, the opera- 
tion of making a hole through the foetal skull 
with the perforator, in the performance of 

Per'forator. (L. perforo, to bore 
through.) An instrument for perforating the 
foetal skull in order to evacuate the contents, as a 
preliminary step in the operation of craniotomy. 
The perforator consists, either of two handles 
and two short, conical, pointed blades which can 
be approximated or separated at will, or of a 
trephine with a long handle. 

P., Old ham s. See Oldham' s perforator. 

P., Simpson's. See Simpson's per- 

Perforato rium. The same as Perfora- 

Perfora'tus. (L. perforo, to bore 
through. P. perfore ; G. durchbohrt.) Per- 

P. Casse'ril. Name for the Coraco- 
brachialis muscle. 

P., mus' cuius. Term for both the flexor 
sublimis digitorum, and the flexor brevis digi- 
torum pedis. 

Perfrica'tlon. (L. per, through ; frico, 
to rub.) A thorough rubbing or chafing of the 

Perfric'tiO. (L. perfrigeo, perfrictum, 
to shiver with cold.) The same as Perfrige~ 

Perfrigera'tio. (L. per ; frigus.) The 
same as Rigor. 
Perfrig/e'rium. (L. per ; frigus, cold. 

F. perfrigerion ; G. Durchfrieren.) A chill- 
ing, shivering, or stiffness from cold. 

Perfumed spirit. See Aqua colo- 

Perfu'sio. (L. per, through ; fundo, 
fusum, to pour.) Perfusion, a pouring over; 
applied to oathings of the whole, or a part, of 
the body. 

Perfu'sion can'nula. A two-way 
cannula; used for washing out internal cavities. 

Pergamenta'ceous. (jitpya^vv, 
parchment.) Parchment-like. 

Pergular'ia. A Genus of the Asclepia- 
dacece, growing in India, Madagascar, and the 

P. edu'lls. This species yields a milky 
juice, which is used as a substitute for milk. 

P. erec'ta. This species secretes a milky 
juice, of an unpleasant odour, which has a power- 
ful narcotic action. Landerer extracted from 
this plant a crystalline substance, Marsdenin, 
which is closely allied to Emetin. 

Perhydriod uret. Old term for that 
hydriodate (hydrioduret) that contains the 
greatest possible proportion of hydriodic acid in 
the compound molecule. 

Periac'inous. {Tlepi, round; acinus.) 
Surrounding an acinus. See Acinus. 

Periadeni tis. (Iltpt, round; dSnv, a 
gland.) Inflammation of the connective tissue 
round a gland. 

PeriEere'sis. (Jltpi, around ; alpia>, to 
take away.) A circular incision, made by the 
ancient surgeons, round a large abscess or 

Perial'ges. (Jllpi, a poetic form of irtpi, 
signifying very much ; aXyos, signifying any 
pain, bodily or mental. P. perialge.) Very 
painful or sad. 

Perial'g'ia. Excessive, very acute pain. 
See Perialges. 

Perial'gic. Belonging to Tenalgia. 

Periam ma. (ntpiap.p.a, anything hung 
about the body, as an amulet.) An amulet. 

Perianal. {iltpi; L. anas.) The same 
as Periproctic. 

Perian'dric. {Tltpl, round; avvp, av- 
dpos, a man; term applied to a stamen.) Applied 
to a nectary when it encircles the stamens. 

Periangeio'ma. (n ground; &yytiov, 
a blood-vessel.) A new growth surrounding a 

Perianth. (Ilfpc, round; avOos, a flower. 

G. Bliithendecke.) The floral envelope, whether 
it consists of one whorl (as in the typical Mono- 
cotyledons), when it is termed simple, or of two 
whorls (constituting the calyx and corolla of 
typical Dicotyledons), when it is termed double. 

Perian'theous. Applied to a flower 
that has either a simple or double perianth. 

Perian'thian. Applied by Mirbel to 
indusia that proceed from a simple perianth. 
See Indusium. 

Perian thine. Belonging to, or charac- 
teristic of, a perianth. 

Periap ton. (nEjoi'cnn-os, hung about.) 
An amulet. 

Periarteri'tis. (JItpi't arteritis.) 



Term for inflammation of the tunica adventitia 
of an artery. 

Periarthritis. (Uepi; arthritis.) 
Inflammation of the tissues round a joint. 

Periartic'ular. (nipt, round ; L. ar- 
ticulus, a joint.) Round a joint. 

P. car tilages. Cartilages covering the 
circumference of an articular surface. 

Perla torn. (nipt, round; ai-o/uo?, an 
indivisible particle of matter.) BarcelFs term 
for the invisible pores constituting porosity. 

Periblast. (IIeo/, round; /3Xao-Tos, a 
hud or germ.) The nucleus or endoblast. 

Per'iblem. A tissue lying beneath the 
dcrmatogen that covers the apex of the growing 
point in Angiosperms. See Periblema. 

Perible ma. (Jltpi@a\\w, to throw 
round or over.) The same as Catablema. 

Periblepsis. {Uepifi\tiru>, to gaze 
around.) Old term for the wild expression of 
face of a delirious patient. 

Periblep'tic. Belonging to Periblepsis. 

Peri bole. (Il£/oij3o\>;, a throwing round ; 
from TrtpiPaWw, to throw round.) Old term 
used by Hippocrates for the external dress of the 
body; also, for the pericardium; also, for the 
morbid cutaneous secretions, or excretions, oc- 
curring during the exanthemata and in cuta- 
neous diseases. 

Peribol'ic. Belonging to Peribole. 

Peribronchi tis, (ritpi; bronchitis.) 
Inflammation of the peribronchial connective 

Peribro'sis. {Hepipippwo-Kw, to gnaw 
round about.) Term for an ulceration or erosion 
at the canthi of the eyelids, arising from the 
irritation due to tears, or from agilops. 

Peribro'tic. Belonging to Peribrosis. 

Pericaecal. (IIe/h; ceecum.) Round 
the cmcum. 

P. ab'scess. See Abscess, pericecal. 

Peri'caes. {Tlepucam, on fire all round, 
burning hot.) Also written Pericaeis and Peri- 
kaes. Burning hot. An adjective used by Hip- 
pocrates to distinguish those fevers in which 
excessive heat is felt by the hand placed on the 
skin, from other fevers in which the skin does 
not feel specially hot. 

Pe'rical. (G-. Perical; I. perical.) The 
French name for Madura foot. 

Pericam"bium. (n«p£, round ; cam- 
bium.) A layer of parenchyma lying internal 
to the endodermis in the roots of woody plants. 

Pericar diac. Belonging to the Peri- 

P. arteries. Small offsets from the 
thoracic aorta and the internal mammary, sup- 
plying the pericardium. 

P. pleu'ra. See Mediastinal pleura. 

P. veins. Small veins that collect the 
blood from the pericardium, and open, some into 
the vena cava superior and some into the right 
azygos vein. 

Pericardi'aco-phren'ic ar'te- 
ries. Term for the pericardiac branches of 
the internal mammary artery which join offsets 
from the sternal branches of the same artery and 
others from the superior phrenic, bronchial, and 
intercostal arteries, to form, beneath the pleura, 
the subpleural mediastinal plexus. (Turner.) 

Pericar'dial. The same as Pericar- 

P. adhe sion. A fibrous adhesion formed 
between the two adjacent surfaces of the peri- 


cardium in pericarditis. See Pericardium, ad- 

P. effu'slons. 1. Occurring as a part of 
Pericarditis. In simple pericarditis, there is 
an effusion of serum between the two layers of 
pericardium already coated each with a laver of 
lymph. After a time, the fluid is usually ab- 
sorbed. In purulent pericarditis, pus is effused 
into the pericardial sac. 

2. Mydropericardium and pneumo-hydroperi- 

3. Hamopericardium. 

P. flu id. The lymph, small in quantitv 
in health, secreted by the two adjacent surfaces 
of the pericardium. It has the usual compo- 
sition of serous fluid. 

P. friction. The friction between the 
two adjacent roughened pericardial surfaces in 
pericarditis. See P. rub. 

P. rub. The friction-sound produced by 
the rubbing together of the two adjacent peri- 
cardial surfaces when roughened by the deposit 
of lymph in pericarditis. It occurs early, and 
usually persists throughout the disease. At first 
the friction-sound is usually a sort of double- 
shuffling sound occurring during systole and 
diastole, but not necessarily synchronous with 
the heart-sounds. Later on, the sound becomes 
loud and harsh, resembling the friction of two 
hard, roughened surfaces. It is occasionally 
triple. It is heard at first usually at the base, 
later on over the whole proecordium, and it is 
rendered more marked by firm pressure of the 

P. sounds. See P. rub. 
Pericardii, paracentesis. See 
under Paracentesis. 

Pericar'dio-pleu'ral cavity. 

Name for that part of the pleuro-peritoneal 
cavity or body-cavity of the embryo, which con- 
tains the developing pleura and pericardium. 

Pericar'dio-pneumato sis. (IIi/eu- 
juaTtocrts, a blowing or puffing up.) The same 
as Pneumopericardium . 

Pericar dio-thyroi deus. {Peri- 
cardium; thyroid.) Name for a band of muscle 
that passes from the isthmus of the thyroid 
gland to the anterior surface of the fibrous 
layer of the pericardium, and is thought to be 
a separated fasciculus of the sterno-thyroid 

Perlcardit'ic. Belonging to Peri- 

Pericardi tis. {Pericardium ; terminal, 
•itis. F. pericar dite ; I. pericardite ; G. Hertz- 
beutelentzundung .) Inflammation of the peri- 
cardium. It is very rarely idiopathic, nearly 
always occurring as a complication of acute 
rheumatism, Bright's disease, pleuro-pneumonia, 
scarlatina, or septicaemia. The characteristic 
symptoms are, intense pain over the pnecordium 
and epigastrium, sometimes radiating over the 
chest and down the inner side of the left upper 
arm, accompanied by dyspnoea and pyrexia. _ Of 
the physical signs, the earliest are the friction- 
rub (see Pericardial rub) and a disturbed, trem- 
bling action of the heart. When fluid has formed, 
there is the characteristic increase of precordial 
dullness, and often there is precordial bulging. 
The heart-sounds are feeble and distant, and 
the apex-beat is either displaced upwards, or is 

P. exsudato'rla sanguinolen'ta. 
Term for H<emopericardiuin. 


P. baemorrhag'lc. This variety is oc- 
casioned by the blood-vessels formed in the 
organised lymph in pericarditis becoming rup- 
tured, and thus forming patches of haemorrhage 
on the pericardial surfaces. 

P., plas tic. That variety in which the 
formation of plastic lymph is the characteristic 
process, and the effusion of serum is inappre- 
ciable or absent. 

P., pur'ulent. In this variety pus is 
effused into the pericardial cavity. It occurs in 
pyaemia and septicaemia. It is often secondary 
to abscess in the heart-muscle, which is fre- 
quently the result of acute necrosis of the long 

P., suppurative. The same as P., 

P., tubercular. This occurs as a part 
of general tuberculosis. Miliary tubercles are 
formed in the pericardium, and in the inflam- 
matory new tissue upon its surface. 

Pericardium. (jn*p'h round; Kapcia, 
the heart.) The double membranous sac in which 
the heart is contained. It is roughly conical, 
its wide base resting on the diaphragm, and its 
narrow upper part surrounding the trunks of the 
great vessels. It consists of a fibrous, external, 
and a serous, internal layer. The fibrous layer 
is composed of dense, interlacing fibres. It is 
attached below to the upper surface of the 
central tendon and adjoining muscle (especially 
on the left side) of the diaphragm. In front, 
two firm, ligamentous bands pass to join it, 
from the manubrium and ensiform process of the 
sternum. (Luschka.) This layer is continued 
upwards for some distance upon the aorta, the 
superior cava, the four pulmonary veins and the 
two divisions of the pulmonary artery; but gradu- 
ally becomes indistinguishable. The serous layer 
lines the fibrous layer, and is reflected on the 
surface of the heart. Its parietal part is firmly 
adherent to the fibrous layer. It becomes re- 
flected and continuous with the visceral part 
along the great vessels, about 1£ inches from 
the base of the heart. It completely encloses 
the pulmonary artery and aorta in a common 
tubular sheath, and is reflected upon the superior 
cava and the four pulmonary veins, forming a 
deep recess posteriorly between the junction of 
the right and left pulmonary veins with the left 
auricle. The inferior cava is only partly sur- 
rounded by this layer for the very short dis- 
tance between its origin and the opening in the 
diaphragm through which it passes. 

Also, see P., vestigial fold of. 

P., adher'ent. This occurs as a result of 
pericarditis. It varies from the formation of a 
few thin filaments, to complete union between 
the two layers of the serous pericardium ; the 
union in the latter case may be either by a thin 
layer or by a firm fibrous coat a quarter to half 
an inch thick. Calcareous matter is sometimes 
deposited in the fibrous tissue. Extensive ad- 
hesions sometimes hamper the heart's action, 
and give rise to dilatation and hypertrophy. 
The only distinctive symptoms are those of the 
occasionally-resulting dilatation and hyper- 
trophy. Distinct physical signs are absent ex- 
cept when there are also anterior pleuro-peri- 
cardial adhesions ; in such cases there is retrac- 
tion of the lower part of the sternum during the 
ventricular systole. 

P., ar'teries of. Branches are given off 
to the pericardium from the internal mammary 

artery, and also from the descending thoracic 

P., development of. The pericardium 
arises from an extension of the wall of the 
cwlome, or body-cavity of the embryo, which 
becomes folded round each side of the developing 
heart, after that organ has been formed by the 
union of the two original tubes. See Heart, de- 
velopment of. 

P. externum. The outer or fibrous layer 
of the pericardium. 

P., fluid of. See Pericardial fluid. 
P. inter num. The inner or serous layer 
of the pericardium. 

P., lacera'tion of. This may occur from 
a severe blow on the chest. Erichsen mentions 
a case ia which the pericardium was torn longi- 
tudinally for two or three inches, froni the con- 
tusion produced by a fall. 

P., veins of. See Pericardiac veins. 
P., vestigial fold of. (Marshall.) A 
duplicature of the serous layer of the pericar- 
dium, including areolar tissue and fat together 
with nerves and blood-vessels, half or three 
quarters of an inch long, and from half to one 
inch deep. It is situated between the pulmonary 
artery and the subjacent pulmonary vein, and is 
seen when these are separated. It is developed 
round the left duct of Cuvier, and, in the adult, 
a fibrous cord, or sometimes a narrow vein, 
representing part of the remains of that duct, 
passes down in this vestigial fold to join the 
coronary sinus, the part of the left duct of 
Cuvier that still remains pervious. 

P. viscera'le. (Visceralis; from L. 
viscera, nom. plural of viscus, the internal 
organs.) The same as P. internum. 

P., wounds of. It may be wounded by a 
stab, without injury to the heart. Collapse 
usuall}' occurs, followed by inflammation and 
subsequent pericardial effusion. The symptoms 
are thoracic oppression, dyspnoea and restless- 
ness, with a small, frequent pulse. One of the 
coronary vessels may be wounded, with conse- 
quent noamopericardium ; in such a case the 
heart-sounds are weak and remote, the impulse 
is probably imperceptible, and the dullness dif- 
fused. The prognosis is unfavourable. 

Pericarp. (Jltpt, round ; nap-nos, fruit.) 
The seed-vessel in plants. 

Pericar'pial. Belonging to a Pericarp. 

Pericentric. {Uepi, round; KlllTpOV, 
the central point in a circle.) Round the 
centre ; specially applied to the stamens in cer- 
tain flowers. 

Pericepas'trum. See Periscepastrum. 

Pericephalic ar'tery. (n^i- 
KifpaXot, tied round the head.) A name for the 
External carotid. 

PerichaVtial. Pertaining to the Peri- 

Perichee'tium. (Jlepi, around ; x ai,T 'h 
long, flowing hair.) The scaly sheath investing 
the fertile flower and the base of the foot-stalk 
in some mosses. 

Ferichar acter. (IlEpt, around ; x«P- 
aKTnp (xopao-o-oi), an instrument for marking or 
engraving.) Old name for an instrument used 
for separating the gum from a tooth ; probably 
similar to the modern dental scarificator. 

Pericharei'a. (Tltpixdpiia, exceeding 
joy.) Old term for sudden and vehement joy, 
as opposed to Ecplexia. (Galen.) 

Pericholecystitis. <Jlt P i; chole- 


cystitis.} Inflammation of the peritoneum im- 
mediately covering the gall-bladder. 

Pericholia. The condition of being 

Peri cholous. (Jlipl, beyond, in excess ; 
yo\>;, bile.) Having an excess of bile; hence 
bilious, since this condition was formerly sup- 
posed to be due to an excessive secretion of bile. 

Perichondriodyn'ia. (Perichon- 
drium; Gr. o&uiii), pain.) Pain referred to the 
perichondrium, that is, to the surface of any 

Perichondrit'ic. Belonging to Peri- 

Perichondritis. (Perichondrium ; 
terminal -itis. G . Knorpelhautentziindung .) In- 
flammation of the perichondrium. 

P. auriculae. Perichondritis of the 
auricle or external ear. This is extremely pain- 
ful, especially when affecting the anterior Bur- 
face ; when affecting the posterior surface it often 
results in the formation of large abscesses. The 
cartilage rarely becomes necrosed. The causes 
are similar to those of perichondritis in other 

P., larynge al. See Larynx, perichon- 
dritis of. 

P. of epiglot tis. This occurs as a secon- 
dary affection in tuberculosis, syphilis, carci- 
noma, &c. The onset is sudden, and is accom- 
panied by general fever, and by dyspnoea. It 
results in ulceration, not in abscess with conse- 
quent necrosis. 

Perichondrium. (Tltph round; 
voi/fipos, gristle. F. perichondre ; I. pericon- 
drio ; G. Knorpelhaut.) The vascular fibrous 
membrane covering all cartilages except those 
of the joints. 

Perichondroma. (Perichondrium.) 
1. A cartilaginous tumour that has no bony 
shell. 2. A tumour growing from the peri- 

Perichor'dal. (IIspi, round; chorda, 
the chorda dorsalis or notochord.) Formed round 
the chorda dorsalis or notochord. The normal 
type of formation of the vertebral column in 

Perichoroidal. (Utpt; choroid.) En- 
circling the choroid. 

P. space. The lymphatic space between 
the choroid and sclerotic of the eyeball, com- 
municating, where the vessels and nerves pierce 
the sclerotic, with the space enclosed by Tenon's 

Perichri'sis. (Tleplxpi™, a besmear- 
ing.) Old term for a liniment. 

Perichris'ton. (nt/nxptcrros; be- 
smeared.) The same as Perichrisis. 

Perichysis. (ntpi'xuo-ts, a pouring 
around.) Old term for insensible perspiration 

Periclad'ium. (Uipl, round; k\<1Sos, 
a young branch.) Link's term for the widening 
at the base of the petioles in some plants. 

Peri'clasis. (Flt/ji'/cXao-is, a breaking, or 
fissure.) Old term for a complete fracture; 
generally used for a compound comminuted 

Periclinium. (TItpi, round; k\£i/>;, a 
bed.) H. Cassini's term for the collection of 
bracts surrounding the mass of flowers in the 
Synanthereat ; tho "Calyx communis" of Lin- 
meus, and " Periphorantnium" of Richard. 

Periclym'enum. (n.tptK\vp.tvou, a 

creeping kind of shrub, perhaps the honey- 
suckle.) The common Honeysuckle. 

Pericne'mia. {nipt, round;, the 
leg proper, the part between the knee and ankle.) 
Nom. sing, fern., the tibia; nom. pi. n., the parts 
about the leg. 

Pericne'mious. Pertaining to the 

Peri cola. (Jltpi, round; koXeo?, a scab- 
bard. F. pericole.) Pallot-Beauvois' name for 

Pericoloni'tis. (Uipl; colon.) In- 
flammation of the sub-peritoneal connective 
tissue round the colon. 

Pericolpitis. (Tltpi, round; Ko\xot, a 
sinus or bag, used for the vagina.) Inflamma- 
tion of the connective tissue round the vagina. 

Pericon'che. (ITe/si, round; Koyx>h a 
mussel, afterwards the eye-socket, so named 
from its shape.) The lining membrane or peri- 
osteum of the orbit. 

Periconchi'tis. Inflammation of the 

Pericor'neal. (Tlspi; cornea.) Round 
the cornea. 

Pericoroilate. (Tltpi; see Corolla.) 
Applied to a Division of the Monopetala with 
perigyuous corollas. 

Pericra nia. See Pericranium. 

Pericranioede ma. OSdenia of the 

Pericrani'tis. (Pericranium. G. Schii- 
delhautentziindung .) Inflammation of the peri- 

Pericra'nium. (Utpi, around; Kpaviov, 

the skull. F. pericrune ; I. pericranio ; G. 
Schudelhaut.) The periosteum of the outer sur- 
face of the skull. 

Peri'culum. (L. periculum, a trial, ex- 
periment; from root peri.) Trial, risk, or 

Pericystitis, (ncpi; cystitis.) In- 
flammation of the connective tissue round the 
urinary bladder. 

Pericystomati'tis. (Ucpi; cystoma.) 
Inflammation of the capsule of an ovarian cys- 
toma or cyst. 

Peridectom'ia. (TIepi, around; S in- 
terpolated; tKTopn (i-KTtfivuj) , a cutting out.) 
The same as Pentomy. 

Peridenti'tis. See Periodontitis. 

Perideree'a. (Utpi, round; 6e>ii, the 
neck.) That which is placed round the neck ; 
applied to the winding of the umbilical cord 
round the neck of the foetus. 

Perider'ia. The same as Peridcrcca. 

Periderm. (Pcridcrma.) A strength- 
ened substitute for the epidermis in woody 
plants. It is developed from the outer side of 
the Phelloqen layer. 

Perider'ma. (Uipi, round; Slp/xa, the 
skin.) Used in the same sense as Perideraa ; 
also, in Botany, the same as Periderm. 

PerideB'micus. (Peridesmium.) Term 
for retention of urine caused either by urethral 
stricture or by a ligature tied round the penis. 

Peridesmi'tis. (Peridesmium ; terminal 
itis. F. peridesmite ; G. fiandcrhautentzimd- 
mia.) Inflammation of the Peridesmium. 

Peridesmium. (Dtp/, around ; 
ftiov or <5jo-/uos, a band. G. Jianderhaut.) The 
areolar tissue ensheathing a ligament. 

Peridia stole. (Uipi ; diastole.) Term 
for the hardly appreciable interval of time be- 



tween the diastole of the heart and the follow- 
ing systole. See also Perisystole. 

Perididymis. (Tltpl, round; olSiSvpot, 
the testicles. F. perididyme ; I. perididimo.) 
The Tunica albuginea testis. 

Perididymi tis. (Perididymis, ter- 
rninal tits.) Inflammation of the perididymis. 

Peridinium fus'cum, Inept, round; 
dlvti, a whirling; L. fuscus, dusky.) A Pro- 
tozoal of the Order Euglenae found in the water 
of some rivers, and giving them a red tinge 
during the summer-time; as, for example, the 
river Itchen at Southampton. 

Peridiody nia. (Tltipldi.ov, dim. from 
Tn'ipa, a leathern pouch ; oovvw, pain.) The 
same as Perodynia. 

Perid'iole. (Peridiolum, dim. of peri- 
dium.) Term for the internal peridium, when 
there are two, the one upon the other. 

Perid ium. (jTiijoioioi;, dim. of -nvpa, a 
leathern pouch. F.peridion; G. Peridie, Um- 
schlag.) The round, membranous seed-case of 
some of the mushrooms, e.g. Lycoperdon. (Per- 
soon.) Applied by Link to the envelope of a 
fruit that is either simple or many-valved. 

Peri dromos. (TltplSpopos, encompas- 
sing.) Old term for the extreme circumference 
of the head, measured round the hair. 

Perie g"es. (Jltpmyts, lying in a circle.) 
Circular. Applied by Hippocrates, de Dissect. 4, 
to the cartilaginous rings of the Arteria aspera, 
or trachea. 

Periencephalitis. (Uepi; encepha- 
litis.) The same as Leptomeningitis. 

Perien'cbyma. (Tltpl, around; iy- 
XUjurt, that which is poured in.) Hayne's term 
for that kind of vegetable cellular tissue found 
in spherical organs such as glands, perisperms, 
and cotyledons, where the cells are disposed 
without any apparent order. 

Perienteri'tis. (Tltpl; enteritis.) In- 
flammation of the subperitoneal connective 
tissue surrounding the intestine. 

Perien'teron. (Utpi, round; Ivrtpov, 
an intestine, usually the mid-gut of the em- 
bryo.) The primitive body-cavity or Cceloma. 

Perigangliitis. (Tltpl ; gangliitis.) 
Inflammation of the wall of the pathological 
cyst termed a Ganglion. 

Perig astri tis. (Tltpl; gastritis.) Term 
for inflammation of the peritoneum encircling 
the stomach. 

Periglis chrous. (Tltpi, around; y\l<r- 
Xpa, sticky, gluey.) Clammy or viscid. Ap- 
plied (TrtpiyXia-xpos) by Hippocrates, Aph. iv, 
53, to foulness of the teeth in fever. 

Periglot'tis. (TltpiyXuiTTls, a covering 
of the tongue.) The epithelium of the dorsum 
of the tongue ; also, the Epiglotlidean gland. 

Per igon. (Tltpl, round; yovn, offspring.) 
The same as Perianth. 

Peri graphe. (Jltpiypa<\>v, a marking 
round. F. perigraphe ; G. XJmschreiben.) A 
delineation, marking round, or lineament. Ap- 
plied by Vesalius, de Hum. Corp. Fab., ii, 3, to 
the linece transversa of the rectus abdominis 

Peri g ynan drum. (Tltpl, round ; 
yvv>'i, a woman, the symbol of the pistil ; &vtjp, 
a man, the symbol of a stamen.) Necker's term 
for a floral envelope. He terms the calyx, P. 
externum, the corolla, P. internum, and the in- 
volucre, P. commune, in the Synantherem. 

Perlg-yn'ium. (Tltpl, round; yvvi'i, a 

woman, used for the female organ of flowers.) 
The envelope of the sexual organs in many 
Hepaticte, forming an open sac extending from 
the thallus at the base of the archegonium. 

Peri'erynous. (ITe^i, round; ywv, a 
woman, the symbol of the pistil.) Applied to 
stamens when situated round the ovary, or the 
lower part of the pistil, or inserted into the calyx. 

Perihepatitis. (Tltpl; hepatitis.) A 
chronic inflammation of the capsule of the liver. 
The edge of the liver becomes greatly rounded, 
and the capsule becomes opaque and often separ- 
able. The tissue of the liver is usually soft and 
loaded with fat, it seldom becomes cirrhotic, but 
there is often an increase of white fibrous tissue 
round the course of the larger portal vessels. The 
liver is much reduced in size, and becomes in- 
vested by a thick, greyish, separable membrane. 
Perihepatitis is a frequent cause of ascites ; it is 
rarely found in the bodies of patients killed by 
accident, or dying of other diseases. The kidneys 
are usually diseased. As to its causation little 
is known ; Murchison stated that it sometimes 
began by extension of inflammation from the 
base of a chronic gastric ulcer. 

Perihyster'ic. (Tltpl, round ; ia-ripa, 
the womb.) Round the womb. The term in 
common use is Periuterine. 

Peri'kaes. The same as Pericaes. 

Perikardi'tis. See Pericarditis. 

Perilaryngeal. (fl^t; laryngeal.) 
Round the larynx. 

P. ab scess. See Abscess, perilaryngeal. 

Perilaryngi tis. (Tltpl; laryngitis.) 
Inflammation of the connective tissue round 
the larynx. It often ends in perilaryngeal 

Perilentic ular space. (Tltpl; len- 
ticular.) The space surrounding the crystalline 
lens of the eye, which is filled in by the free 
portion of the suspensory ligament of the lens, 
the zonule of Zinn. 

Per'ilith. (Tltpl, round ; \i'0os, a stone.) 
Lamarck's term for the false epidermis of many 
marine shells. 

Perilymph. (Tltpl, around; L. lympha, 
water.) A clear fluid, filling the osseous laby"- 
rinth, vestibule, semicircular canals, and cochlea 
of the internal ear. 

Perilymphangitis. See Perilymph- 

Perilymphan'g-ial. (ITe^'; lymph- 
angion.) Surrounding a lymphatic vessel or 

P. nodules. Small nodules formed by 
localised masses of lymphoid cells round lym- 
phatic vessels. 

Perilymphangitis. (Tltpl; lymph- 
angitis.) Inflammation of the connective tissue 
surrounding a lymphatic vessel. 

Perimad'arous. (Titpipaoapos.) Bald 
round about. Formerly applied to ulceration of 
the skin, in cases where the skin round the ulcer 
was devoid of hair. 

Perimeningi tis. (Perimeninx; ter- 
minal -itis.) Inflammation of the Perimeninx. 
See Pachymeningitis. 

Perimeninx. (Tltpl, around ; /uJji/ty?, 
any membrane, Hipp ; especially that which 
contains the brain. F. pcrimeningc.) The 
dura mater, including both its cerebral and 
spinal portions. 

Peri'meter. (Tltpl, around; nirpov, a 
measure.) The circumference. 


Also, an instrument for measuring the di- 
mensions of the field of vision. It is composed 
of a semicircular metal band revolving upon its 
middle point, and divided into degrees, from 0° 
at the middle, to 90' at each extremity. The 
eye to be examined is placed at the centre of the 
hemisphere, and the fixation-point is placed in 
the centre of the arc, at 0°. A small square piece 
of white paper is slowly moved along the inner 
surface of tho arc towards the centre. The 
point where it comes into view is noted. The 
horizontal and vertical meridians and two or 
more intermediate ones are examined in this 
way. The boundary of the field is drawn on a 
chart, in which the sphere is projected on to a 
plane surface. See Held of vision. 

P. of Au bert and For ster. The eye 
is placed opposite a fixed point in the middle of 
a semicircle. Objects are moved along the semi- 
circle, in the different meridians of the field of 
vision successively, until they just disappear. 
The periphery of the field of vision is thus 

Perimet'ric. (Jlcpl, round; ixvTpa, the 
womb.) Round the uterus. Term usually re- 
stricted to the part of the peritoneal cavity sur- 
rounding the uterus. 

P. ab'scess. An intraperitoneal abscess 
in the neighbourhood of the uterus, most com- 
monly retro-uterine. It may be due to disease 
of the uterus, the ovary, or the Fallopian tube. 
It occurs most commonly after abortion or de- 
livery at term as a consequence of Perimetritis. 
It also sometimes occurs as a consequence of 
gonorrhoea, chill, especially at the menstrual 
period, venereal excess, the irritation of instru- 
ments (sounds, pessaries, tents). It usually ter- 
minates spontaneously; but it may burst into 
the rectum, through the anterior abdominal wall, 
into the bladder, uterus, or vagina, or into several 
of these cavities, one after the other. 

Perimetritis. (Tlip't. round; pafrpa, 
the womb ; terminal -itis.) This disease, also 
called pelvic peritonitis, is very common. It 
may be either serous or purulent. For its causes, 
see Perimetric abscess. Its symptoms are those 
of peritonitis in general, but localised to the 
pelvis. Peritoneal adhesions form, which may 
disappear, or may remain aud become organised, 
Adhesive perimetritis. 

P., adhe sive. See Perimetritis. 

P., encys'ted se rous. A form of peri- 
metritis in which there is an effusion of perito- 
neal serous fluid, which becomes encysted by ihe 
formation of peritoneal adhesions. The history 
is the same as that of Perimetric abscess ; the 
symptoms are usually less acute. The dis- 
ease may entirely disappear ; it has often been 
mistaken for ovarian dropsy, which accounts 
for some of the so-called cures of that dis- 

Peri'metry. (Perimeter.) The measur- 
ing the dimensions of the field of vision by means 
of the perimeter. 

Perimorpho sis. (Hipfi near, con- 
cerning; n6p(pu«Tis, a shaping.) Term for the 
transformation of the pupa of au insect into the 

Perimor'phous crys'tals. [Tltpt; 
noprht'i, form.) Crystals which are made up of a 
nucleus of one mineral surrounded by an en- 
velope of another. 

Perimy elis. (ritpi', round;\6t, 
marrow.) The Endostcum. 

Perimyeli'tis. Term for Meningitis, 

Perimysitis. (Perimysium; terminal 
-itis.) Inflammation of tho Perimysium. 

Perimysium. (ritpi, round; pui, a 
muscle. I. perimisio ; G. Muskelhaut.) The 
connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle, 
and becoming continuous with the Endomysium, 
which forms partitions between the muscular 

P., Inter nal. Another name for Endo- 

Pe'rin. (n>iptV.) Old term for the peri- 
neum ; also for the testicle, the anus, the vagina, 
and the peritoneum. All these later meanings 
are doubtful. 

Perinoeauxe sis. See Perineauxesis. 

Perineocele. See Perineocele. 

Perineum. See Perineum. 

Perine al. (L. perincealis ; from peri- 
nceum.) Pertaining to the perineum. 

P. ab'scess. A collection of pus in the 
perineum, beneath the deep layer of the super- 
ficial fascia. It ma}' burrow widely along the 
urethra and round the urethral bulb. 

The chief forms are : — 

(1) Abscess from suppuration in a lacuna or 
follicular gland of the spongy portion of the 
urethra, either from gonorrhoea or stricture. 

(2) Abscess beginning in ulceration of the 
urethra behind a stricture. 

(3) Abscess from injury by an instrument. 

(4) Abscess of Cowper's gland, in gonorrhaea, 
or more rarely from irritation caused by a stric- 

(5) Abscess of the prostate may point in the 

P. aponeuro'sls. The P. fascia. 

P. ar tery, superficial. A branch given 
off by the pudlc in the fore part of the ischio- 
rectal fossa. It passes under or over the trans- 
versa perinei muscle, and then lies beneath the 
superficial perineal fascia. It supplies the sub- 
jacent muscles, and divides into long branches 
supplying the back of the scrotum in the male, 
and the labium in the female, and anastomosing 
with the external pudic branches of the femoral 

P. ar'tery, trans verse. This generally 
arises in common with the above, sometimes 
separately from the pudic. It passes inwards 
towards the central point of the perineum, sup- 
plies the parts between the urethral bulb and 
the anus, and anastomoses with its fellow of the 
opposite side. 

P. band. A band, padded where it lies in 
the fold of the groin and perineum, which passes 
round the perineum and inner side of the upper 
end of the thigh, and is attached to the upper 
end of Liston's splint, in order to make counter- 
extension. See Liston's long splint. 

P. bod'y. The mass of tissue filling up 
the angular space, in the female, between the 
lower third of the posterior wall of the vagina 
and the anterior wall of tho rectum, its base 
being formed by the perineum. 

P. canal'. The gutter-shaped pouch or 
passage formed, during parturition, for the 
child's head, by the stretching of the pelvic 
floor (Spiegelberg). 

P. cuta neous nerve. See Nerve, long 

P. cysto'tomy. See Cystotomy. 

P. fas cia. (F. aponevrose du perince; G. 


Dammbinde.) See Fascia, perineal, deep, and 
F., perineal, superjicial. 

P. fis tula. See Fistula, perineal. 

P. flex ure of rec tum. The short curve 
forwards made by the rectum just above the 

P. fos'sa. The Fossa, ischio -rectal. 

P. her nia. See Hernia, perineal. 

P. iscnu ria. Sauvages' name for reten- 
tion of urine due to the pressure of a perineal 
tumour on the walls of the urethra. 

P. lacera tion, cen tral. See Perineum, 
laceration of, central. 

P. ligament. The Fascia, perineal, 

P. Iltho'trity. See under Lithotrity. 

P. nerve. The largest of the three divi- 
sions of the pudic. It is contained in a special 
sheath of the obturator fascia below the pudic 
vessels, along the outer wall of the ischio-rectal 
fossa, and it divides into deep and superficial 
branches. There are two superficial perineal 
branches, internal and external. The external 
or posterior runs along the outer part of the 
perineum to the scrotum (or labium), and some- 
times gives a branch to the inner and upper part 
of the thigh. The internal or anterior branch, 
rather larger, runs forwards near the middle 
line, and divides into long slender branches 
going to the integument of the scrotum (or 
labium). The two branches communicate freely, 
and the external is usually connected with the 
inferior pudendal and inferior hsemorrhoidal 
nerves. The superficial perineal and inferior 
pudendal nerves are together called long scrotal 
nerves. The deep branches arise usually bv one 
trunk and supply the perineal muscles. They 
supply the anterior part of the external sphincter 
and levator ani, the transversus perinei, the 
bulbo-caverno8us and the ischio-cavernosus. 
One branch perforates the bulbo-cavernosus and 
corpus spongiosum, and supplies the mucous 
membrane of the adjacent part of the urethra. 

P. nerves, deep. See P. nerve. 

P. nerves, superficial. See P. nerve. 

P. region. See Perineum. 

P. sec'tion. Division of a urethral stric- 
ture from without {external urethrotomy) by a 
perineal incision, introduced by Syme for the 
treatment of a urethral stricture permeable to 
an instrument, but not curable by catheterisa- 

Perineauxe'sis. {Perineum; af/gno-is, 
growth, increase.) Any operation for the re- 
storation of a ruptured perineum. 

Perineocele. {Perineum; KrjXv, a tu- 
mour.) A perineal hernia. 

Perineoplas tic opera tion. {Pe- 
rineum; Gr. TrXao-Ti/cos, belonging to forming 
or moulding. 1. perineoplastica ; G. Perineo- 
plastik.) Perineorrhaphy. 

Perineorrhaphy. {Perineum; Gr. 
pa<prj, sewing. F . perineorrhaphie ; G. Perineo- 
rhaphie.) An operation for restoring the perineal 
body, useful in slight cases of prolapse of the 
uterus, or, in combination with Episioperineor- 
rhaphy, in worse cases ; term used also simply 
for restoring a ruptured perineum. 

Perineosyn'thesis. {Perineum ; syn- 
thesis.) Langonbeck's operation for ruptured 

Perf neo-vag-i nal. {Perineum; va- 
gina.) Relating to the perineum and vagina. 
P. lis tula. See Fistula, perinxo-vaginal. 

Perineph ric. In the region imme- 
diately surrounding the kidney. See Peri- 

P. ab'scess. 1. This may occur secon- 
darily to pyelitis, either from direct extension 
of inflammation by continuity, or by ulceration 
and perforation of the wall of the pelvis of the 
kidney, with escape of urine and pus into the 
perinephric connective tissue. The pus may 
remain localised to the loin, or may enter the 
sheath of the psoas muscle and pass down into 
the groin, and even burst into the hip-joint, or 
pass in front of the iliacus muscle and point 
just above Poupart's ligament, or burst into the 
intestine with escape of gas and faeces into the 
abscess-cavity, or it may burrow upwards into 
the chest beneath the internal arcuate ligament 
of the diaphragm, burst into the lung and dis- 
charge itself by way of the bronchi. For sym- 
ptoms, see Abscess, perinephritic. 

2. An abscess resulting from caries of the spine 
may be perinephric in situation ; and Erichsen 
mentions a case where such an abscess opened 
into the pelvis of the kidney, simulating chronic 

3. It appears sometimes to occur as the result 
of a fall or other injury to the loins, indepen- 
dently of laceration of the kidney. See Abscess, 

Perinephritic. Relating to Peri- 

P. ab'scess. See Abscess, perinephritic ; 
see also Perinephric abscess. 

Perinephritis. {Perinephros.) In- 
flammation of the subperitoneal perinephric 
connective tissue. 

Perinephros. (Iltpt, round; ve<p P 6^, 
usually in the plur., the kidneys. G. Nieren- 
haut.) The capsule of the kidney. 

Perineum. (To irip'ivtov, or "Ktpivaiov. 
F. pe'rinee; I. perineo ; G. Mittelfleisch.) In 
the male, the space between the anterior margin 
of the anus and the posterior surface of the scro- 
tum ; in the female, the space between the an- 
terior margin of the anus and the fourchette, or 
posterior commissure of the labia majora. In 
both male and female, the perineum is bounded 
laterally by the ischial tuberosities. Also, term 
for the Perineal body. 

P., body of. See Perineal body. 

P., lacera tion of. This often occurs to 
the female perineum during the last part of the 
second stage of labour. It usually occurs where 
the pains are violent and the perineum greatly 
resists dilatation, especially therefore, in primi- 
parae. It varies from a slight rent in the four- 
chette to a complete tear of the sphincter and 
recto-vaginal septum. In every first labour 
there is unavoidably a slight internal laceration 
immediately below the hymen. 

P., lacera tion of, cen'tral. Tbis con- 
sists in a laceration or rupture of the central 
portion of the perineum, the anterior and pos- 
terior portions remaining intact. Birth of the 
child has been known to occur through such a 
rupture, without its becoming complete. 

P., poste'rlor. Term for that region 
which lies between the posterior border of the 
anus and the tip of the coccyx. 

P., rigid. Term for a female perineum 
which remains rigid during the course of par- 
turition. The condition is due to tightness of 
the aponeurosis and skin, especially in priiui- 
paroB, or else to the presence of cicatrices. 



P., rup'ture of. The same as P., lacera- 
tion of. 

Perineuritis. (IW ; vivpov. F. 
nivrilemite or perinevrite?) Term for inflam- 
mation of the Neurilemma. 

Perineurium. (rifpt, round; vivpov, 
a tendon, or nerve. F.perinevre; I. perineurio ; 
G. Nervenhaut.) The connective tissue sheath 
enclosing a bundle of nerve-fibres. 

Perinyc tides. (Nom. pi. of perinyctis.) 
Used in the same sense as Perinyctis. 

Perinyc'tis. (Iltpf, about; v6£, night.) 
The same as Epinyctis. 

Perioc'ular space. (Jlepi, round; L. 
oculus, an eye.) The space that surrounds the 
eyeball, and is between it and the wall of the 

Pe'riod. (Jlcpioooi, a marching round.) A 
stated time. The time during which a disease 
progresses from its accession to its declension ; 
also, those marked changes that characterise the 
progress of a disease, of which there are said to 
be five — the invasion, the augment, the state, or 
full development, the decline, and the termina- 

In Physiology, formerly applied to the circu- 
lation of the blood, the Periodus sanguinis. 

Also, a walking round and about, used in re- 
ference to disease ; also, the movements of food 
in the body. 

Lastly, there were three periods, of the sun, 
moon, and stars, which corresponded respectively 
with the three "faculties" of the body, viz. 1, 
vital (the sun) ; 2, natural (the moon) ; and 3, 
animal (the stars). These three circuits of the 
heavenly bodies were supposed to influence and 
strengthen the bodily faculties ; firstly by force 
passing by way of the heart and arteries; se- 
condly by way of the womb and other internal 
cavities, passing thence by way of the liver, &c, 
into all parts of the body ; thirdly, by way of the 
brain and nerves. 

The term period was also applied to the time 
between two attacks of intermittent fever. It 
was divided into two parts, the accession 
(TrapoJuaTio's), and the remission (ai/so-is). 

P., ly ing- in. The Puerperal state. 

P.s. Term for the Menses. 

P.s, monthly. The same as P.s. 

P.s of life. Those stages through which 
the living organism passes to complete develop- 
ment and then towards dissolution ; as, infancy, 
puberty, &c. 

P., placen'tal. The time occupied in the 
expulsion of the placenta, i.e. the third stage of 

Per-i'odate. A salt of Per-iodic acid. 
P. of cal'cium. A whitish, granular 
powder without odour. It is slightly soluble in 
water, and is composed of iodic and per-iodic 
acids, in part combined with calcium. Its action 
is that of an antiseptic, deodorant, and weak 
germicide. Dose, 1 to 15 grains. Addition of a 
solution of morphine causes separation of free 
iodine. (Ex. Ph.) 

Periodei'a. {TItpioctia, a circuit.) The 
same as Period. 

Periodeu'sis. (YlipioStvo-ts, or 
piooiia, a circuit, or travelling round about; 
from iripiooivw, to travel round about; meta- 
phoricallv, to cure by systematic regimen and 
medicine") A circuit or course; term applied 
to the occupation of a quack or mountebank. 

Periodeu'ta. The same as Periodeutes. 

Periodeu'tes. (Tlipiocivn'is, one who 
travels round about.) A quack who perambu- 
lates the country ; a quack- salver. 

Feriodeu'tio. Appertaining to Pe- 

Periodic. (Period.) Pertaining to a 
period. Recurring at stated times, or periods. 

In Bot., applied to flowers that open and close 
many days in succession, at fixed periods, such 
movements being spoken of as periodic. 
P. fe'ver. Term for Malaria. 
P. law. Chem. This is stated thus: 
"The properties of the elements are periodic 
functions of their atomic weights." 

P. move ments. Bot. See main heading. 

Per-iod'ic ac id. (L.per; iodic.) HI0 4 . 
Per-iodate of hydrogen. Its basicity is doubtful; 
it forms salts, per-iodates, many of which have 
a very complicated chemical constitution. 

Period ical. (F '. periodique ; I. periodico ; 
G. periodisch.) The same as Periodic. 

P. diseas es. Diseases characterised by 
symptoms that recur at definite intervals. 
P. fe'ver. The same as Periodic fever. 

Periodic'ity. (From Period. F. pi- 
riodicite; I. perioaicitd ; G. Periodicilat.) Ten- 
dency to recur at definite periods. 

Periodo'logy. (ntpi'ooos, in the sense 
of a fit of intermittent fever ; \dyos, word, de- 
liberation.) The doctrine of periodicity both in 
health and disease. 

Periodontal. (Jlipi, round; doous, 
6o6vto<s, a tooth.) Surrounding a tooth. 

P. mem'brane. The dental periosteum, 
which covers the fang of the tooth and lines the 
wall of the alveolus. 

Periodonti tis. {Periodontal ; termi- 
nal -itis.) Inflammation of the periodontal mem- 

P. gingivar'um. (L. gingiva, a gum.) 

Periodontium. A Latinised term for 

Periodontal membrane. 

Period'oscope. (ntpi'ooos, a period of 
time ; uKo-wtui, to look at.) Obstet. A dial, con- 
structed to help in calculating the day on which 
labour will most probably occur, invented by 
Tyler Smith. 

Period'uret. Old term for Periodide. 

Periodus lunar'is. The lunar period. 
A term for the menstrual period. 

P. mor'bi. The type to which any disease 

P. sanguinis. Old term for the circula- 
tion of the blood. 

Periodyn'ia. (ntpt, around; 6S6w, 
pain.) Violent and wide-spread pain. A term 
of the same spelling but different derivation 
(■jrvpa, a leathern pouch ; douvij, pain) has been 
used for Cardialgia. 

PeriOBSOphag'e'al. (Ui,u; oesopha- 
geal.) Immediately round, or surrounding, the 

Perioesophag-i'tis. {Tltpi; ccsop/iagus; 
terminal -itis.) Inflammation of the perioeso- 
phageal connective tissue. 

Periom'phacous. (Tltpl, around; 
6p.<paKwS>i* [iruni op.<paf, an unripe grape, and 
tloos, likeness], sour, like unripe grapes. F. 
piriomphaceux.) Full of unripeness; applied 
to abscesses, &c. 

Per'ion. (Iltpf, round ; u>6v, an egg.) 
Term for the Decidua. (Breschet.) 

Periobphor'ic (IIipi ; <bog>dpoj, bear- 


ing eggs, applied to the ovary, t6 wotpopov.) 
Situated in, or belonging to, the region imme- 
diately surrounding the ovary. 

Perioophoritis. (Kept; oophoritis.) 
Inflammation of that part of the pelvic peri- 
toneum contiguous to the ovary, usually occur- 
ring as a part of Perimetritis. 

Periophthal mic. (Ilt.u; 6<pQa\p.6i, 
the eye.) Surrounding the eyeball. 

Periop'tic. {Ilipi ; optic.) Anat. Sur- 
rounding the orbit. 

Perio'ral. (Ilt/ot; L. os, oris, the mouth.) 
Surrounding the mouth. 

Periorbita. (ne,ot; orbita, from L. 
orbis, a circle.) A term for the periosteum of 
the orbit ; more correctly, Periconche. 

Perior bital mem brane. The same 
as Periconche. 

Periorbi'tis. An incorrect term for 
Periconchitis. It ought to be Periorbititis. 

Periorbiti'tis. {Periorbita; terminal 
-it is.) See Periorbitis. 

Periorchitis. (Jlspt, round ; o>xis, a 
testis; terminal -itis.) Term for inflammation 
of the tunica vaginalis testis. 

Periosteal. {Periosteum.) Pertaining 
to the Periosteum. 

P. ab scess. An abscess occurring be- 
tween the periosteum and the bone, generally 
secondary to an attack of periostitis (q. v.). 

P. node. An enlargement of the bone, 
due to inflammation, and associated with chronic 
periostitis. It may either undergo ossification 
(hard node) or may tend to suppuration or 
caseation {soft node). 

P. sarcoma. The same as Subperiosteal 
sarcoma (q. v.). 

P. whitlow. The same as Paronychia 

Periostei'tis. See Periostitis. 

Periosteoede ma. {Periosteum; oede- 
ma.) (Edema of the periosteum. 

Periosteo'ma. See Periostoma. 

Periosteophy ma. {llepioaTEov, the 
periosteum; cbvfia, or cpupa, an inflamed swell- 
ing. G. Beinhautgeschwulst.) A swelling of the 
periosteum. Also, a Periosteophyte. 

Perios'teophyte. {jlipi6<rrtov, <pvT6v, 
a plant. G. Knochenhautgewachs.) An adven- 
titious bony growth from the periosteum. 

Periosteo sis. See Periosiosis. 

P erios teotome. The special knife used 
for Periosteotomy. 

Periosteo'tomy. {Periosteum; to/xv 
[from TEjUj/cu], a cutting.) The operation of 
cutting throuhg the periosteum. 

Periosteous. The same as Periosteal. 

Periosteum. (To ircpwo-T^ov, from 
7repi, and 6<ttiov. F. perioste ; I. periostio ; G. 
JJeinhaut.) A fibro-vascular membrane cover- 
ing the bones ; made up of an outer, fibrous layer, 
and an inner, vascular layer which is the main 
source of the blood-supply of the bone, and is 
also osteogenetic. 

P., alve'olo-den'tal. The P., dental. 
P., den'tal. Each dental alveolus is lined 
with a periosteum which encircles also the con- 
tained fang as high as the neck of the tooth, 
where it becomes blended with the dense tissue 
composing the gums. 

P. lnter'num. The Endosteum. 

P. or bitae. The periosteum of the orbit. 

Perios'tiC. Periosteal ; also, relating to 
the partB immediately surrounding a bone. 

Periostit'ic. Belonging to, or the sub- 
ject of, Periostitis. 

Periostitis. {Periosteum ; terminal 
• itis.) Inflammation of the periosteum. 

P., acute' diffuse'. See Necrosis, acute. 
P., acute' simple. Generally due to 
injury. The periosteum shows the usual appear- 
ances of inflammation, and becomes readily 
separable from the bone. The inflammation may 
end in complete resolution, or may pa6S on to 
suppuration ; or, as is more usual, it may become 
chronic and osteoplastic. 

P., acute' suppurative, lnfec'tive, 
diffuse'. See Necrosis, acute. 

P., acute' suppurative, simple, 
lo calised. This occurs as a continuation of 
P., acute simple. The pus forming between the 
periosteum and bone slowly perforates the former; 
it does not usually extend widely beneath the 
periosteum. There is sometimes necrosis of the 
exposed piece of compact bone. 

P., chronic osteoplas tic. It occurs 
from the slighter kinds of irritation, following 
on acute periostitis, or accompanying inflamma- 
tion of the medulla or the cancellous tissue, or 
about diseased joints. Abundant new hone is 
formed beneath the periosteum, either in smooth 
longitudinal layers, in nodules, or in sharp pro- 
cesses (osteophytes). Billroth believes that the 
new bone is formed, not only from the perios- 
teum, but also from the granulations growing 
out of the openings of the Haversian canals. 

P., chron'ic sup purative. This is un- 
common, and is usually only secondary to de- 
structive changes of the subjacent bone. The 
periosteum becomes separated from the bone by 
a small quantity of curdy pus. 

P., infec'tive, and osteomyeli'tis. 
A syn. for Necrosis, acute. 

P. osteoplas'tic. See P., chronic osteo- 

P., syphilit ic. See Node. 

Periostoma. {Yltpi; ostoma or osteoma.) 
A morbid bony growth surrounding a bone. 

Feriostomedulli tis. {Periosteum ; 
medulla; terminal -itis.) Term for Periostitis 
occurring with Osteomyelitis. 

Periosto'sis. (Uepi; ostosis. G. Knoch- 
enhaulwacherung .) The formation of Peri- 
ostoma; also, disease of the periosteum. 

Periostostei'tis. {Tlepido-Ttov ; oa- 
tzov ; terminal -itis.) Term for periostitis ac- 
companied by osteitis. 

Perios tracum. (TIe P 'l; oo-Tpauov, a 
shell.) The horny epidermic covering of the 
shell in many of the Mollusca. 

Periot'ic. (ntpi, round ; ous, wto's, an 
ear.) Round the ear. 

P. bone. The petro-mastoid portion of the 
temporal bone of Mammals. It is formed by the 
fusion of the three ossifications named respec- 
tively probtic, epiolic, and opisthotic (Huxley). 

P. por'tion of tem'poral bone. The 
same as P. bone. 

Peripachymeningitis. The same 
as Pachymeningitis, external. 

Peripapillary. (nt/cu; 2 }a pM a -) 
Situated round the optic papilla. 

Periparo ba. A plant of the Genus Poto- 
morphe, Nat. Order Pipei-ace<e, native to Tropical 
America. The root is used as a remedy in various 
abdominal affections. 

Peripenial muscle. {Utpt; L. 
penis. F. muscle peripenien.) Sappey's name 


for the subcutaneous layer of unstriped muscle- 
fibres surrounding the penis, and comparable with 
the dartos tunic of the scrotum. 

Peripet alae. (Htyf; irtra-W, a leaf, 
or any flat, leaf-like body.) Term used by 
Desvaux for a class of Dicotyledons in the 
Jussieuun system, which are polypetitlous, and 
have perigynous stamens. 

Peripet'alous. Bot. Mirbel's term for 
nectaries which surround the corolla. 

Zo'61. Situated round the petal-like ambulacra 
in Echinoderms. 

Peripet as ma. (lit/}/; Triraap.a (irtr- 
avvvfju), anything spread.) Anything spread 
round as a cloak or covering; applied to the bed- 
ding of the sick. 

Periphacitis. (Periphacos ; terminal 
-ids.) Inflammation of the Periphacos. 

Peri phacos, (nepi; <pu>c6s, a lentil.) 
The capsule of the crystalline lens of the eye. 

Peripharynge al. (Ilt/u'; pharyn- 
geal.) Round the pharynx. 

Peri pherad. (Periphery.) A term of 
Dr. Barclay's, used adverbially to signify "to- 
ward the peripheral aspect." 

Peripheral. (Periphery. F. peri- 
pherique ; I. periferico.) Pertaining to the 

P. akine sia. Akinesia consequent upon 
a lesion of the motor nerves, or of the muscles ; 
also used for akinesia due to a lesion of the an- 
terior horns of grey matter of the spinal cord. 

P. anaesthe sia. See Anaesthesia, peri- 

P. epilepsy. The same as Epilepsy, 


P. lay'er. (G. Beckschichte.) Term for 
the superficial part of the molecular layer of the 
cerebral cortex, which is entirely made up of 
medullated nerve-fibres. 

P. necro'sis. See under Necrosis. 

P. neuritis. See Neuritis, peripheral. 

P. or gans. Zool. Organs which are dis- 
tinct from the main part of the body, as, e.g., 
the wings of an insect. 

P. vas'cular sys'tem. General term for 
the Capillaries. 

P. veins. A name for the interlobular 
veins of the liver. 

Peripherally. Upon, or with respect 
to, the Periphery. 
Peripher ic. The same as Peripheral. 

P. lin'ear extrac'tion. See Cataract, 
extraction of, v. Griife's. 
Peripher'lcal. The same as Peripheral. 
Peripheri'tis. (Peripheria, the peri- 
phery ; terminal -itis.) The same as Ophthalmo- 

Peripherosyphilo'lepis. (Peri- 
pheria, the periphery; syphilolepis.) Peri- 
pheral syphilolepts. 

Peri phery. (L. peripheria, periferia. 
Gr. iripi<pif)tta, the circumference of a circle ; 
nrtpitpipw, to carry round ; F. peripheric ; 
G. Umfang.) The circumference of a circle, 
ellipse, &c. ; the superficial part of a solid body 
or organ. 

Periphlmo'BlS. (n«p«, about; r/><Vuxris, 
a muzzling.) The same as Paraphimosis. 

Perlphlebit'lc. Belonging to Peri- 

Periphlebitis. (Hip! phUbitii.) In- 
flammation of the connective-tissue sheath of a 

Peripb.orantb.ium. (n.tpi<pi P w, to 
carry round ; avdot, a flower.) See Periclinium. 

Per'iphore. (H.tpi<piptn, to carry round.) 
Bot. L. C. Richard's term for a fleshy body, quite 
distinct in nature from an ovary, raised from the 
base of the calyx, and bearing the petals and 
stamens attached longitudinally by their base to 
its internal surface. 

Peripbor ic. Of, or belonging to, a Peri- 
phore. Epithet applied by A. Richard to the 
insertion of stamens on the surface of a peri- 

Periphracterythe'ma. (Jltpi>ppaK- 
to5, fenced round ; lpvQi)p.a, redness of the skin, 
a blush.) Term for circumscribed erythema. 

Periphractolichen. (ntpi<i,paKTu<!, 
fenced round ; Xti-vvv, a lichen-like eruption on 
the skin of animals.) Term for circumscribed 
lichen, or herpes. 

Ferlphyllum. (Tltpt, round; <p6XXov, 
a leaf.) Name applied by Link to the scales 
surrounding the ovary in the Graminaceee. 

Periphysis. (Iltptyvo-is, a growing 
round about.) Bot. A sterile filament growing 
from the hymenium in the part outside the asci, 
in Fungi. 

Per'iplast. See Periblast. 

Periplastic. Belonging to, or having 
the characteristics of, the Periplast. Also, sur- 
rounding the Endoplast. 

Periplane'ta. (Hepi; TrXamin/?, a 
wanderer; from irXavdw, to wander.) A Genus 
of the Family Blattidm. 

P. orienta lis. The more modern name 
for Blatta orientalis (q. v.). 

Peripleumo'nia. t (jn.tpnrXtup.ovia, 
Ionic form of ■jrtpnn/tup.ou'La, inflammation of 
the lungs.) See Peripneumonia. 

Peripleuri'tis. (Utpi; pleuritis.) In- 
flammation of the areolar tissue beneath the 
costal pleura. It often goes on to the formation 
of an abscess, and has in some cases been found 
to occur in Actinomycosis. 

Peri ploca. (YltpnrXtKtu, to twine round 
about.) A Genus of twining vines, Order As- 

P. emet'ica. The Hemidesmus indicus. 
P. gTee'ca. The acrid, milky juice of this 
species, Wolf's bane, has been used to poison 

P. in'dica. The same as P. emetica. 

P. mauritla'na. An East Indian sp 
It has an emetic action; from it Bourbon team- 
mony is obtained. See Scammony, Bourbon. 

Perl'plysiS. (Iltpi'Tr-Wis, a washing 
out ; irtpiirXvo-is noLXias, a thin discharge from 
the bowels, Hipp. F.periphlyse ; G. Auswachs- 
ung.) Diarrhoea. 

Peripneumonia. (Utpnrvtvpovta, in- 
flammation of the lungs; from irtpi, and ttviv- 
Plosv.) Term formerly used interchangeably with 
Pneumonia. Under these two terms, tlie an- 
cients comprehended all acute diseases of the 
chest not accompanied by any marked pain in 
the side. Kraus considers this term as signify- 
ing more widespread inflammation of the lung 
than Pneumonia. 

P. blllo'sa. Term for pneumonia occur- 
ring in Remittent, or the 60-called Bilious, 

P. catarrha'lis. The same as P. notha. 

P. noth a. (Notfos, illegitimate, spurious.) 
An inexact term, generally used for the chronio 
bronchitis or winter-cough of old people. 


P. pituito sa. The same as P. vera. 

P. ve'ra. The same as Peripneumonia. 
Peripneumon ia. Belonging to Peri- 

P. catar'rb. Synonym formerly used for 

P. perni cious fe'ver. Term for the 
pneumonic form of Pernicious malarial fever. 

Peripneumoni'tis. {Peripneumonia; 
terminal -Ms.) The same as Peripneumonia. 

Peripneu'mony. The same as Peri- 

P., bas tard. The same as Peripneumonia 

Peripod'ium. (ntpt, about; 
iroiSos, a foot.) Hedwig's term for Periehee- 

Peripor tal. (Tltpi; portal.) Surround- 
ing the vena porta). 

Per'iproct. (Jlipi; irpuxcrds, the anus.) 
That part of the perisoma of an Echinoderm 
■which immediately surrounds the anus. 

Periproc'tic. (IIspi, round ; irpwKTos, 
the anus.) Eound, or in the region of, the anus. 

Periprocti tis. (IT^t; ttpwkto?; ter- 
minal -itis.) Inflammation of the loose areolar 
tissue surrounding the lower part of the rectum. 

Periproc tOUS. The same as Peri- 

Periprokti'tis. The same as Peri- 

Periprostatic. (ITtpi; prostate.) 
Situated round the prostate gland. 

P. ab'scess. An abscess beginning in the 
envelope of areolar tissue ensheathing the pro- 
state gland. See Prostatic abscess. 

Peripsyx'is. (Jltpi, about; i^D£ts, a 
becoming cold.) A general feeling of chill. 

Peri'pterous. (ntpiVxtpos, winged all 
round.) Bot. Encircled by a thin, wing-like 

Peripto'sis. (ntnt', about; in-aio-ts, a 
falling.) A term used by the school of Empirics 
(q. v.), to denote any chance or unforeseen 
occurrence by which they happened to light 
upon a new disease or upon new remedies for 
any disease. It represented the first of their 
methods of gaining knowledge. 

Peripye'ma. (Il£pi7ru))juo [ituem], sup- 
puration round about, Hipp.) A collection of 
pus round the fang of a tootn. (Foesius.) 

Peripyesis. Ilept, round; Tru>j<ns, (a 
suppurating.) The process of formation of Peri- 

Peripylephlebi'tis. {Htpi; pyle- 
phlebitis?) Inflammation of the connective 
tissue immediately surrounding the portal vein. 

Perirec'tal. (IIspi; rectal.) The same 
as Periproctic. 

Perirenal. (ITtpt; renal.) The same 
as Perinephric. 

Perirhi nal. {Ucpi; rhinal.) Surround- 
ingthe nose. 

Perirrhex'is. {Utpippv^n, a breaking 
off round about.) A general breaking up or fail- 
ing, as of the bones, muscles, &c. 

Perirrhce'a. (Xltpippiw, to flow round, 
to overflow.) Afflux of tho fluids of the body 
from all parts towards an excretory organ ; as, in 
dropsy, of water to the bowels or kidneys. Also, 

Pe'riB. (Tliipa, a leathern pouch.) The 
vagina. Also, the perineum. Also, the female 

perineum. Also, the anus. Also, the testis. 
Also, the penis, especially the glans. 

Perisalpingi tis, (riept; salpingitis.) 
Inflammation of that part of the pelvic perito- 
neum in immediate relation with the Fallopian 
tube, or Salpinx, occurring as a part of Peri- 

Per'isarc. (TlzpioapKos, surrounded with 
flesh.) The chitinous covering possessed by 
many of the Sydrozoa. 

Peri'scelis. {Ylipi(TKtk'i<s [o-k-e'Xos, the 
leg], a garter or anklet. F. jarretiere.) A sort 
of herpes associated with considerable formation 
of epidermic scales, occupying the part of the leg 
where the garter is worn. 

Periscepas'trum. {Uepia-Kfrralw, to 

cover all round.) The same as Parascepastra. 

Periscleri'tis. The same as Epi- 

Periscop ic. {Utoia-KOTriw, to look 
around.) Allowing of distinct vision, both 
axially and obliquely. 

P. lens. See Zens, periscopic. 

Peri'scopism. (n£pi<r<a>TrEw.) The 
power of distinct vision over a wide field with- 
out change of the point of sight. 

Periscyphis mos. The same as Peri- 
scythismus (Castellus). 

Periscythis mus. (Jltpi<TKvdiX,to, to 
scalp in the Scythian fashion.) Term for an old 
operation (irfpicrKiiflioyxos) consisting in making 
transverse incisions on the forehead, and trian- 
gular ones above the temples; described by Pau- 
lus iEgineta, vi, 7, Adams' Transl. vol. ii, p. 258 ; 
and Aetius, vii, 93. It was employed for habitual 
weakness of the eyes, pains of the head, &c. 

Perisoma. (Ilspi; amp.a, the body.) 
The body-wall of the Echinodermata. 

Periso'mal. The same as Perisomatic. 

Perisomat'ic. Belonging to the Peri- 

Periso'mial. The same as Perisomatic. 

Per'isperm. (nspi; airippu, a seed.) 
Bot. Term originally used by Jussieu for the 
albumen in the seeds of plants {Endosperm) ; 
more recently, the albumen outside the embryo 

Perisper'mic. Of, or belonging to, 

Perisphal'sis. {nipi<r<pa\aris, an up- 
setting.) An old term for circumduction. Also, 
term anciently used for the replacing of a dislo- 
cated bone into the joint-socket by circumduc- 
tion (Hipp., de Artie, ii, 1). 

Perisphin'xis. (ri£pi'<rrpiy£is, a tying 
tight all round.) A binding round ; ligation. 

Perispleni tis. (FUpf; splenitis.) In- 
flammation of the capsule of the spleen. See 
Splen itis. 

Perisporan'g-ium. (TIsp/; sporan- 
gium.) The cellular membrane covering the 
sporangium in ferns. 

Per'ispore. See Perisporiwn. 

Perispor'ium. (riEpt; <nropu, a seed.) 
The same as Sporangium. 

Peris'sad. (IlEpio-o-o's, more than the 
regular number.) Chem. Having a valency 
which is represented by an odd number. 

Zool. Belonging to the Perissodactyla. 

Perissarte'ria. See Arterioperissia. 

Peris'sia. {Y[ip«T<rtvw, to be superfluous 
or excessive. F. perisie ; G. Ueberjiuss.) An 
overflow or excessive quantity. 

Perissodac tyla. 'A Suborder of tho 


Ungulata, comprehending those hoofed quadru- 
peds that have an odd number of digits. 

Perissodac tylate. The same as 

Perissodac tyle. (Jlipitrao&aKTvko*, 
with more than the usual number of fiugers or 
toes.) Having an odd number of digits. 

Also, epithet for an individual with a super- 
numerary digit or digits on the hand or foot. 

Perissodac tyli. The same as Perisso- 

Perissodac'tylic. The same as Peris- 

Perissodac tylns. (UeplctcoSuk- 
tu\os.) Term for an individual with a super- 
numerary digit or digits on the hand or foot. 

Perisso ma. See Perittoma. 

Perissoprac'tical. (ntpio-o-os, ex- 
cessive; irpciKTiKos, busy.) Excessively active 
or busy. Term applied to an overworked phy- 
sician ; also, to one who gives medicine in exces- 
sively large doses. 

PerisSO SiS. (ITtota-tnua-is, from Trtpitr- 
<ros, from Trt'pi, exceedingl)', very much.) Ex- 
cessive abundance. Also, used generally by Hipp, 
as synonymous with Perittoma (q. v.). 

Perisso'tes. The same as Perissia. 

Peristach'yum. (Il£pt, round; cr-raxus, 
an ear of corn.) G. G. Panzer's term for the 
external envelope, glume, of the flower in the 

Peristal 'sis. (From Peristaltic.) A 
rhythmic, vermicular contraction of the un- 
striped muscular fibres of a tubular organ, 
travelling along the tube, and tending to press 
onwards its contents. It occurs most charac- 
teristically in the walls of the intestines. 

Peristaltic. (iltpicrTaXTiKos {irtpi- 

o-rtAAfu], compressing; ir£pi<rTaA.Ti/c>;, 
the peristaltic action of the bowels, Galen.) 
Belonging to peristalsis. 

P. ac'tion. The same as Peristalsis. 

P. ac'tion, inver ted. See Antiperi- 

P. move ments. The same as Peristalsis. 

Peristal tically. After the manner of 

Perista'men. See Peristemon. 

Peristamin'ia. (ntpi; stamen?) A 
Class (the sixth of Jussieu) of dicotyledonous, 
apetalous plants with perigynous stamens. 

Peristaphyli nus. (Jlcpi, round; 
<TTa<pv\n, the uvula, when swollen at the free 
end so as to resemble a grape on a stalk, Hipp.) 
Connected with the uvula ; name applied to the 
tensor and levator palati muscles. 

P. exter'nus. The tensor, or circumflexus, 

P. infe rior. The same as P. exlernus. 

P. Inter 'nus. The Levator palati. 

P. supe'rlor. The same as P. internus. 

Peristaph ylo - pharynge al 
muscle. The Pharyngo-staphylinus or 
Palato-pharyngeus muscle. 

Per istem. A contraction of the word 

Peristemon. (n^t, round; TTj'i/xmv, a 
thread, stamen.) The Perianth. 

Peris'tera anceps. (YltpHTTipa, a 
pigeon.) The Pelargonium anceps. 

Pcristcr ium. (JltpurTtpA, a pigeon.) 
A name applied to the Verbena officinalis, be- 
cause pigeons are fond of it. 

Perister na. (Jltpio-ripviou, the region 

round the breast.) Term for the lateral parts 
of the chest. 

Peristeromor'phae. (Ilipirrtpd, a 
pigeon ; /lopcpi'i, form.) Huxley's name for the 


Periste thium. (UipLtrTi'idiot, sur- 
rounding the breast; to ir., a breast-band.) 1. 
In Surgery, a chest- bandage. 

2. Kirby's term for the anterior piece of the 
medipectus in insects; now used as synonymous 
with Mesosternum. 

3. Applied, in Ichthyology, to a species of the 
Dactylati of Dumeril, the pectus of which has a 
mailed appearance. 

Peri stole. (Tlepio-ToXv, clothing.) Term 
for the peristaltic movement of the intestines. 

Peri stoma. (Tlepi, round; orTOLLa, the 
mouth.) Zo'61. The margin of the mouth, or of 
any mouth-like opening. Also, term for the mu- 
cous membrane round the openings of the intes- 
tinal glands. 

Peri stomal. Belonging to a Peristoma; 
also, surrounding the mouth. 

Peristom'ata. Plur. of Peristoma. 
Also, according to Lamarck, a Family of the 
Gastropoda, characterised by possessing a com- 
plete peristome. 

Peristomat'ic. Belonging to, or having 
the characters of, a Peristoma. 

Peristome. {Peristoma.) Zool. The 
same as Peristoma. 

Pot. The fringe of hair-like appendages 
round the mouth of the theca, beneath the oper- 
culum, in mosses. 

Peristom'ia. Plur. of Peristomium. 

Peristom'ial. The same as Peristomal. 

Peristom'ic. Characteristic of a peri- 
stoma. Applied by A. Richard to the insertion 
of stamens round the orifice of the tube of the 
calyx ; by Mirbel, to the nectary when it spreads 
out on the receptacle to the line of insertion of 
the stamens. 

Peristom'ium. The same as Peristome. 

Peristro'ma. (Jlcpivrpwiia., a cover- 
ing.) Old term for the mucous lining of the 
stomach and intestines. 

Peristolic, (n^t, round; o-tDXos, a 
pillar ; terminal -lkos.) Epithet applied to the 
insertion of stamens between the ovary and the 
calyx with partial adherence to the latter, in 
cases where the ovary is inferior. 

Perisyno'vial. (n^t; synovial.) Im- 
mediately surrounding the synovial membrane. 

Peri'syphe. See Perisysp/ie. 

Perisys'phe. (nepi, about; <rua<t>atp6w, 
to round off.) Desvaux's term for Perichaitium. 

Perisystole. (FIcpi, around; <n><n-t\,\w, 
to contract.) The short interval of time between 
the systole and the following diastole of the 
heart; inappreciable except when the heart's 
action is failing. 

Perisystol ic. Relating to the Peri- 

Peri'tasis. (ntp/Tacm [7r£piTiii>a>], a 
stretching or extension all round.) Extension 
on all sides ; a swelling in all directions. 

Peritendin'eum. (ntpt, round; L. 
tcndo, tendinis, a tendon.) The vascular con- 
nective tissue sheath of a tendon, which is well 
supplied also with nerves and lymphatics. 

Perite rion. See Peret'crion. 

Perites'tis. V n>. .; testis.) The same 
as Pcrididymis. 

Peritexis. (Uipir^tt, a melting all 


round.) An old term used by Hippocrates for 
the passing of a continual or frequent watery 
discharge from the bowels or elsewhere ; applied 
especially to the alvine discharges in dropsy. 

Perithelium, (lisp I, round; Svktj, a 
case.) The tough receptacle that encircles the 
theca of Fungi. 

Perithelium, vas cular. The same 
as Epithelium, vascular. 

Perithora cic. (Tlepl, round; 6wpa£, 
the breast.) Round the thorax. 

Peritome. (UipiTo/iv.) Circumcision. 

Peri'tomy. (Peritome.) Circumcision of 
the cornea. See Syndectomy. 

Peritonaea! g"ia. (Peritoneum ; Gr. 
a\yot, pain. F. peritcnealgie ; Gr. der [nervose] 
Bauchfellschmerz.) Peritoneal neuralgia. 

Peritonaeorrhe xis. (Peritoneum ; 
Gr. p»;£is, a rending.) Laceration of the perito- 

Peritonae um. See Peritoneum. 

P. duplica'tum. The Great omentum. 
Peritone al. (TlepiTovaio^, or irEpiT 6- 
l/zos, -tov, stretched over.) Appertaining to the 

P. cav'ity. The space included between 
the visceral and parietal layers of the perito- 

P. fe'ver. Term for Peritonitis. 

P. fos sae. See under Fossa. 

P. hook, Adams'. See Peritoneum 
hook, Adams' . 

P. llgr'aments. Reflections of peritoneum 
from the abdominal walls to certain viscera ; e.g. 
the ligaments of the liver, the false ligaments of 
the bladder, &c. 

P. sac. Syn. for P. cavity. Also, term 
for that part in the embryo JEchinoderm which 
gives rise to the peritoneum. 

Peritone'ic. The same as Peritoneal. 
Peritoneo clysis. (Peritoneum; Gr. 
k\uo-i9, a washing out, especially by a clyster.) 
"Washing out of the peritoneal cavity. 

Peritoneovag'i'nal. In connection 
with the peritoneum and vagina. 

P. fis tula. A vaginal fistula communi- 
cating with the peritoneal cavity. 

Peritone'um. (Td ttspnoviov, or to 
TrspiTovaiov, the peritoneum ; literally, that 
which is stretched over. F. peritoine ; I. peri- 
toneo ; G. Bauchfell.) 1. The serous membrane 
of the abdominal cavity. It is much the most 
complicated and extensive of all the serous mem- 
branes. In the male, it forms a closed sac ; but 
in the female, the fimbriated ends of the Fallo- 
pian tubes open into its cavity. It is composed 
of two layers, a parietal, lining the abdominal 
wall, and a visceral, thinner than the parietal 
layer, forming a more or less complete covering 
for most of the abdominal and pelvic viscera. 
The parietal layer is connected with the fascia 
that lines the abdomen and pelvis, by the sub- 
peritoneal areolar tissue. Along the middle lino 
of the body anteriorly, and on the under surface 
of the diaphragm, this layer is more firmly ad- 
herent than elsewhere. 

2. The structure in the Brachiopoda that holds 
the alimentary canal suspended in the perivis- 
ceral cavity. 

3. The outer layer of the digestive canal in the 
In sect a. 

P., devel opment of. With the rest of 
the lining of the coelome, or body-cavity, the 
peritoneum is developed by a superficial delami- 

nation from the mesoblast. The stomach, 
originally placed longitudinally in the abdomen, 
becomes horizontal, the pylorus and duodenum 
passing to the right, the original left side of the 
primitive stomach thus becoming ventrally, and 
the original right side dorsully, situated. The 
mesogastrium grows rapidly and becomes doubled 
on itself, enclosing a cavity ; and a fold of peri- 
toneum arising from the original ventral border, 
now the lesser curvature of the stomach, and 
passing to the liver, becomes contracted round 
the entrance into the cavity of the great omen- 
tum, forming the gastro-hepatic or lesser omen- 
tum, and the foramen of Winsloiv. The dorsal 
fold of the great omentum only later becomes 
united with the transverse mesocolon, being 
originally quite unconnected with it. The oc- 
currence of umbilical hernia is due to the per- 
sistence of foetal conditions, in which more or 
less of the intestinal canal is contained in the 
umbilical cord. 

P. -book, Ad ams'. A hook consisting of 
a steel bar bearing two backward-bent teeth, 
and mounted on a handle. It is used to raise 
the peritoneum, for facility in opening it in ab- 
dominal operations. 

P., pari'etal. See Peritoneum. 

P., toilet of. Term for the cleaning out 
of the peritoneal cavity at the completion of an 
abdominal operation. 

P., vis'ceral. See Peritoneum. 
Peritonit ic. Belonging to, or affected 
with, Peritonitis. 

Peritoni tis. (Peritoneum ; terminal 
-itis. F. peritonite ; G. Bauchfellentziindung.) 
Inflammation of the peritoneum. It may be 
either acute or chronic, and either general or 

P. f acute'. The cause is most often a 
lesion of or near the abdominal viscera, as, for 
example, ulceration of the stomach or intestines, 
abscess of the liver, &c. The inflammation is 
often set up by the passage of irritating pro- 
ducts into the peritoneal cavity. Bright's dis- 
ease is an occasional cause of peritonitis. Cold 
is stated to be a cause in some instances. Acute 
peritonitis may begin and continue as a local in- 
flammation, resulting in an abscess. The sym- 
ptoms of acute general peritonitis are constant 
pain, first localised afterwards diffused, with great 
tenderness ; vomiting, later on becoming foecu- 
lent ; arise of temperature to 102°, or even 104° or 
more (in some cases, the temperature is normal or 
subnormal) ; and a small, hard, frequent pulse. 
Collapse is usually a marked symptom, and hic- 
cough is very common. The bowels are usually 
constipated, though diarrhoea sometimes occurs. 
The urine is scanty, and may be retained. The 
disease is very fatal. In acute circumscribed 
peritonitis the constitutional symptoms are less 
severe, and the abdominal symptoms are more 
localised. The disease may subside, or an abscess 
may form, and burst externally, or into the chest, 
or one of the abdominal viscera. Its commonest 
causes are typhlitis, and, in the female, inflam- 
mation in connection with the uterus or its 
appendages. It is much less fatal than the 
general variety. 

P., cel lular. Peritonitis in which the 
process does not go further than hyperplasia of 
the endothelial cells. 

P., chron'ic. This may follow upon acute 
eritonitis, especially when localised, or be caused 
y local irritation. It also sometimes occurs in 



Blight's disease. The symptoms are variable. 
There is usually pain, or a feeling of abdominal 
discomfort. Occasional vomiting may occur; 
there is generally constipation. Irregular fever 
may be present. Locally, there may be signs of 
fluid in the peritoneal cavity, or irregular resist- 
ance from matting together of viscera. The 
prognosis is, as a rule, unfavourable. 

P., chronic adhesive. Chronic peri- 
tonitis in which the formation of adhesions is 
very marked ; it may be either local or diffuse. 

P., chronic haemorrha gic. Chronic 
peritonitis in which there is a false membrane 
supplied with thin- walled vessels, haemorrhage 
occuring into its substance. 

P. deformans. A form of primary chronic 
general peritonitis of the adhesive kind, in which 
considerable thickenings of the peritoneum take 
place, the mesentery often contracting, and the 
omentum shrinking and becoming twisted. The 
abdominal organs that have a peritoneal cover- 
ing become extensively adherent. The liquid 
effused may be either in small or large amount. 
This form of peritonitis is usually the result of 
great engorgement of the abdominal vessels, as 
in morbus cordis or hepatic disease. 

P., erysipel'atous. It was formerly held 
that erysipelas was a cause of acute peritonitis ; 
but this is not now believed to be the case. 

P., ery thematic. Term for Puerperal 

P., exter'nal. Term used by J. P. Frank 
and by Hildenberg to denote a variety of peri- 
tonitis in which the anterior parietal peritoneum 
■was supposed to be specially affected. There was 
extreme tenderness of the abdominal walls, with 
inflammation of the muscular and connective 
tissue, leading to localised swellings, with hard- 
ness and tension ; and these were associated with 
the usual symptoms of peritonitis. It is not con- 
sidered now that such a variety can be recognised 

P., fi brino-pur ulent. Peritonitis in 
which there is a formation of plastic lymph, 
together with a certain amount ot pus. 

P., hepat'ica. Perihepatitis. 

P., non plastic. Term for Puerperal 

P., pel'vic. See Perimetritis. 

P., puer'peral. Puerperal fever. 

P., sep'tic. Peritonitis consequent upon 
sepsis, either from perforation of one of the 
viscera, or spreading from the uterus. In this 
variety the pus is very foetid. The disease is 
extremely fatal. 

P., tuber'cular. This is generally co- 
existent with tubercle elsewhere. The peritoneal 
surface is studded over with miliary tubercles, 
which are usually most numerous on the dia- 
phragmatic peritoneum and in the flanks. The 
great omentum often undergoes caseous infiltra- 
tion, and becomes irregularly thickened and 
contracted, in the form of plaques which can be 
felt by abdominal palpation. The intestines 
become matted together, and the mesentery is 
often affected in the same way as the omentum. 
Ulceration of the intestine may coexist. The 
mesenteric glands become involved, and may 
sometimes be felt. The symptoms are mainly 
those of chronic peritonitis. Progressive loss of 
flesh and strength occurs, with irregularity of 
the bowels ; there is not usually very marked 
ascites. The skin round the umbilicus is some- 
times red and infiltrated. The usual tendency 

is towards a fatal ending, but many apparent 
recoveries are recorded. 

P., typhohae mic. (Typhus; al/ia,blood.) 
Term for Puerperal fever. 

Peritonsillar abscess. The 
abscess that often forms in acute tonsillitis, 
usually round one tonsil only. The main sym- 
ptoms are pain and tension. The palate in front of 
the tonsil bulges a good deal, on the affected side. 

Peritonsillitis, suppurative. 
See Tonsillitis, suppurative. 

Peritonydrocys'tis. (Peritoneum ; 
hydrocystis, a hydatid.) Peritoneal hydatid. 

Peritra cheal, (nipt; tracheal.) Im- 
mediately surrounding the trachea in the In- 

Peritre'ma. (ITe/h; Tpvp-a, a hole.) 
The minute cbitinous ring often present encirc- 
ling the spiracle in Insects. Also, the margin 
of the aperture of a univalve shell. 

Peritre'matous. Belonging to Peri- 

Peri'trope. (Jltpl, about; -rpoirv, a 
turning round.) A turning round or whirling. 

Peri'tropous. (Peritrope). Bot. Epithet 
applied by L. C. Richard to seeds directed from 
the axis of the fruit towards the sides of the 
pericarp. Also, having the radicle directed to- 
wards the side of the pericarp. 

Perittarte'ria. See Arterioperissia. 

Peritto'ma. (Jltpia-aw/ia., Att. itip'iT- 
Tw\ia, anything over and above ; especially that 
which remains after digestion of food, namely, 
excrement.) Excrement. 

Perit'tOteS. (IlEpicrcros, or irspiTT-os, 
excessive.) The same as Perissia. 

Perityphlit'ic. (Perityphlitis.) Re- 
lating to, or affected with, Perityphlitis. 

P. ab'scess. See Abscess, perityphlitis. 

Perityphlitis. (Kept, round; typhli- 
tis.) Used in two senses: 

1. As synonymous with Typhlitis. 

2. As meaning an inflammation of the con- 
nective tissue behind the Cfficum, which runs a 
chronic course and is very seldom fatal, unless 
from prolonged suppuration. 

Periuterine, (fltpt ; uterus.) The 
same as Perimetric. 

P. hae'matocele. See Hematocele, peri- 
uterine. ■ 

Perivascular. (fltpi; vasculum, a 
small vessel.) Situated round a blood-vessel. 

P. canals'. See P. sheath. 

P. lymphatics. A lymphatic vessel or 
close interlacement of lymphatic vessels, often 
found partly or wholly ensheathing an artery or 

P. lymphatics of spleen. See under 


P. sheath. The fibrous sheath which 
encloses the blood-vessels of the pia mater, and 
is formed by that membrane itself. The diameter 
of the lymphatic canal thus formed may be 
considerably larger than that of the vessel it en- 
closes. The pia mater sends inwards a similar 
sheath enclosing the vessels as they pass into the 

P. space. See Virchow-Robin s space. 
Perivasculitis, (n^i'; L. vasculum, 
dim. of VM, a small vessel ; terminal -WW.) In- 
flammation of the perivascular sheath of a 
blood-vessel ; especially used of the retinal 

P. sped flea. A perivasculitis due to a 


specific germ, or to substances produced by that 

Perivis'ceral. (Repi; viscus.) Round 
the viscera. 

P. cav'ity. The body- cavity of the embryo. 

Peri vitelline space. (Iltp/ ; vitel- 
Ins.) The space in the developing ovum formed 
between the zona pellucida and vitellus, by the 
shrinking of the latter. 

Periwinkle. (Mid. E. peruenke, a peri- 
wiukle, with dim. suffix -le, and insertion of i. 
Doubtless a name originally given to a twining 
plant, being allied to L. vincire, to bind." F. 
pervenche ; I. pervinca ; G. Sinngriin.) JBot. 
Name common to plants of the Genus Vinca. 

Zool. (Anglo-Sax. pinewinclan or wine- 
winclan, sea-snails.) Any species of the Genus 

P., great er. Common name for Vinca 

P., les'ser. Vinca minor. 

Perizo'ma. (riE/uiWia, a belt; from 
■jrspL^uivwfiL, to gird round.) A girdle. Anciently 
used for the diaphragm (Gomeus). Old term 
for a truss. Also, a term for Herpes zoster. 

Perizo'sis. (II£jch£(u<j-i<;, a girding round. 
F. perizose ; G. TJmgurtung.) Used in Med. 
and Surg, to denote a girding or bending round. 

Perizo'stra. {UspiluxTTpa, a belt.) A 
belt or bandage. 

Per kinism. See Metallic tractors. 

Per kinist. One who practises or believes 
in Perkinism. 

Perkinis'tic. Belonging to Perkinism. 

Perkins' metal lic tractors. See 
Metallic tractors. 

Per'la. (I. and S.) 1. A name for the 
Margarita, or pearl, regarded in ancient times 
as a panacea. 

2. Formerly used to designate Pannus ; also, 
a spot, Zeucoma, on the centre of the cornea. 

3. Name for a Genus of the Perlidce. 

4. Term for a gelatin capsule. (Billings.) 
Perlar'ious. {Perla.) Having a pearly 

lustre; applied to bivalve shells having pearls 
on their interior surface. 

Applied also to a Family, Perlarice, of the 
Neuroptera, having the Perla for their type. 

Perla ta mate'ria. Old term for a 
preparation used to cure hypochondriasis, ac- 
cording to Dan. Ludovicus, Diss, i, Pharm. p. 
121, in which the pearl {perla) was included. 

Pel" late ac'id. Bergman's name for 
acid phosphate of sodium. 

Perla'tum medicamen turn. Old 
name for any medicine of which the Perla was 
an ingredient. 

Perla'tus. {Perla.) 1. Med. Pharm. 
Belonging to the Perla ; the same as Margari- 

2. Zool. Term applied to bodies that are grey 
like pearl, marked with white shining spots, 
or studded with round, pearly granulations. 

3. Pot. Term applied to leaves that are raised 
from small, firm, round eminences ; to expan- 
sions of lichens the edges of which are studded 
with round tubercles, like a string of pearls; 
and to plants with white flowers disposed in 
small oblong clusters. 

4. Mineral. Pearly, as applied to a lustrous 

•5. A word of the same spelling, but different 
derivation (L. per, through ; fero, latum, to 
carry), signifies brought or carried through. 

Perle. (F. and G.) A pearl. 
In Pharmacy, a globule coated with gelatine, 
and containing some liquid substance, either 
volatile or of unpleasant taste. 

P.s of A'plol. These have been given in 
amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhcea, and suppressio 
mensium. Dose, 1 or 2 perles containing 3 
minims each. (Ex. Ph.) 

P.s of carbol'ic ac id. Perles made up 
with carbolic oil, each containing 1 grain of 
the acid. Dose, 1 or 2. (Ex. Ph.) 

P.s of chlo'roform. Each contains 3 
minims. Dose, 1 or 2. (Ex. Ph.) 

P.s of e'ther. Each contains 3 minims. 
Dose, 1 to 4. (Ex. Ph.) 

P.s of e ther and tur pentine. Given 
to relieve the pain of gall-stone colic. Dose, 1 
to 4. (Ex. Ph.) 

P.s of guaiacol. Each contains 1 
minim of guaiacol dissolved in oil. Dose, 1 or 
2, the maximum dose of guaiacol being 2 minims. 
(Ex. Ph.) 

P.s of monobro'mated camphor. 

Each perie contains 2 grains of Gamphora mono- 
bromata. Dose, 1 to 5. (Ex. Ph.) 

P.s of phos'phorated oil. Imported 
from France. They are prepared in three sizes, 
containing respectively 1-32 grain, 1-65 grain, 
and 1-100 grain each. Dose, 1 perle after meals. 
(Ex. Ph.) 

P.s of sulphate of quinine'. (Pelle- 
tier's.) Each perle contains lj- grain of quinine 
sulphate; for dose, see Quinince sulphas. 

P.s of tar. Each contains approximately 
2J grains of Pix liquida. Dose, 1 or 2 perles. 
(Ex. Ph.) 

Ferli'dee. (Nom. pi.) A tribe of pseudo- 
neuropterous insects whose type is Perla. 

Perl'ine. Belonging to the Perlida. 

Per manent. (L. per, through ; maneo, 
to remain.) Lasting throughout life ; used in 
Botany in the same sense as Persistent. 

P. car'tllagre. (L. cartilago perennis. G. 
bleibende Knorpel.) See under Cartilage. 

P. hardness of water. See under 

P. teeth. (F. dents permanentes. G. 
bleibende Ziihne.) See Dentition, permanent 
and d., second. 
Perman'granas. Permanganate. 
Perman ganate. (L. per, with in- 
tensive force; manganate.) A salt of Per- 
manganic acid. 

P. of cal'cium. Used for making disin- 
fecting mouth lotions. It has but little taste. 

P. of potas'sium. See Potassii perman- 

P. of so dium. See under Sodium. 
P. of zinc. See under Zinc. 
Permangan ic ac'id. Mn 2 H0 4 . This 
acid is obtained in aqueous solution by decom- 

fosition of the barium salt with sulphuric acid, 
t may be obtained pure by dissolving potassium 
permanganate in sulphuric acid, and distilling 
the greenish-yellow solution over the water-bath 
at 60° or 70° C. Violet vapours of pure perman- 
ganic acid appear, and then condense to form a 
soluble greenish-black liquid. The pure acid 
possesses very great oxidising power. 

Permeabil ity. {Permeable. F. per- 
meabilite ; 1. permeaoilita ; G. Durchdringlich- 
keit.) The state of being permeable, that is, 
capable of being passed through without disloca- 
tion or breaking of parts; especially used of 


substances that allow the passage of fluids. 
(Century Diet.) 

Per meable. (L. per, through ; meo, to 
pass ; habilis, suitable.) Having the property of 

Permis'sus. (L. permitto, to allow to 
pass through.) Term for a Licentiate. 

Permis'tio. (L. per, through; misceo, 
mistum, or mixtion, to mix.) The same as Per- 

Permix tio. (L. per, through; misceo, 
mixtum, to mix.) 1. Term for a thorough 
mingling or mixture. 

2. The same as Coitus. 

Per mutate. (L. permuto, to exchange.) 
De Candolle's epithet for flowers in which the 
abortion of the sexual organs determines a 
marked change in the appearance of the flower. 

Pernambu'co wood. Peach wood, 
or Brazil wood; obtained from the Ccesalpinia 

Perni cious. (L. perniciosus, destruc- 
tive. G. verderblich, shadlich.) Destructive; 
tending towards a fatal issue. 

P. anae mia. See Ancemia, progressive 

P. fe'ver. See Fever, pernicious. 

P. intermit tent fe'ver. Asyn. for Per- 
nicious fever. Trousseau describes three main 
varieties, viz. algid, burning, and sudoral. He 
also describes what are called the " comitates " 
group, in which there is functional disturbance 
of various organs, and, under this head, the fol- 
lowing groups : apoplectic, cardialgic, choleraic, 
comatose, convulsive, delirious, dysenteric, gas- 
tralgic, haBmatemesic, hemorrhagic, lethargic, 
peripneumonic, petechial and scorbutic, pleu- 
ritic, soporose, syncopic, and, finally, tetanic or 

P. malar ial fe'ver. A syn. of P. fever. 

Per nio. (Ilipva ; from ir-rlpva, the heel.) 
A chilblain. 

Pernocta'tio. (L. per, through; nox, 
noctis, the night.) The same as Pervigilium. 

Perobrach ius. (n»;po's, maimed ; 
Ppaxio>v, the arm.) Epithet for an individual 
with either congenital absence, or malformation, 
of the arms. 

Peroceph'alus. (Uvpot, maimed; 
Ki(pa\v, the nead.) Gurlt's term for a class of 
foetal monstrosities characterised by defective 
formation of the head. 

Perochirus. (ID/co's, maimed; x"7>> 
the hand.) Having a malformation of one or 
both hands. 

Perocid'ium. (F '. perocidion.) Necker's 
name for the involucre that surrounds the fruit 
of mosses. 

Perocor mus. (ITtjpos, maimed; Kopp.6?, 
the trunk of a tree.) Gurlt's term for defective 
formation of the body or trunk. 

Perodactyl'eus. See Perodactylius. 

Perodactyl ius. The same as Perono- 

Perodac'tylus. (Utjpos, maimed ; Sok- 
tuXos, a finger.) Having malformed fingers. 

Perodyn ia. (Ylvpa, a leathern pouch, 
in this case the stomach; 6ovv\], pain.) The 
same as Cardialgia. 

Pero'ma. (tlvprnna, a laming or maiming 
of the limbs or senses.) A lame or maimed in- 

Peromelia, (Peromelus.) Congenital 
mutilation or defective formation of the limbs. 

Pero'melus. (Utipus, maimed; nt\o?, 
a limb.) An individual having the deformity 

Peronse us. See Peroneus. 

Peronarthro'sis. {Arthrosis.) See 

Perona'tUS. (Perone, the fibula. F. 
perone; G. gestiefelt.) Epithet applied by 
Willdenow to the stem of the mushroom. 

Per one. (Hiip6v>i, anything pointed for 
piercing ; afterwards used to designate both the 
Jibttla and the radius.) The fibula. 

Perone al. (Perone.) Belonging to the 
Perone or fibula. 

P. artery. (F. art'ere peroniere; G. 
Wadenbeinarterie.) A branch of the posterior 
tibial artery. It arises about one inch below the 
lower border of the popliteus muscle, passes first 
downwards and slightly outwards upon the 
tibialis posticus, then vertically upon the inner 
border of the fibula. At the lower end of the 
interosseous space it gives off its anterior pero- 
neal branch, and is thence continued as the pos- 
terior peroneal artery over the inferior tibio- 
fibular joint and posterior surface of the external 
malleolus, breaking up into terminal branches 
running over the outer and posterior surfaces of 
the os calcis. It gives off also muscular branches, 
a communicating branch to the posterior tibial, 
and a medullary branch to the fibula. 

P. ar'tery, ante'rior. This branch arises 
from the P. artery about one inch above the 
ankle, passes forwards below the interosseous 
membrane, and then downwards in front of 
the lower tibio-fibular joint to the outer surface 
of the tarsus. It forms communications with 
the external malleolar branch of the posterior 
tibial, and, by its terminal twigs, with the tarsal 
and posterior peroneal arteries; and it gives off 
also muscular and articular twigs. 

P. ar'tery, descen ding-. The P. artery, 

P. ar'tery, perforating. The P. artery, 

P. ar'tery, poste'rior. See under P. 

P. bone. See Perone. 

P. commu nicating: nerve. The largest 
of the cutaneous branches of the peroneal nerve. 
It usually joins the short saphenous nerve in the 
lower half of the back of trie leg ; but is some- 
times continued as a separate nerve, giving 
cutaneous branches as far as the heel and outer 
side of the foot. 

P. groove. Term for the groove on the 
outer surface of the os calcis in which the tendon 
of the peroneus longus lies. 

P. muscles. See under Peronetts. 

P. nerve. See Popliteal nerve, external. 

P. ridge. The same as P. spine. 

P. spine. A ridge on the outer surface of the 
os calcis, separating the grooves for the respective 
tendons of the peroneus longus and p. brecis. 

P. tu'bercle. The same as P. spine. 

P. type of mus cular a trophy. This 
is an affection which was fully described by Dr. 
Tooth in 1886, and by Charcot and Marie in the 
same year. It occurs in early life, frequently 
after an attack of measles, more in males than 
females, is occasionally hereditary, though more 
often it is members of the same generation who 
suffer. Wasting begins first in the extensor 
longus pollicis pedis or extensor communis 
digitorum, or in the peronei. As the disease 


advances, it attacks the small muscles of the 
foot, then the muscles of the calf, and later 
those of the thigh. The muscles of the hands 
and arms are invaded much later. Double ta- 
lipes varus and clawing of the fingers commonly 
result from the unequal affection of the muscles. 
The pathology of the disease is at present un- 
certain, but it seems to resemble a neuritis 
rather than a spinal affection, though cases occur 
which apparently combine both forms. Fibril- 
lation of the muscles is usually present, together 
with early loss of faradic irritability and distinct 
reaction of degeneration. 

P. veins. The two venae comites of the 
P. artery. They open into the posterior tibial 

Peronedactyl'ius. See Peronodac- 

Perone'O-i (Perone.) A prefix used to 
signify in connection with, or belonging to, the 

P. calca neal. Belonging to the perone 
and calcaneum. 

P, calca neus inter'nus. See Musculus 

accessorius ad musculum accessorium. 

P. in Ira phalangettia'nus. (F. pha- 
langette, a terminal phalanx. F. peroneo-sous- 
phalangetticn.) Name applied by Chaussier 
in the same sense as peroneo-phalanginianus 
by Dumas. 

P. in'fra-tarsia'nus. (Tarsus. F. pi- 
roneo-sous-tarsien.) Name applied by Chaussier 
to the peroneus longus muscle, because it passes 
from the fibula, beneath the tarsus, to the first 
metatarsal bone. 

P.-mal'leolar. (F. peroneomalleolaire.) 
Belonging to the fibula and (external) malleolus ; 
epithet applied by Chaussier to the external 
saphenous vein. 

P. pbalanginla'nus. (Phalanx. F. 
peroneophalanginien.) Belonging to the fibula 
and a phalanx of one of the toes ; applied by 
Dumas to the flexor longus hallucis muscle. 

P.-su'pra - metatarsia'nus ma jor, 
snd min or. (F.peroneosus-metatarsien.) Name 
applied by Chaussier to the peroneus brevis and 
peroneus tertius respectively, as attached, the 
one to the fibula, ana the other to the base of the 
fifth metatarsal bone. 

P . - su pra -pnalang ettla nus. (F. pha- 
langette, a terminal phalanx. F. peroneo-sus- 
phalangettien.) Name applied by Chaussier 
(Peron.-sup.-phal. communis) to the extensor 
longus digitorum pedis muscle ; also (Peron.-sup.- 
phal. pollicis pedis) to the extensor proprius 
hallucis muscle. 

P.-su'pra-phalanginia'nus. Name ap- 
plied by Dumas to the extensor proprius hallucis, 
the Peron.-sup.-phal.-pollicis pedis of Chaussier. 

P.-tibi - su'pra - phalangettia'nus. 
(F. peroneo-tibi-sus-phalangettien.) Name ap- 
plied by Dumas to the extensor longus digitorum 
pedis, the Peron.-sup.-phal. communis of Chaus- 

P.-tib ial. Belonging to the perone and 
fibula; the same as Tibio- fibular. 

Perone urn. (Perone.) The same as 

Perone us. (Perone.) Belonging to the 
perone or fibula ; used to designate the several 
peronei muscles. 

P. accesso rius. See P. quinti digiti. 

P. anti cus. The P. brevis. 

P. brev is. This muscle arises from the 

lower two-thirds of the outer surface of the 
fibula, and from the intermuscular septum on 
each side of itself. Its tendon passes behind the 
external malleolus, and is inserted into the base 
of the fifth metatarsal bone. There is generally 
a slip from this tendon to the extensor tendon of 
the little toe. This muscle and the P. longus 
are both supplied by the musculocutaneous 
branch of the external popliteal nerve. 

P. lon'grus. A muscle arising from the 
outer tuberosity of the tibia, the head and upper 
two-thirds of the outer surface of the fibula, 
from the two intermuscular septa between which 
it lies, and from the fascia of the leg. Its tendon 
passes behind the external malleolus, over the 
outer surface of the os calcis, along the groove 
in the plantar surface of the cuboid bone, and 
then inwards and forwards across the sole, to be 
inserted into the base of the first metatarsal 
bone, and partly into the internal cuneiform, 
another slip being sometimes attached to the 
base of the second metatarsal. Its nerve- supply 
is the same as that of the P. brevis. 

P. me dius. Term used both for the P. 
brevis and the P. quinti digiti. 

P. postl'cus. The P. longus. 

P. postl'cus brev is. The P. brevis. 

P. postl'cus lon'grus. The P. longus. 

P. prl'mus. The P. longus. 

P. quar'tus. The same as P. quinti digiti. 

P. quin ti dig iti. A muscle present in 
many mammals, arising from the external sur- 
face of the fibula just below the fibular attach- 
ment of the peroneus longus, and inserted into 
the outer side of the base of the first phalanx of 
the fifth toe. It is present in some human sub- 
jects (about one-third examined, Testut) ; but is 
usually represented merely by a tendinous slip 
between the peroneus brevis and the tendon of 
the extensor longus to the little toe. 

P. quin'tus. The same as P. quinti digiti. 

P. secun'dus. The P. brevis. 

P. sex'tus. The same as P. quinti digiti. 

P. ter'tlus. A muscle arising just below 
the extensor longuB digitorum pedis from the 
lowest fourth of the anterior surface of the 
fibula, from the corresponding part of the inter- 
osseous membrane, and from the intermuscular 
septum which separates its outer surface from 
the P. brevis ; and inserted into the base of the 
dorsum of the fifth metatarsal bone. Its nerve- 
supply is from the anterior tibial nerve. 

Peronodactyliae'us. The same as 

Peronodactyl ius. (Ucpovn, the 
fibula; 5aKTu\os, a digit. F. peroneo-dactylien.) 
Pertaining to the fibula and digits (of the toes) ; 
term for the flexor longus digitorum pedis. 

Peronospora. (n £/3 ovij, anything 
pointed ; airopa, a seed.) A Genus of phy- 
comycetous Fungi, giving its name to the Order 

P. lnfes'tans. Since 1845 this species 
has been known in all countries where the 
potato is grown, as the cause of the rot. It first 
shows itself on the leaves, which curl up, 
blacken, and then become dry. The fungus 
grows on the under surface of the leaves, and 
the spores drop off, get washed by the rain into 
the earth, and thus reach the tubers, on which 
they grow, finally causing them to decay. Some- 
times the disease begins within the tubers. 
It is occasionally propagated very rapidly by 
zoospores, which are produced within the spores. 



P. vei'ani. This species lives as a sapro- 
phyte on potato tuhers ; but is unable to pene- 
trate into the living tissues of the plant. 

P. vlti'cola. (De Bary.) This species is 
a parasite upon the vine ; it was first introduced 
into Europe from America in 1877. Millardet 
has found that by repeated hybridisation of the 
European vine (Vihs vinifera) with American 
species, it is possible to produce a vine that can 
withstand this fungus and other fungi, and also 
the Phylloxera. 

Peronospora ceao. The same as Pero- 

Peronospor'eae. (Peronospora.) A 
Family of phycomycetous Fungi, most of which 
live as parasites within living plants, but some 
of which, live as saphrophytes. They have a 
large, vegetative mycelium, and they propagate 
almost entirely asexually, either by non-motile 
gonidia or by swarm-spores. 

Pero-olfacto'rius. Wilder's name 
for that part of the olfactory bulb from which 
the filaments of the olfactory nerve arise. (Bil- 

Peropla'sia. (n»ipos, maimed; nrKao-is, 
a moulding.) Malformation due to defective 

Pero'pteres. (n>;pos, maimed; irrtpov, 
a wing.) Dumeril's term for a Family of osseous 
Molobranchii, with complete absence of the ven- 
tral fins and a partial absence of the other fins. 

Peroptery'g/ii. (IIijpos, maimed ; irTt- 
pv£, -wTipvyos, a wing.) A name used by Gold- 
fuss, Ficinus and Carus for an order of fishes 
without ventral fins. 

Peropus. (IIijpos; ttous, ttoSos, a foot.) 
Having a malformation of one or both feet. 

Pero'sis. (IIjjpos, maimed.) Old term 
for Lcesio ; also, for a deficiency in the number 
of digits ; also, for other organic lesions of the 
limbs and joints (Foesius). 

Peros'mic ac'id. (L.per, through, com- 
pletely; osmic.) The same as Osmic acid. 

Peroso'mous. (ILi/jos, maimed; <ru>[ia, 
the body.) Having an imperfectly or badly 
formed body. 

Perosplanch nica. (ITiipos, maimed; 
air\dyx»ov, any part of the viscera.) Congenital 
malformation of viscera. 

Pero'tis latifo lia. An Indian plant, 
Order Gramineee. It has the reputation in India 
of being diuretic. 

Perox'idate. The same as Peroxidise. 

Peroxidation. The process of being 
completely oxidised. 

Perox ide. (L. per, with intensive force ; 
oxide.) That oxide which contains the greatest 
possible proportion of oxygen in combination 
with a polyvalent element or basic radical. 

P. of" ny'drogren. See Hydrogen peroxide. 
P. of i ron. See Ferri peroxidum. 
P. of man ganese. See Manganese per- 

Perox'idise. To completely oxidise; 
also, in a passive sense, to undergo the process of 

Perox'idum. See Peroxide. 

Peroxyda'tus. (L. pen oxidum, or 
oxydum.) Adjective applied to a metal or other 
element combined with, oxygen in the form of a 

Peroxy'dum. The same as Peroxidum. 
Perpendicular external mus- 
cle Ol Za glas. The vertical fibres of 

the tongue which decussate with the transverse 
fibres and the insertions of the genio-hyo-glossus, 
and form curves in each half of the tongue, with 
their concavity outwards, the outermost fibres 
being the shortest. 

P. line of ul'na. The longitudinal line 
on the posterior surface, separating an inner, 
smooth surface covered by the extensor carpi 
ulnaris, from an outer, irregular surface covered 
by the extensor muscles of the thumb and the 
extensor indicis. 

P. plate of ethmoid. The central 
vertical plate. See Ethmoid bone. 

Perpendic'ulum he'patis. (L. 
perpendtculum, a plumb-line; liepar.) The 
suspensory ligament of the liver. 

Perperacu tus. (Intensive form of 
peracutus.) Excessively acute ; applied to dis- 

Perplex'l mor'bi. (L. perplexus, en- 
tangled ; morbus, a disease.) The Complications 
of a disease. 

Perplica'tion. (L. per, through ; plico, 
to fold.) A method of arresting haemorrhage 
from a cut artery, by making an incision in its 
sheath near the cut end of the vessel, and pass- 
ing the cut end by means of forceps through the 
aperture in the sheath, so as to bend the vessel 
on itself. 

Per'rosin. A name for Frankincense. 

Per'ry. (F. poire; I. sidro dipera; G. 
Bimwein, Birnmost.) A vinous liquor made 
from pears in the same way as cider is from 

Per'ry coun'ty springs. Penn- 
sylvania. Warm springs, temperature 67° F. 

Per'ry spring's. Pike County, IUinois. 
Mild alkaline waters. The Middle or Magne- 
sium Spring contains in 1 pint, potassium car- 
bonate *199 grains, magnesium carbonate l - 260, 
carbonate of iron -051, calcium carbonate 1-38, 
sodium sulphate "055, double silicate of potassium 
and sodium - 33, sodium silicate -015 grains. The 
Upper or Sulphur Spring contains in 1 pint, 
potassium carbonate • 181 grains, magnesium car- 
bonate "097, carbonate of iron -04, carbonate of 
lime T715, sodium sulphate *137, double silicate 
of potassium and sodium "285, sodium silicate 
•048 grains. The Lower or Iron Spring contains 
in 1 pint, potassium carbonate -157 grains, mag- 
nesium carbonate *777, carbonate of iron -025, 
calcium carbonate 1-708, sodium sulphate '173, 
double silicate of potassium and sodium "431, 
sodium silicate "072, aluminium silicate *034 
grains. They issue from the limestone, and have 
a flow of from 1 to 2 gallons a minute. 

Per'sea. (Iltpo-f'a; L. persea.) An Egvp- 
tian tree whose fruit grows from the stem ; also, 
term applied to the Genus Laurus (Kraus). 

P. cam'fora. The Camphora officinarum. 
P. cas'sia. The Cinnamomum cassia. 
P. cinnamomum. The Laurus cinna- 

P. cube'ba. The Cubeba officinalis. 

P. gratis sima. The Avocado, or Alligator 
Pear, Order Laurinece, a large South American 
tree sometimes more than sixty feet high, grow- 
ing on the eastern slopes of the Andes. Its 
berry is fleshy and butyraceous (beurre vegetate), 
tastes like pistachio, and is eaten with meat and 
spices. Many kinds of animals feed on it._ Its 
seeds yield a alack dye. used for marking linen, 
and the berry itself yields an oil, composed of 70 
per cent, olein and 21-9 per cent, palmttin (Oude- 


mann's), used in soap-making and for illumi- 
nating purposes. The seeds are also astringent, 
and the leaves are considered to be useful in 
chest-affections, and locally for wounds. 

P. pichu rim. See Pichurim beans. 

P. sas'safras. The Sassafras officinale. 
Persecu tion, insanity of. See 
under Insanity. 

Per'seite. A body resembling mannite, 
present in the leaves and fruit of Laurus persea. 
Per sian ap ple. A name for the Peach. 

P. bal sam. The Tinctura benzoini com- 
posita, B. Ph. 

P. ber'ry. The fruit of several species of 
Jthamnus, from which is obtained a yellow dye. 

P. fire. A name for Anthrax. 

P. in sect-powder. A name for the 
powdered flowers of Pyrethrum carneum and 
P. roseum, which are used to kill insects. 

P. man na. See Manna, Persian. 

P. o'pium. See Opium, Persian. 

P. pel'litory. Name for both the Pyre- 
thrum carneum and P. roseum. See also Per- 
sian insect powder. 

P. tick. The Argas persicus. 

P. ul'cer. See TJlcers, endemic. 
Persica. (From Persia, of which country 
the peach is a native.) A Genus of the Rosacea ; 
also, the Peach-tree. See Amy g dolus persica. 

P. lae vis. The Nectarine. Fruit edible, 
having a soft pericarp. It is probably a variety 
of P. vulgaris ; but its origin is unknown. 

P. vulgaris. The peach-tree. SeeAmyg- 
dalus persica. 

Persicar'ia. (Persica, the peach-tree; 
because its blossoms are like those of the peach.) 
The specific name of the Plumbago or leadwort. 
See Polygonum per sicaria. 

P. mi nor. The Polygonum persiearia. 

P. mit is. (L. mitis, mild.) The Polygo- 
num persiearia. 

P. u'rens. The Polygonum hydropiper. 

P., wand'spiked. The Polygonum vir- 

P., wa'ter. The Polygonum amphibium. 

Per'sico. An Italian liqueur flavoured 
with the kernel of the peach. 

Per sicot. (L. persicum, a peach.) An 
alcoholic drink prepared by macerating the 
kernels of peaches, apricots, &c, with lemon 
peel and spices, in alcohol. 

Per'SicuS. (F. persique ; G. persisch or 
parsisch.) Belonging to Persia, Persian; ap- 
plied to the peach, Malum persicum. Formerly 
applied, Ignis persicus, to a disease accompanied 
by a burning heat; either anthrax, or carbuncle, 
or some disease very like these. Also, applied to 
the increased heat in angina, or sore- throat. 
P., ignis. (Persianflre.) See Ignis persicus. 

Persimmon. The fruit of Diospyros 
viyginiana, very astringent when unripe, but 
edible when ripe. See also Chinese persimmon 
and Japanese persimmon, 

Persi'mon. The same as Persimmon. 

Persis tens, fe'bris. (L.) Persistent 
fever. Term for an intermittent fever with 
regularly-recurring paroxysms. (Hooper.) 

Persis tent. (L. persisto, to continue 
standing ; hence, to persist.) Permanent. AUo, 
in Pot., evergreen ; applied especially to leaves 
that remain on a plant one winter or longer. 
P. pulp. See Tooth pulp, persistent. 
P. pupillary membrane. The cap- 
6ulo-pupillary membrane forms in the earlier 

stages of development of the eye a complete fibro- 
vascular investment for the lens, having its origin 
in the deepest layers of the enclosed mesoblast, its 
blood supply coming from a branch of the central 
artery of the retina. It is the anterior part of 
this membrane which in young animals, such as 
kittens or puppies, closes the opening of the 
pupil for certain days after birth. In man, the 
whole membrane usually atrophies before birth ; 
but occasionally traces are left in the form of 
thin bands of tissue connected with the anterior 
surface of the iris. This connection serves to 
distinguish them from remains of old iritis, as 
the latter are connected with the posterior sur- 
face. In rare cases, so much of the membrane 
may be left as to render operation necessary. 

Persola'ta. The Arctium lappa. 

Persolu'ta. The same as Persolata. 

Per sonal equa'tion. Term used in 
Physiology for the special reaction-time of an 
individual for a given stimulus. See Reaction- 

Personal ity, disor ders of. See 

Consciousness, double. 

Persona'ta. (L. piersona, a mask.) 
Masked. A name for the Arctium lappa, given 
because, in ancient times, actors used its leaves 
as masks. 

Per sonate. See Personalis. 

Persona'tus. (L. persona.) Masked, 
disguised. Applied, in Pot., to a monopetalous, 
irregular corolla, when the tube is expanded and 
the two lips are unequal and approximated so as 
to contract the orifice. 

Perspecilla'tus. (Perspecillum.) Spec- 
tacled, or having an appearance round the eyes 
resembling that given by a pair of spectacles. 
Adjective applied to certain animals whose eyes 
are surrounded by a naked space, or by a space 
coloured differently from the rest of the face. 

Perspecil lum. See Perspicillum. 

Perspicil'lum. (L.) A magnifying glass 
of any kind ; in plural, perspicilla, spectacles. 

Perspirab ile" reten'tum. (L.) Re- 
tained perspiration. This has been cited as an 
important factor in the causation of some dis- 
eases, for almost as long as medicine has been 
studied. All efforts, however, to discover any 
poisonous products of perspiration have failed. 
The belief is grounded on the injurious effects of 
varnishing the whole surface in animals, and 
the fatality of extensive skin-burns ; but the 
former is probably due to increased loss of heat, 
and the latter is possibly due to the thickening 
of the blood from transudation of lymph. (Tap- 

P. Sanctoria'num. (After Sanctorius.) 
Term for Perspiration. 

Perspirabil'ity. The condition of 
being Perspirable. 

Perspirable. Capable of being per- 
spired; also, capable of perspiring. 

Perspira'tion. (L. per, through ; spiro, 
to breathe.) 1. The process of secretion and 
evaporation of sweat; divided into insensible 
perspiration, in which the sweat secreted is im- 
mediately evaporated and passes off as vapour as 
rapidly as it is formed; and sensible perspira- 
tion, in which the sweat remains for an appre- 
ciable time on the surface of the skin in the 
form of drops of clear fluid, before becoming 

2. Used for sweat, the secretion of the sweat- 
glands. See Sweat. 


P., insen'sible. See Perspiration. 

P., mor bid. (L. morbidus, causing dis- 
ease, unwholesome.) See under Ephidrosis. 

P., obstructed. See Adiaphoresis. 

P., retained'. See Perspiraoile retentwn. 

P., seh'slble. Sec Perspiration. 
Perspi'ratory. Belonging to Perspira- 

P. duct. Term for the duct of a sweat 

P. gland. A sweat gland. 
Perspire'. (L. per; spiro.) To excrete 
sweat or perspiration ; also, to be excreted as 

Perstric'tion. (L. pcrstringo, perstric- 
tum, to tie tightly.) Term for arrest of haemor- 
rhage byJigature of the bleeding vessel. 

Persuda tio. (L. per, through ; sudatio, 
a sweating.) Term for Diapedesis ; also, for 

Persulphate. That sulphate which 
contains the greatest possible proportion of the 
sulphuric acid radical (SO.,)* in combination 
with a polyvalent element or basic radical. 
P. of i'ron. Ferric sulphate. 
P. of mer'cury. Mercuric sulphate. 

Persul phide. That sulphide of any 
element or basic radical which contains the 
greatest possible proportion of sulphur. 

Persulphure turn. (L. per, com- 
pletely, thoroughly ; sulphur etum.) Old term 
lor Persulphide. 

Persulta'tio. (L. persulto, to leap 
through.) The same as Persudatio. 

Pertica. (L. pertica, a pole.) A long 
pole with which to beat down fruit ; also, term 
used for Priapism. 

Pertica lis. {Pertica.) Belonging to 
Pertica, in either of its two meanings. 

Pertropli ic. (L. per, with intensive 
force ; Gr. Tpotfrtj, nourishment.) Relating to 
excess of nutrition. 

Pertru'sio mu'tua. (L. per, through ; 
trudo, trusum, to thrust ; mutuus, reciprocal, 
mutual.) The same as Endosmose. See under 

Perturba'tiO. (L. perturbatio, disturb- 
ance ; also, figuratively, meutal disturbance. F. 
perturbation ; G. Verwirrung .) 1. Term applied 
to irregularities in the rotation of the planets 
as regards the direction of that rotation, conse- 
quent upon irregularity in their form and want 
of homogeneity of structure, so that the line 
representing the force of the sun's attraction does 
not always pass through tbeir centre of gravity. 

2. Excessive restlessness, mental disquiet, or 
perturbation ; disturbance of function. 

P. crit'lea. A term for the critical per- 
turbation of the organism which constitutes the 
crisis of a disease. 

Perturbatio'nes an'imi. (Nom. 
plural of Perturbatio.) Disturbances of the 
mental faculties. 

Perturba trix, medici'na. (F. 
medecine perturbatrice.) See Mcdicina pertur- 

Perfusate. (L. pertusus, bored through.) 
Pot. Having a perforation at the apex. 

Pertus'sal. Belonging to Pertussis. 

Pertussia. (Pertussis.) Term pro- 
posed by Dr. William Farr for the " zymotic 
principle " of Pertussis. 

Pertus sis. (L. per, with intensive sig- 
nificance; tussis, a cough.) See Whooping cough. 

Pertussor ium. (L. pertusus, per- 
tundo, perforated ; more correctly Pertusorium.) 
Term for an instrument for opening and gradu- 
ally draining a cystic tumour ; a sort of trocar. 

Pertu'BUS. (L. pertusus, perforated. F. 
pertus; G. durchstossen.) Epithet applied to 
leaves that are perforated with large, irregularly 
arranged openings. 

Peru', bal'sam Of. See under Balsam. 

Perui'ferus. (Peru; fero, to bear or 
carry. F. peruifere ; G. Perubalsamtragend.) 
Bearing that which is Peruvian ; applied to the 
Myroxylon peruiferum. 

Pe'rula. (Dim. of Pera.) Med. Pathol. 
Term applied, according to Paracelsus, de 
Pustul. Gallic. Ulcer, Sec., vii, 6, to a local 
affection in jaundice. 

Pot. Term applied by A. C. Richard to a kind 
of sac formed Dy the prolonged and adherent 
bases of two of the lobes of the perigon of 
certain species among the Orchidem ; by Mirbel 
and J. G. Zuccharini, to those envelopes of the 
buds of native British trees which arise from 
aborted leaves, as in Daphne, from the bases of 
petioles, as in Juglans, or from stipules, as in 

Perula'tus. (Perula.) Epithet applied 
by Mirbel to an alabastrus of a plant when pro- 
vided with a perula. 

Perunc'tio. (L. perungo, perunctum, to 
anoint.) A general anointing of the skin. 

Peru'vian bal'sam. See Balsam of 

P. bark. See Cinchona. 
P. lpecacuan'ba. The root of Psychotria 
emeiica, sometimes substituted in commerce for 
the root of Cepha'elis ipecacuanha. 

P. mas'ticb. See Mastich, Peruvian. 

Peruvia'nus, -a, -urn. Peruvian. 
P. cor'tex. Peruvian bark. 

Perver'sio. (L. pen-erto, perversus, 
to turn the wrong way. F. pen'ersion ; G. 
Verkehrtheit.) The same as Diastremma. 

Perver sion. (Perversio.) A turning 
the wrong way, or to wrong or abnormal uses. 
Term employed in Psychology to denote a change 
for the worse in the mental or moral characteris- 
tics of a person. 

Pervigilium. (L. per, with intensive 
force; vigilo, to watch.) Disinclination for 
sleep ; also, vigilance. 

Pervin'ca. (L. per, through ; vinca.) 
The specific name for the lesser periwinkle, 
Vinca pervinca. 

Pes. (L. pes, pedis.) The foot. 
P. accesso'rius. Accessory foot ; term for 
a smooth eminence, also termed Eminentia col- 
lateralis, situated in the lateral ventricle of 
either cerebral hemisphere, at the junction of the 
descending with the posterior horn, between the 
hippocampus major and the hippocampus minor. 

P. alexandri'nus. The Anacyclus py- 

P. anserinus. (L. anserinus, belonging 
to a goose.) See Facial nerve. Also, old name 
for the Chcnopodium murale, or goose-foot. 

P. anseri nus fas'clee la'tae. A name 
given to the radiating fibres formed on the inner 
side of the knee by the insertions of the sartorius, 
semitendinosus, and gracilis muscles. 

P. anseri nus major. The Pet ante- 

P. unscri nus ml'nor. A name for the 
Infraorbital plexus. 


P. anseri'nus ner'vi media ni. See 

Plexus anserinus nervi mediani. 

P. antl cus. Term for Mantis. 

P. a vis. Bird's-foot. Old name for the 
Omit hop us perpusillus. 

P. calca neus. See Talipes calcaneus. 

P. cap'rae. (L. capra, a she-goat.) Goat's- 
foot ; a name for a species of Convolvulus ; also, 
for a species of Oxahs. 

P. ca'tl. (L. catus, a cat.) Cat's-foot; 
a name for the Antennaria dio'ica. 

Pi ca'vus. See Talipes cavus. 

P. columbi'nus. (L. columba, a dove or 
pigeon.) Dove's-foot; a name for the Geranium 

P. coro nae radla'tae. The narrow base 
or origin at the medulla of the Corona radiata, 
from which the fibres of the latter spread out. 

P. equi no-var us. See Talipes equina- 

P. equi'nus. (L. equinus, pertaining to 
horses.) The horse-foot, Talipes equinus. 

P. equi'nus of Rum'phlus. See 

Hydrocotyle asiatica. 

P. fabrfcltans. A name for Elephan- 
tiasis arabum cruris. { Billings.) 

P. gal'll. Fowl's-foot. Old name for 

P. gi gas. An affection, also called Macro- 
podia, limited to one extremity, in which there 
is great congenital hypertrophy, mainly of the 
bones and the integuments. The whole foot 
may be equally involved, forming the symme- 
trical or true variety ; or only certain parts of 
the foot may be affected, the unsymmetrical or 
false variety. In the latter case the disease 
may take the form of large fatty excrescences on 
the foot, or one or more toes may grow to a 
gigantic size, or both these conditions may be 
present. Large capillary nsevi may occur, and 
though the arteries do not seem to be affected, 
the veins are usually thickened and varicose. 
The bones are greatly and equally enlarged in 
every part ; but the muscles do not show much 
change. The tendons are greatly lengthened. 
There is also thickening of ligaments ; and some 
distortion of joints may occur secondarily. No 
cause is known. Treatment consists mainly in 
carefully regulated pressure, and amputation of 
excrescences, or of the large toes, in unsym- 
metrical cases. 

P. gryph'ii. More commonly Pedes 
gryphii. (F.piedes de griffon). An instrument 
described and figured by Pare, as copied from 
Dalechamps, for the extraction of the head 
after decapitation of the foetus in utero. It 
consisted of two or four strong hooks, fixed at 
their lower ends by a framework, so that they 
could be approximated and firmly held, thus 
enabling traction to be made. 

P. htppocam'pl. {Hippocampus.) The 
anterior and lower part of the Hippocampus 
major, near its extremity, where it is notched 
on its edge, somewhat resembling a quadruped's 

P. hippocampi majo'ris. The same 
as P. hippocampi. 

P. hippocam pi mlno'ris. A name for 
the Hippocampus minor. 

P. leo'nls. Lion's-foot. The Alchemilla 

P. leporl'nus. Hare's-foot. Old name 
for several species of Trifolium, and especially 
T. arvense. 

P. olfacto'riua. Wilder's term for the 
inner roof of the Olfactory lobe. 

P. pedun'cull. Term for the Crusla of 
the Crus cerebri, or cerebral peduncle. 

P. pla'nus. Flat-foot. See Talipes 
valgus, spurious. 

P. ti'gridis. (L. tigris, tigridis, a tiger.) 
Tiger's-foot; a name for a species of Ipomcea. 

P. valgus. See Talipes valgus. 

P. var'us. See Talipes varus. 

P. vlt'ull. Calf's-foot. Old name for 
the Arum maculatum, or cuckoo-pint. 

Pessary. (Low L. pessarium, from 
L.pessus. Gr. Iltcro-os, an oval-shaped stone for 
playing a game like our draughts; afterwards 
also a kind of plug of linen, resin, wax, &c., 
mixed with medicinal substances, to be in- 
troduced into the vagina. ~E . pessaire ; I. pes- 
sario; G. Mutterkranz.) An instrument for in- 
troduction into the vagina to remedy prolapse of 
the uterus or of the vaginal wall. In ancient 
times, a topical medicine introduced into the 
vagina, of a cylindrical shape and about the 
size of an average ringer, made of a small bag of 
linen, or of wool or cotton, steeped in medicinal 
substances ; also, an incorporation of hone}', gal- 
banum, laudanum, wax, &c, moulded into a 
cylindrical form ; also, simply a small vaginal 
suppository. They were also used for intro- 
duction into the cervix uteri, and often had a 
thread fixed to them, by which they were 
attached to the thigh. As more than 120 kinds 
of pessaries have been described at different 
times, it is impossible to do more here than 
mention a few of those in common use. Those 
who wish to find full accounts with drawings of 
the various forms of pessaries are referred to the 
encyclopajdic dictionaries of medical science, 
French and English, and to instrument makers' 
catalogues {e.g. Tiemann's, of New York, which 
describes and figures more than 100 forms). 

P., air. Gariel's pessary. See P., GarieVs. 

P., air-ball. The same as P., air. 

P., a'nal. An olive-shaped pessary made 
of pewter, which has been used in the treatment 
of prolapsus ani. They are generally of no use, 
as the sphincter is too much relaxed to keep 
them up, and, even if kept in position, they 
cause irritation by pressure. 

P., anteflexion. A specially adapted 
vaginal pessary recommended by Thomas for the 
treatment of anteflexion of the uterus. 

P., ante version era' die, Gral'ly 
Hew itt's. This is made of vulcanite. The 
posterior half is like a Hodge pessary, its posterior 
extremity fitting into the posterior fornix and its 
anterior part into the anterior fornix ; from this 
part the pessary curves down at a slightly obtuse 
angle, the two arms meeting in a loop similar in 
shape to that of a Hodge pessary, which lies 
against the vaginal wall at its lower opening. 

P., antever'sion, Geh rung's. This is 
a pessary consisting of two arms meeting in a 
curve at either extremity, the whole instrument 
being so curved upon itself at the centre that the 
two halves are parallel to one another for the 
greater part of their length. Gehrung inserts 
the instrument so that one extremity is in the 
anterior fornix, the corresponding half of the 
pessary partly encircling the cervix, and the 
other, or lower half, resting against the posterior 
wall of the vagina. Mundfi places this pessary 
so that the bend at the middle is in the anterior 
fornix and the two extremities rest against the 


posterior vaginal wall, their curves lying antero- 

P., antever'slon, Thom as . Thomas 
has invented several kinds. One form is merely 
a Hodge pessary with a projecting pair of arms 
starting from near the centre of the pessary on 
either side and meeting in a curve, this part 
being passed up into the anterior fornix. This 
form of pessary occasionally sets up pelvic cel- 

P., Bor gnet's •• bung-hole." Short, 
thickish, and upright ; supported by cross straps 
fastened to a belt. Recommended by Pozzi for 
hospital use, as being cheap and effective and 
easily cleaned. 

P., Cut'ler's. Stem curved round to belt 
round waist, and having either a ring or a cup 
to support the cervix. 

P., Egyp'tian. See JEgyptius pessus. 

P., Feh line, s stem. Made of thick 
glass, fenestrated and so tempered that its curve 
can be altered when heated over a lamp. It is 
filled with iodoform powder kept in place by a 
plug of cotton wool. It should always be | cm. 
shorter than the previously measured uterine 
cavity. It is kept supported by the uterine 
mucous membrane bulging into the fenestra?. 

P., Fritsch's. Combination of Schultze's 
sledge-shaped pessary and Hodge's pessary ; it 
has a hard caoutchouc cross-bar. 

P., Gal'abin's antever'slon. Like a 
Hodge pessary with the anterior cross piece made 
very broad. 

P., galvanic. Introduced by Simpson, 
as an intra-uterine pessary. The stem is copper 
for one half its length, and zinc for the other, 
fixed on an ovoid disc. Modified later by 
Noeggerath, who substituted a stem of parallel 
strips of copper and zinc ; and later again mo- 
dified by Thomas, who substituted a wire stem, 
on which were threaded alternate beads of 
copper and zinc. 

P., Car'lel's. This consisted of a hollow 
india-rubber ball with a small tube attached. 
When empty of air, it was easily passed into the 
vagina ; then, by means of a small syringe, air 
was pumped in through the tube, thus expand- 
ing the ball. 

P., gimblette'. (Gimblette, a small round 
cake, thickish at the edges, with a hole through 
the middle.) Pessary so called from resemblance 
to a popular form of cake. 

P., Kew'itt's. See P., anteversion cradle, 
of Graily Hewitt. 

P., Hodge. This is made of vulcanite ; it 
is in the shape of an elongated horse-shoe with 
a nearly straight cross-bar joining the free 
(lower) ends. In profile, it has a short upper, 
sacral curve which lies, with its concavity for- 
wards, in the posterior fornix, and a longer, less- 
marked pubic curve. 

P., Hodge's Improved'. Made with 
double curve and anterior concavity to fit round 
the urethra. («) Modified by A. Smith, is 
narrowed. (6) Modified by Thomas, thickened 
posteriorly, and curve accentuated. 

P., Hodge, modified by Albert 
Smith. The lower half is contracted to a beak- 
like extremity; in profile, the pubic curve is 
more pronounced. 

P., Hodge, modified by Thomas. 
The pessary is longer, the upper bar thicker, and 
the sacral curve more pronounced. 

P., ln'tra-n'terlne. This consists of a 

straight stem, a quarter of an inch shorter than 
the uterine canal, attached to a flat, perforated 
disc. The stem is introduced into the uterus in 
the same way as a sound, the disc lying in the 
upper part of the vagina. 

P., intrauterine, Green halgh s. In 
this form, the stem is of gutta-percha, and is 

P., intra u terine, Slmp'son's. The 

stem in this instrument is of copper. A pessary 
of similar shape but with a vulcanite stem has 
been made, as Deing lighter. 

P., Landow ski's flexible pew ter. 

Bent so as to have a ring at one end of the 
stem, and a sort of handle at the other as a 
support. The ring goes round the cervix. The 
stem being flexible, it can be used either for 
retro- or anteflexion or -version. 

P., Mun de's, for prolapsed' o vary. 
This varies in shape for unilateral and bilateral 
prolapse. The shape is somewhat like that of a 
Hodge pessary, but the curves are less marked. 
The end which is to support the prolapsed ovary 
in cases of unilateral prolapse, is slightly hol- 
lowed out. 

P., ring. Made of elastic caoutchouc, in- 
troduced either by fingers or by specially de- 
vised forceps. In France known as Dumont- 
pallier's, elsewhere as Mayer's. First invented 
by Meigs. 

P., Ho ser-Scanzo ni's. Stem-pessary, 
or Systerophore, q. v. 

P., Schult ze's. Two forms. (1) Figure- 
of-8, made of copper wire covered with caout- 
chouc, smaller loop round cervix. (2) Sledge- 

P., Thomas' antever'slon. Usual 
shape of a Hodge pessary, with moveable cross- 
piece, shaped like a horse-shoe to fit into anterior 

P., Valiiet's. Sledge- shaped. 

P., Zwanck's. This consists of two semi- 
oval, perforated pieces of wood united by a hinge. 
From the two extremities of the hinge, two bars 
of metal pass down perpendicularly to the plane 
of the two pieces of wood when these are ex- 
tended. These two bars fit together at their 
free end with a simple clip. To insert the pes- 
sary, the two metal bars are separated so as to 
fold the two pieces of wood together, the instru- 
ment is passed into the vagina with the metal bars 
lying antero-posteriorly, and finally the instru- 
ment is rotated through a quarter of a circle, and 
the bars are gently brought together and clipped, 
so that the two halves of wood pass respectively 
into the anterior and posterior fornices. The 
two united bars rest against the anterior vaginal 
wall, and have been known to cause ulceration 
when the instrument has not been removed 

P., Zwanck's, modified by Schil- 
ling. In this form the two limbs of the stem 
are never separated ; the wings are opened or 
closed by turning a screw to the right or left. 

Pess aries, medicated. See under 
Pessary ; also, under Pessus. 

Pis, med icated, gel'atlne mass for. 
Place 1 ounce of gelatine in 4 ounces of water 
for a few seconds, drain off the water, and after 
half an hour add 4 ounces of glycerine. Dissolve, 
with the aid of heat. (Ex. Ph.) 

Pesse'ma. See Pessima. 

Pes si. Nom. plural of Pessw. 

Pessi ma. (Hiatrov, a draught-board.) 


A skin disease characterised by indurated, 
yellowish-brown pustules universally distri- 
buted over the skin, each surrounded by an in- 
flamed area, the whole giving an appearance 
somewhat resembling a draught-board. (Bergh.) 

Pessimism. (L. pessimus, worst.) 1. 
The mental habit of putting the worst possible 
construction upon everything, and of always 
exaggerating evils, and looking on them rather 
than on good or cheerful things. It occurs as a 
most prominent symptom in Melancholia. 2. 
The doctrine which embraces the meutal prac- 
tice stated in 1. 

Fes'sula. (Dim. of Pessus.) The same 
as Pessary. 

Pes sulus. The same as Pessary. Also, 
in Ornxthol., the cartilaginous or bony rod which 
forms part of the Syrinx, lying across the lower 
end of the trachea. 

Pes'sum. The same as Pessus. 

Pes sus. (Iltero-os.) A pessary. Used 
in the original sense of a medicated pessary or 
vaginal suppository, introduced into the vagina 
to produce the local effect of the drug used. See 

P. ac'ldi bor'ici. Each contains 10 grains 
of boric acid together with oil of theobroma. 

P. ac'ldi tan'nici. Each contains 10 
grains of tannic acid. 

P. alu minis. Each contains alum, wax, 
and catechu, of each 1 drachm, prepared lard 5£ 
drachms. (Cooley's Cyclop. ofPrac. Receipts.) 

P. atropi nee. Made either with gelatine 
mass or oil of theobroma. Each contains ap- 
proximately 1-20 grain of atropine. See Pes- 
saries, medicated, gelatine mass for. 

P. belladon'nae. Each contains, of the 
official extract of belladonna (the green extract) 
10 grains, of white wax 22£ grains. 

P. belladon nae extrac'ti ra'dicls. 
Each contains £ to 1 grain of the official Ex- 
tractum belladonna. (Ex. Ph.) 

P. bismu th! oxycblo rldi. Each con- 
tains 10 grains of oxychloride, and is made up 
with oil of theobroma. (Ex. Ph.) 

P. cocai'nae. Each contains J grain of 
cocaine made up with cacao-butter. (Ex. Ph.) 

P. coni nae. Each is made up of conia J 
minim, gelatine mass 20 grains. (Ex. Ph.) See 
Pessaries, medicated, gelatine mass for. 

P. iodofor'ml. Identical with the Sup- 
positoria iodoforms, namely, 3 grains of precipi- 
tated iodoform made up with oil of theobroma. 
(Ex. Ph.) 

P. plum'bi lodi'di. Each contains 5 
grains of the iodide. (Ex. Ph.) 

P. plum'bi lodi'di cum atropi'na. 

Each contains 5 grains of lead iodide with 1-20 
grain of atropine. 

P. potas'sli bromi'dl. Each contains 
10 grains of the bromide. 

P. potas'sli lodi'di. Ten grains of the 
iodide in each. 

P. zin'cl oz'ldl. Ten grains of the oxide 
in each. 

P. zin'cl sulphocarbola tis. Ten 

grains of the sulphocarbolate in each. 

Pest. See Pestis. 
P. -bouse. A hospital for the reception of 
persons suffering from any Pestilential malady. 

Pesti'cbia. (L. peat is, apkgue; so called 
because symptomatic of the Plague.) The same 
as Petechia ; sometimes also applied to the rash 
of all Exanthemata. 

Pesti cia. The same as Pestichia. 

Pes titer. (L. pestis, a plague ; fero, to 
carry.) Bringing or inducing pestilence ; con- 

Pestiferous. The same as Pestifer. 
Pestilence. {Pestis.) A malignant, 
infectious disease; generally used to mean the 


P., cboler'ic. Cholera, Asiatic. 
P., glandular. The Plague. 
P., haemog-as'trlc. Yellow fever. 
P., sep'tlc. The Plague. 
P. weed. The same as Pestilent wort. 
P. wort. See P. weed. 
Pes tilent. {Pestis.) Belonging to, or 
favouring, the occurrence of Pestis; more usually, 
simply poisonous, or carrying disease germs. 

P. wort. (Mid. E. wort; Ang. Sax. wyrt 
a plant.) The butter-bur, Tussilago petasites. 
Pestilen'tla. The same as Pestis. 

P. beemogras'trlca. Yellow fever. 
Pestilen tial. The same as Pestilent, in 
its more general sense. 

P. fe'ver. See Fever, pestilential. 
Pestil'itas. {Pestis.) The same as 

Pestilocb'ia. (F. pestilochie.) A name 
for the Aristolochia serpentaria. 

Pes'tine. {Pestis.) A term suggested by 
Dr. William Farr to designate the "specific 
zymotic principle " of the Plague. 

Fes'tiS. (L. pestis, an infectious disease, 
or a pestilence.) The Plague. 

P. acutis slma. The Plague. 
P. adenosep'tica. CASvv, a gland ; 
o-tjirxt/cos, putrefying.) The Plague. 
P. amerlca'na. Yellow fever. 
P. Antoninia'na. The Plague of An- 

P. bellica. (L. bellicus, pertaining to 
war ; cp. the term Fever, army.) Typhus. 

P. bovlila. (L. bovillus = buoalus, per- 
taining to oxen.) See Cattle plague. 

P. britan'nica. The Sweating sickness. 

P. bubonar la orlenta lis. {Bubonarius, 
from bubo.) The Plague. 

P. contagio sa. The Plague. 

P. glandulo'sa. The Plague. 

P. glossan thrax. Glossanthrax. 

P. lngulnar'la. {Inguinarius = ingui- 
nalis. L. inguen, the groin.) The Plague. 

P. intertrop'lca. Yellow fever. 

P. nigra. (L. niger, black. F. peste 
noire; G. die schwarze Pestilenz.) The Black 
Plague or Black Death. A form of the Plague 
which occurred during the fourteenth century, 
a.d., was of almost world-wide distribution, and 
has been estimated as having been, during its 

Erevalence, fatal to about one-fourth of the 
umau raee existing at that time. It was espe- 
cially characterised by its extreme fatality, and 
by the occurrence of black petechias of the skin. 
P. occldenta'lls. Yellow fever. 
P. orlenta'lis. The Plague. 
P. sep'tlca. The Plague. 
P. variolo'sa. {Variola.) Smallpox. 
Pes' tie. {Pistillum; from h. pinso, pinsi- 
turn, pinsum or pistum, to pound or crush. F. 
pilon ; I. pestello ; G. St'ossel.) A cylindrical 
instrument, usually having a wooden handle, and 
fitted with a stone portion for crushing, which 
latter is convex and slightly enlarged at the free 
end. It is used for crushing substances in a 
mortar, which is most commonly also of stone. 


P., spring. A pestle which is attached to 
a spring above, so as to minimise the work of 

Pes told. Eesembling the plague, or pest. 
{Century Diet.). 

Pet'al. (lltxaXoi/, a leaf. F.petale;Q. 
Blumenblatt.) Term for each of the coloured 
leaflets of the corolla of a flower. 

Pet'ala. (Nom. pi. n.) Petals. See Fetal. 
P., rhoe'ados. See Rhceados petala. 
P., ro see. See Rosa petala. 

Petalan thous. (IItVaXoi>,in the sense 
of a petal ; avQos, a flower. F. petalanthe ; G. 
kronenblattrig.) Having flowers with petals. 

Pet ale. (? ritTaXos, flat, from ttie shape 
of the louse.) Term for Phtheiriasis. 

Petal iform. {Petalum = ttitoXov, a 
petal; L. forma, likeness.) Petal-shaped. 

Pet' aline. Relating to a petal. 

PetalOCer'ata. (Noin. pi. n. TltraXov, 
a leaf; Ktpas, Kiparroi, ahorn.) Dumeril'snanie 
for u Family of the Coleoptera, in which the an- 
tennae are foliated at the free end. 

Petalo'des. {YltTaXov, a leaf ; terminal 
-ui&vi.) Having abundance of leaves or petals ; 
applied by Hippocrates to urine that has leaf- 
like or scale-like bodies floating in it, a condition 
which he considered as indicative of ulceration 
of the bladder. 

Petalo'deus. (Incorrect form of Peta- 
lodes.) Epithet applied by G. Allman to flowers 
that have petals ; by De Candolle, to double 
flowers formed by development into Petals of 
bracteae, as in Hortensia ; the calyx, as in 
Primula ; stamens, as in Glematidece, Ranun- 
culaceee, Aquilegia vulgaris; or carpels, as in 
Anemone nemorosa. 

Pet'aloid. (TLItuXov, in the sense of a 
petal ; tlfios, form.) Resembling a single petal, 
or a corolla. 

Petaloma'nia. {Hi-raXov, in the sense 
of a petal ; p.avia, madness. G. Kronenblattoll- 
heit.) Term employed by botanists to designate 
the tendency displayed by some plants for organs 
other than petals to assume the appearance of 

Petalo'poda. (Nom. pi. n. Hin-aXov, 
a leaf; Trout, irofios, a foot.) Schweigger's and 
Eichwald's name for a Family of Zoophytes, from 
whose homogeneous bodies project parallel tubu- 
lar processes. 

Petaloso'mata. (Nom. pi. n. IHto.- 
\ov, a leaf ; o-w/xa, cmfxaToi, the body.) Dume- 
ril's name lor a Family of osseous holobranchiate 
fishes, in which the body is flattened and 
lengthened out in the form of a leaf. 

Petaloso'mi. Incorrect form for Petalo- 

Petaloste mones. (Nom. pi. f. Tlira- 

Xov, in the sense of a petal ; <rr>jp.cov, -ovot, a 
thread, hence a stamen.) Term applied by 
Mcench and Gleditsch, and also by G. Allman, 
to a Class of plants in which the stamens are 
inserted on the corolla. 

Petarku ra. The Oynocardia odorata. 

Petasi tes. {UtTao-'iTii?, a kind of colt's- 
foot ; from TrtVao-os, a broad-brimmed kind of 
hat ; so named from its expanded leaves.) The 
specific name for the Butter-bur, or pestilent- 
wort, Tussilago petasites. It was formerly used 
in fevers. 

P. hy brida. The same as Petasites. 
P. ma jor. The same as Petasites. 
P. officina lis. The same as Petasites. 

P. ruteus. The same as Petasites. 

P. vulgaris. The same as Petasites. 
Petaso phorus. (Wi-raaot, a broad- 
brimmed kind of hat ; .,.»..»., to bear.) Ornithol. 
Having the form of a hat: also, having an 
appearance as of wearing a hat, either from a 
large tuft of feathers on each side of the neck, 
ab in Trochilus petasophorus, or from spots 
extending behind the eyes, as in Ornismya peta- 

Petaur um. {UtTavpov, a pole or perch 
for fowls to roost on.) Term for a kind of swing- 
seat suspended from ropes, in which a person 
was swung backwards and forwards for the pur- 
pose of gentle exercise. 

Pete chia. (Low L. petechia, or peticula, 
a fleabite. F. petechie ; I. peiecchia ; G. Pete- 
chin.) A small red spot in the skin, caused by 
extravasation of blood into the superficial vascu- 
lar layer of the corium. It may be bright red, 
dark red, or purple ; it does not disappear on 
pressure ; and it is gradually absorbed, the colour 
changing through brown, green, and yellow. 
An ecchymosis differs from a petechia merely in 
being larger. 

Pete chiae. Nom. pi. of Petechia. 
P. si ne fe'bre. Term for Purpura sim- 

Pete chial. Belonging to, or made up 
of, petechiee, or of red spots resembling petechias. 

P. fe'ver. Term for Meningitis, cerebro- 
spinal ; also, for Typhus. 

P. fe'ver of the hog. Sivine fever. 

P. scur'vy. Term for Purpura simplex. 

P. typhus. (L. Typhus exanlhematicus. 
G. Petechialtyphus.) A name for Typhus, in 
contradistinction to Abdominal typhus or enteric 

Petechiano'sis. {Petechia; voo-os, a 
disease.) Term for Fever, petechial ; also, Pur- 
pura hemorrhagica. 

Pete chiate. Having Petechia. 

Pe'ter'S pills. The Pilules aloes et cam- 
bog ice. 

P.'s springs. (G. Peter squellen.) In the 
town of Terek, in the province of Karbarda, 
Russia ; hot sulphur springs. 

Pe tersen's bag 1 . The india-rubber 
bag, first recommended by Petersen of Eiel, in- 
troduced into the rectum and then distended 
with water, in the operation of supra-pubic 
lithotomy. It is of a pyriform shape, and holds 
about sixteen ounces. 

Pe tersthal. In the Schwarzwald, 
Baden, Germany ; noted for its three cold 
mineral springs. The Salzquelle contains, in 
100 parts, hydrated ferric carbonate (FeH a (C0 3 )2), 
•045 parts, carbonic acid 1366 cc. ; the Peters- 
quelle, *046 parts and 1330 cc. ; the Sophien- 
quelle, "044 parts and 1319 cc. ; and also chloride 
of lithium -01 parts. The two former springs 
also contain lithium, and all three contain cal- 
cic and sodic sulphate. {Real Encyc. der Pharm., 
Geissler and M oiler). 

Petic'ula. Old term for Petechia. 

Peti'gro. The same as Impetigo. 

Peti'na. (L. pes, a foot.) Term for the 
sole of the foot. 

Petiola'oeous. (Petiole.) Epithet ap- 
plied by De Candolle to buds, when the bases of 
the leaf-stalks or petioles, dilated into shells, 
form an investiture for the young shoot, as in 
Juglans regia. 

Pet'iblar. {Petiole.) The same nsPetiolaU. 


Pet'iolate. Bot. Provided with a petiole. 
Anat. and Zo'61. Having a stalk or peduncle 
resembling the petiole of a leaf. 

Petiola tion. The condition of leaves 
on a leaf-stalk or petiole. 

Pet'iole. (Petioltts.) Bot. A leaf-stalk. 
Entom. The Sclerite uniting the thorax and 
abdomen in many insects. 

Petiolea'rius. {Petiole.) Epithet applied 
to those organs of a plant which are formed by 
metamorphosis or degeneration of the petiole. 

Pet'ioled. The same as Petiolate. 

Petiol'ular. Epithet applied to stipules 
of compound leaves, growing at the bases of the 
folioles and upon the bases of the petioles. 

Petiol'ulate. Epithet applied to a 
foliole that is borne upon a petiole. 

Pet'iolule. (Dim. of Petiole. G. Blatt- 
stielchen.) The particular petiole of each foliole 
of a compound leaf. 

Petiol ulous. Having abundance of 
petiolttles ; applied to a plant with very long 

Pet iolus. (Or Pediolus ; dim. ofL.^e*, 
pedis, a foot. ) A Petiole. 

P. epiglot tidis. Term for the compressed, 
narrow base of the epiglottis. 

P. mal lei. The manubrium of the mal- 
leus. See Malleus. 

Petiot's pro'cess. A process for ob- 
taining an increased quantity of wine from 
grapes. The pressed grapes are treated with 
solution of sugar, and the mixture is left to fer- 
ment. The resulting alcoholic liquid is either 
coloured with cochineal or red litmus and sold as 
natural wine, or else it is added to Spanish or 
Italian wine. 

Petit', Fran'cois Pour'four du. 

French surgeon and anatomist. Born 1718, died 
1794. He first described what has been since 
called " the canal of Petit." 

P., canal' of. A sacculated canal which 
encircles the crystalline lens, occupying the in- 
terstices of its suspensory fibres, and filled during 
life by serous fluid, or perhaps partly by vitreous 
humour. It is of importance as a channel by 
which nourishment can reach the lens ; in deep- 
seated diseases of the eye, this canal not infre- 
quently becomes involved. 

Petit', J. Xi. French surgeon. Born 
1674, died 1750. 

P.'s opera tion for her nia. Herni- 
otomy without opening the sac ; first performed 
by Petit in 1718, revived of late years by Aston 
Key and Luke. 

P., sling: of. See under Sling. 

P., trl'angle of. Anat. Formed imme- 
diately over the iliac crest by the gap usually 
present between the external oblique and latis- 
simus dorsi : the base of the triangle is formed 
by the iliac crest, and its floor by the internal 
oblique. Through this gap a lumbar hernia 
occasionally protrudes. 

Petit' co'co. (F. petit, small.) Name 
employed in St. Domingo for the crushed seeds 
of Theophrasta Jussieui, which are there used 
for making bread. 

P. mal. (F. " The little evil," as com- 
pared with Haut mal, or Grand mal.) See 

Petivc rea. (Nom. pi. n.) Bartling's 
name for a Tribe of the Phytolaccacea, having 
the Genus Petiveria for their type. 

Petive'ria allia cea. (Alliaceus, from 

Allium.) A species of the American Tribe 
Petiveria ; all tne plants of this tribe have an 
alliaceous smell and are used as being antifebrile, 
diuretic, and vermifuge. 

Petiveria'cece. The same as Peiiverea. 

Petive'ria). The same as Petiverea. 

Petong - '. A synonym of Packfong. 

Pet'ra. (Uirpa, a rock.) Geol. A great 
stone or rock. 

P. sangulnar'ia. (L. sanguinarius [san- 
guis], pertaining to blood.) The blood-stone; a 
term for Hcematite. 

Petra? leum. See Petrelaum. 

Petraeum. (ritxpalos, living on or 
among the rocks.) Name for the Solidago vir- 

Petralog"y. (Ui-rpa, a rock ; Xoyos, a 
discourse.) The consideration and description 
of rocks. 

Petra'pium. (UtTpa, a rock ; airiov 
[L. apiuni], parsley; so called because it grows 
in stony places.) A name for the Bubon mace- 

Petrefac'tion. See Petrifaction.^ 
Petrela?'um. (Jltn-pa, a rock; iXaiov, 
oil.) The same as Petroleum. 
Petri's disinfecting- powder. 

This is made up of 60 parts of charred peat, 40 
of small coal, and I of coal-tar. (Real Encyc. 
der Pharm., Geissler and Moller.) 

Petri'colous. (L. petra, a rock ; colo, 
to inhabit.) Living in rocks, as certain of the 

Petrifac'tion. (L. petra, a stone, rock ; 
factum [facio], made.) 1. The process of con- 
version of a dead organised body into a fossil. 
2. The fossil itself. 3. The deposition of earthy 
salts in the tissues ; more usually termed calci- 

Petrifica tion. (F '. petrification ; from 
L. petra, a rock ; facio, to make.) An older 
form of the word Petrifaction. 

Petrissage. (F.) Kneading. See 
under Massage. 

Pet'ro del por'co. The stone of the 
pig ; Spanish name for Bczoar hystricis. 

Pet ro-bas ilar fis sure. The irre- 
gular, narrow space between the body of the 
sphenoid bone on one side, and the petrous 
portion of the temporal and basilar portion of the 
occipital on the other ; filled up in the recent 
state by fibro-cartilage. 

Petroccip'ital. See Petro-occipital. 

PetrodOS'teon. (TliTpwStji, rocky; 
do-Ttov, a bone.) The Os petrosum, or petrous 
portion of the temporal bone. 

Petrodos'teum. A Latinised form of 
the word Petrodost ■on. 

Petrogno'sia. (UiTpa, a rock ; yvuxTit, 
knowledge.) The same as Oryctognosia or 

Petrbgraph'ic. Belonging to Petro- 

Petrography. (mVpa, a rock; yp&<pu>, 
to write.) The same as Petrology ; also, the art 
of inscribing on Etone. 

Pet'ro-hy'oid. Belonging, or having re- 
lation, to the petrous portion of the temporal 
bone and to the hyoid bone. 

P. mus'cle. A variety of the Stylo-hyoid 
muscle which arises from the petrous portion of 
the temporal bone. (Billings.) 

Also, in Comp. Anat., a set of small muscular 
fasciculi, present in certain of the Batrachia, 


lying beneath the omo-hyoid, and passing from 
the hinder part of the skull to the hyoid bone. 

Petrolar dum. See Petrolatum. 

Fetrolari'num. See Petrolatum. 

Petrola turn. (U.S. Ph.) Paraffinum 
molle, B. Ph. In the U.S. Ph. two varieties are 
official, one boiling at 104° F., and the other at 
125° F. 

Petro'lei cera turn. See Petroleum, 
cerate of. 

Petroleum. (L. vetra, a rock; oleum, 
oil. F '. huile de pierre ; G. Steinol.) Rock oil. 
The general name used for the natural oily 
liquids existing in different parts of the earth at 
various depths. The natural oil is a mixture 
of several hydrocarbons. It has a strong bitu- 
minous smell; but specimens differ in com- 
position. It is found in the United States, the 
Caucasus, round the mouth of the Danube, in 
Rurmah, Galicia, Persia, the "West Indies, Italy, 
Germany, Switzerland, France, and England. 
Its sp. gr. varies from "77 to and its colour 
from pale yellow to black. North American petro- 
leum consists chiefly of the hydrocarbons of the 
Paraffin (C n H 3p+a ) series; that from Baku in the 
Caucasus contains besides, the aromatic hydrocar- 
bons of the series G^^, and small quantities of 
other hydrocarbons. Crude petroleum contains 
also small quantities of compounds containing 
sulphur, nitrogen, and oxygen, and may contain 
water and sediment. Usually the petroleum 
with the lowest specific gravity is the most vola- 
tile and inflammable. It is tested commercially 
for its specific gravity, colour, smell, the feel 
when it is rubbed between the fingers, and the 
percentage of naphtha (portion volatile below 
150° F.) yielded by fractional distillation. The 
flashing-point and burning-point are generally 
used only as tests for the refined petroleum or 
kerosene, which consists of the more volatile por- 
tions of the crude oil. See Watts' Dictionary 
of Chemistry and Thorpe's Dictionary of Ap- 
plied Chemistry. 

P. allium. (L. albus, white.) White 
petroleum, a clear, pale- coloured variety of 
natural petroleum. It was formerly called 
Napta alba (Castellus). 

P. barbaden'se. See Barbadoes tar. 

P. ben zin. The same as Benzin. 

P., ce rate of. Vaseline 2 parts, paraffin 
(boiling at 135° to 140° F.) 1 part; these 
are melted and mixed, and then stirred until 
cold. This is used as a basis for several oint- 

P. e'tner. One of the four products into 
which crude petroleum is refined in Germany ; 
being that portion which comes over at a tem- 
perature of 40" to 70° F., and has a sp. gr. of 
•640 to *650. The other three products are ben- 
zine, ligroin, and cleaning oil. 

P. jelly. A synonym of Vaseline. 

P., Hew York. See Seneca oil. 

P. oint ment. A synonym of Paraffinum 

P. ru'brum. (L. ruber, red.) Red petro- 
leum, a species that abounds about the village of 
Gabian in Languedoc. 
Also called Oleum gabianum. 

P. spir it. (U.S. Ph.) Benzene. 

P. sulphura'tum. The same as Balsam, 
sulphur, Barbadoes. Barbadoes tar 16 ounces, 
flowers of sulphur 4 ounces. It has been used 
internally (dose, 10 to 30 minims) as an anti- 
spasmodic and sudorific, and in chest affections. 

Externally, it has been used as a stimulant and 
detergent dressing for ulcers. 

Pet rolin. {Petroleum.) Term for the 
complex substance obtained by distillation of 
petroleum, namely, Paraffin. 

Petrol! na. One of the varieties of 
American vaseline. 

Petrology. (ITt-r/ja; Xoyos.) A study 
of the mineralogical composition of rocks. 

Pet'ro-mas'toid. Belonging to the 
petrous and mastoid portions of the temporal 

P. bone. The same as Periotic bone. 
P. canal'. Name for the largest of the 
several canals leading from the posterior wall of 
the tympanum into the mastoid cells. 

P. fora'men. A name for the tympanic 
opening of the P. canal. 

Petromatog-no'sia. (Jlirpa, a rock ; 
H&toi, investigation ; yvwaii, knowledge.) E. 
Fisher's term (1828) for Mineralogy. 

Petromyzi'des. {Petromyzon.) Risso's 
name for a Family of the Chondropterygii, 
having the Petromyzon for their type. 

Petromyzon. (JltTpa, a rock, or stone; 
H^io, to suck.) A Genus of lampreys (Order 
Chondropterygii), also called the Petromyzon- 
tidse, formerly including all lampreys,but now re- 
stricted to the northern species ; also, a lamprey. 
The P. marinus or true lamprey is much esteemed 
as food ; the P. fluviatilis and P. branchialis, 
though equally well-flavoured, are seldom eaten. 

Pet'ro-occip'ital. Belonging to the 
occipital bone and the petrous portion of the 

P.-o. sl'nus, infe rior. A vein running 
on the external surface of the base of the skull, 
from the foramen lacerum medium to the fora- 
men jugulare. (Trolard.) 

P.-o. sl'nus, supe'rlor. Trolard's name 
for the Inferior petrosal sinus. 

P.-o. su'ture. The suture between the 
basilar portion of the occipital bone and the 
petrous portion of the temporal. 

Petropharyng-e'us mus'cle. One 
of the occasional supernumerary elevators of the 
pharynx in man. It arises from the under surface 
of the petrous portion of the temporal bone in 
front of the opening of the carotid canal, and 
from the vaginal process, and is inserted, either 
into one of the constrictors of the pharynx, or, 
passing between the constrictors, into the fibrous 
layer of the pharynx. 

Petro'philous. (UiTpa, a rock ; cpiXtui, 
to love.) Bot. Having a preference for rocky 
or stony places. 

Petro'sal. {Petrosus ; from L. petra, a 
rock. F. pe'tre or petreux ; G. felsicht.) Be- 
longing to the petrous portion of the temporal 
bone ; also, the petrous portion itself (Owen). 
The Jtocher of Cuvier. 

P. bone. The same as Periotic bone. 

P. crest. A name for the lower edge of 
the vaginal process of the temporal bone. (Bil- 

P. grang lion. The same as Petrous gan- 

P. nerve, exter'nal superficial. 

(Bidder.) A nerve uniting the geniculate gan- 
glion with the sympathetic filaments on the 
middle meningeal artery. It is not constant. 

P. nerve, great deep. For its origin, 
see P. nerve, great superficial. It passes back- 
wards and ends on the outer Bide oi the carotid 


artery in the filaments of the sympathetic net- 
work surrounding the vessel. 

P. nerve, great superfi cial. One of 

the two branches (motor root of Meckel's gan- 
glion, the other being the P. nerve, great deep, 
or sympathetic root) into which the Vidian nerve 
divides in the foramen lacerum medium, after 
emerging from the Vidian canal. It enters the 
cavity of the cranium on the outer side of the 
carotid artery, beneath the Gasserian ganglion, 
passes backwards to the hiatus Fallopii, lying in 
a groove on the petrous portion of tne temporal 
bone, and, in the aqueductus Fallopii, joins the 
facial nerve. 

P. nerve, small deep. (Arnold.) A 
branch of the Tympanic plexus which first runs 
forwards in a canal in the processus coehleari- 
formis, and then enters the foramen lacerum 
medium, joining the carotid sympathetic plexus, 
and occasionally also, the P. nerve, great super- 

P. nerve, small superficial. The 

name given to the tympanic branch of the glosso- 
pharyngeal after emerging from the tympanum 
at its upper and anterior part. It connects the 
otic and petrous ganglia. See Tympanic nerve. 

P. sinus, exter nal. A name for the 
Emissarium caroticum. 

P. sl'nns, inferior. A sinus of the 
cranial dura mater passing downwards and out- 
wards in a groove along the lower margin of the 
petrous portion of the temporal bone, from the 
cavernous sinus to the anterior division of the 
jugular foramen, where it opens into the begin- 
ning of the internal jugular vein. It receives 
the auditory veins and some inferior cerebellar 

P. si nus, supe'rior. A sinus of the 
cranial dura mater running in a groove along 
the upper margin of the petrous portion of the 
temporal bone. It passes backwards from the 
cavernous sinus to the lateral sinus. It receives 
superior and inferior cerebellar veins and some 
small tympanic branches. 

P. vein. A name for either the superior 
or inferior petrosal sinus. 

Petrosalpingopharyng-e'us. See 


(TEet^cc ; <raA-7r ty£, a trumpet, used to designate 
the Eustachian tube ; crrarpvXv, a bunch of 
grapes, and hence, the uvula, from its likeness 
when swollen to a grape on a stalk.) Belonging 
to the petrosal, the Eustachian tube, and the 
uvula ; a name for the Levator palati muscle. 

Petroselini'tes. (Petroselinum.) Term 
for wine in which petroselinum has been 

Petroselinum. (Uirpa, a rock or 
stone; aiXivov, a kind of parsley. F. persil ; 
G. die gemeine Petersilie.) A Linn. Genus of 
plants, Class Pentandria, Order Digynia. Juss., 
Apiacece. Name in the U.S. Ph. for the root of 
P. sativum, which is used as a diuretic and mild 
aperient ; also, the Apium petroselinum. 

P. macedon'lcum. The Bubon mace- 

P. sati'vum. Parsley. The herb and 
the root are used for making sauce. The juice, 
when expressed, is used as an emollient and 

P. vulgar e. (L. vulgaris, common.) The 
P. sativum. 

Petrosilex. The common continental 

name (the term Eurite is also used) for Felstone 
or Felsite. 

Petrosili'ceous. Made up of Petro- 
silex. '■ 

Pet'ro-sphe noid lig ament, an- 
te'rior. The mass of fibrous tissue which, in 
the recent state, closes the foramen lacerum 
medium below. 

P. lig ament, poste'rior. A process of 
fibrous tissue passing between the posterior 
clinoid process of the sphenoid bone and the 
apex of the petrous portion of the temporal, and 
arching over the sixth cranial nerve. 

Pet ro-sphenoid al. Belonging to the 
sphenoid and the petrous portion of the tem- 
poral bone. 

P. su ture. The suture uniting the lateral 
part of the posterior border of the great wing of 
the sphenoid with the anterior or external border 
of the petrous portion of the temporal bone. 

Pet ro-squamo'sal. See Petrosqua- 

Pet ro squamous. Belonging to the 
petrous and squamous portions of the temporal 

P. fis sure. The same as P. suture. 

P. sinus. An additional cranial sinus 
sometimes present in the dura mater, lying in a 
groove between the petrous and squamous por- 
tions of the temporal bone, and opening pos- 
teriorly into the lateral sinus. 

P. su'ture. The suture separating the 
squamous and petrous portions of the temporal 
bone at birth. Traces of it are generally to be 
seen in the adult cranium. 

Pet ro-staphyli nus. The Levator 
palati muscle. 

Petroste'arin. (IK-r/aa, a rock or stone ; 
stearin.) The same as Ozokerite. 
Petro'sum, OS. See under Petrosus. 
Petro'SUS. (L. petra, a rock.) Rock- 
like ; applied to the Petrosal, or Os petrosum, 
the petrous portion of the temporal bone. 

Pet'rous. (L. petra, a rock.) Having 
the hardness of a rock. Belonging to, or in 
relation with, the petrous portion of the tem- 
poral bone ; also, the petrous portion itself. 

P. bone. See Petrous. 

P. ganglion. The lower of the two ganglia 
of the glosso-pharyngeal nerve in the jugular 
foramen. It lies in a small depression at the 
lower end of the groove in the petrous bone. It 
is two to three fines long. From it arise the 
tympanic nerve, and branches joining the vagus 
and sympathetic. 

P. por'tion of tem poral bone. See 
Temporal bone. 

P. pro'cess. The same as P. portion of 
temporal bone. 

P. si'nuses. See Petrosal sinus, inferior 
and P. sinus, superior. 

Pet'tenkofer. A German chemist of 
the present day. 

P.'s reac'tlon. A blood-red colour ob- 
tained by heating certain substances with cane- 
sugar and strong sulphuric acid. This colour is 
produced by the bile-acids, cholic acid, and 
several other bodies. It is used as a test of the 
presence of bile-acids. Furfur-aldehyde can be 
used instead of the cane-sugar. 

P.'s test for bile. The same as P.'s 

Pet'ty-mor'rel. The Aralia racemosa. 
Pe'tum. See Petun. 


Pe tun. Petun and tabaco were the two 
names used for tobacco by the Caribbeans, who 
used it as a sedative. When they smoked it, 
they called it tabaco, and when they snuffed it, 
petun. See Nicotiana tabacum. 

Pety'a. See Pyetia. 

Peu'ce. (IIeukii, the pine or fir.) The 
pine or fir tree. See Pima. Term sometimes 
used also for the Pima sylvestris. 

Peu'cea balsam'ea. A name for the 
Pima abies. 

Peucedan'eae. A Tribe of the Umbelli- 
ferce, established by De Candolle, having the 
Peucedanum for its type. 

Peuced an in. {Peucedanum.) A neu- 
tral bitter substance obtained from the root of 
Peucedanum officinale. It is identical with Im- 

Peuced anum. (TlevKiSavov, a bitter 
umbelliferous plant, like the hog's-fennel. See 
P. officinale.) A Linn. Genus of plants, Class 
Pentandria, Order Digynia. 
Also, the P. officinale. 

P. alsa ticum. The P. officinale. 

P. altis'simum. The P. officinale. 

P. austri'acum. This plant has the 
same medicinal action and has been used for the 
same class of cases, as the P. paluslre. 

P. grav'eolens. The Anethum graveo- 


P. officinale. (F. peucedane; G. Pest- 
fenchel.) The hog's-fennel or sulphur-wort. 
The fresh root, if wounded in spring or autumn, 
exudes a yellow juice which dries into a solid 
gum-resin, retaining the smell and taste of the 
root. Both resin and root have been recom- 
mended as nervine and antihysteric. 

P. oreoseli num. The Athamanta oreo- 

P. palus'tre. A European plant. It has 

been recommended for epilepsy. 

P. panicula'tum. The P. officinale. 
P. praten'se. The P. silatis. 
P. si'laiis. Saxifraga vulgaris, the Eng- 
lish meadow saxifrage. The root, leaves, and 
seeds were formerly used as aperient, carmina- 
tive and diuretic. 

P. terra' turn. The P. officinale. 
Peu'cine. (IlavKJi, the fir or pine-tree.) 
Old term for resin or pitch. 

Peu'cinous. (IIeu*)/.) Belonging to 
the fir-tree ; resinous, like the fir. 

Peucy'le. (IltvKij, a fir-tree ; u\?), wood, 
or the rough material of which anything is 
made.) Name given by Schweigger-Seidel to a 
substance obtained from the black pine. 
Peu'mus. The same as Boldoa. 
P. bol'dus. See Boldoa fragrans. 
P. fra grans. The same as P. boldus. 
Pew ter. (Mid. E. peivter, pcivlyr; Old 
F. peutre, standing for an older form pellre. 
The original word appears in English as spelter. 
F. etain; G. Zinn, ztnnernes Geriilh.) An alloy 
of lead with tin or zinc, used for making mugs, 

Pe'xin. (Facia.) A name for coagulated 

Pe xis. (Tlrj^it, a congealing.) Old term 
for coagulation, or concretion. Cp. Pcgma. 

Pey'er, Jo'hann Kon rad. A Swiss 
anatomist. Born 1653, died 1712. 

P.'s glands. The same as PS s patches. 
P.'s pat ches. First described by Peyer 
in 1677. They are oblong groups of lymphoid 

follicles in the walla of the small intestine. 
They are arranged longitudinally on the side of 
the intestine furthest from the mesentery, and 
vary from half an inch to four inches in length, 
and are rather less than one inch in width. 
Their surface is generally free from villi. Ca- 
pillary vessels traverse the retiform tissue of the 
patches, passing mainly in lines converging to- 
wards the centre. The follicles are surrounded 
by lacteal plexuses. It is the Peyer's patches 
that are especially affected in enteric fever. 

Peye'ri gian dulae. The same as 
Peyer's patches. 

Pey e'rian. Belonging to, or named after, 

Pey'rilhe. A French physician. Born 
1735, died 1804. 

P., elix'lr of. See Elixir, antiscrofulous, 
of Peyrilhe. 

Pez'a. (nt£a, the foot.) Old term for 
Malleolus ; also, the sole of the foot. 

Pezi'za. (Il£^a, the foot. Applied by 
Pliuy to such fungi as grow without stalk or 
apparent root.) A Linn. Genus of Fungi. 

P. auric ula. The fungus called Jew's 
ear. See Auricula judce. 

Pezi'zeee. A section of the Ascomycetes, 
having the Peziza for their type (Brongniart). 

Pezizoid'eSB. Peisoon's name for the 

Pfaf 'fers. In the Canton of St. Gallen, 

Switzerland. There is in this town a warm 
spring (34° to 37° C.) ; it contains -387 parts per 
1000 of solid matters. 

Pflii'g'er. A German physiologist and em- 
bryologist of the present day. 

P.'s av'alanche theory. It was 
formerly held by PflUger that a stimulus pass- 
ing down a nerve of some length gained force 
during its passage, so that a weak stimulus which 
had to travel some distance along a nerve was 
more powerful at the end than an equal stimulus 
applied at a short distance from the muscle. 
This however has been entirely disproved, and 
is now discarded. 

P.'s gas-pump. A mercury suction- 
pump for the extraction of the gases from blood. 

P.'s law. A nerve is stimulated both at 
the moment of beginning and of ending of 
the state of electrotonus. when the current is 
closed, the stimulation occurs at the kathode, 
when opened, at the anode. The stimulation at 
the beginning of katelectrotoma is greater than 
that at the disappearance of anelectrotonus. 

P.'s law of re flexes. 1. The reflex 
movement is on the side on which the sensory 
nerve is stimulated, only those muscles con- 
tracting whose motor nerves arise from the same 
segment of the cord. 2. When the reflex takes 
place on the opposite side, the corresponding 
muscles only contract. 3. The more vigorous 
contractions, where they are unsjmmetrical, 
occur on the stimulated side. 4. When reflex 
stimulation extends to other nerves, it is to those 
lying towards the medulla oblongata. 5. All 
the muscles of the body may be thrown into 

P.'s sacs. The same ns P.'s tubules. 

P.'s sal ivary tubes. The intralobular 
ducts of the salivary glands, described by 
Pfluger. . 

P.'s tu'bules. The nests of cells in the 
ovary from which the Graafian follicles become 
developed. See Ovary. 


Pha'ce. (*f<Kf}, the fruit of the lentil.) 
1. The crystalline lens of the eye. 2. Chloasma. 
3. A lens-shaped flask, used for the application 
of heat. 

Phacecphlog is con. (*ctKo's, the 
lentil plant; ecph/ogiscon, a name for varicella.) 
Term for a variety of Varicella in which the 
vesicles are lenticular in shape. 

Phacel Ins. (<&dKt\\o's = <f>aKi\os.) 
The same as Phacelus. 

Phac elus. (<S>uki\o<s [L. fasciculus], a 
bundle.) A bundle, fasciculus. 

Phacen tocele. (*a#cos, the lentil, 
hence used for the lens of the eye ; entocele.) 
Dislocation of the crystalline lens of the eye into 
the anterior chamber. 

Phachy 'drops. See Phacydropsia. 

Phachymeni'tis. See Phacymenitis. 

Pha ci. (Norn, pi. of Phacus.) The same 
as Phacia. 

Phac'ia. ($>«Kd?, the lentil; also a mole 
or freckle, from the likeness in shape. ~S.phacie.) 
The same as Lentigo. 

Phac icous. (* a/cos, the lentil; also in 
the sense of the crystalline lens.) Belonging to 
the crystalline lens; also, lentil- shaped. 

Phac ion. The same as Phacoptisana. 

Phaci tis. (4>a/co9, the lentil, hence the 
crystalline lens, from its similarity in shape to 
the seed; terminal -itis. F.phacite; G.Lin- 
senentziindung.) Inflammation of the crystalline 

Phacocatapi esis. (*a«o's; raja- 
•7riE<ris, a pressing down.) Depression of the 
crystalline lens. 

Phacocata'thesis. (*okos; /c<rr«0- 
ttrts, a putting down upon.) The same as Pha- 

Phaco'copis. (<f>aKo's, a lentil ; ot/s, a 
broad, curved knife.) Term for a scalpel with a 
blade shaped like the longitudinal section of a 

PhaCocyst. (Phacocyst'e.) Bot. The 
same as Nucleus. 

Phacocys te. (4><zko's, in the sense of 
the crystalline lens ; ku<tti9 or kuo-ti;, a bag or 
pouch..) The capsule of the crystalline lens. 

Phaco cy ste c'tome. (Phacocyst'e ; 
Gr. tKTOfiri [ekt£/ii/«u], a cutting out. F. kysto- 
tome emporie-piece.) The instrument used in 
the operation of Phacocystectomy. 

Phacocystec'tomy. (F. phacoeystec- 
tome.) The operation of cutting out a part of 
the lens-capsule for cataract, introduced by 
Boquetta of Paris. 

Phacocy stipach y tes. (Phacocyst'e ; 
Gr. -KayyT^i, thickness.) Term for a thickening 
of the capsule of the crystalline lens. 

PhacOCy S tiS. (Paso's; KUtr-rts.) The 

same as Phacocyst'e. 

Phacocy Sti'tis. (Phacocystis ; ter- 
minal -itis.) Inflammation of the capsule of the 
crystalline lens. 

Phaco'des. (>!>a/cds, a lentil. F. phaceux; 
G. linsenfarbig.) Having, or full of, lentils. A 
term formerly applied to persons whose skin was 
lentil-coloured from disease. 

Phacoglauco'ma. (*a#coV, glaucoma. 
F. phacoglaucome ; G. Linsenglaukom.) Term 
employed by Mackenzie TLond. Med. Gaz., April, 
18581 for a so-called " glaucoma of the crystal- 
line lens." 

Phacohy drops. See Phacydropsia. 
Phacohymeni tis. See Phacymenitis. 

Phac'oid. See Phacoides. 

Phacoidei tis. The same as Phaciiis. 

Phacoid'es. (*a/cds; iloos, form. F. 
phaco'ide ; G. linsenahnlich.) Lentil-shaped. 
Formerly applied by Vesalius, de Hum. Corp. 
Fab., vii, 14, as an epithet for the crystalline 

Phacoid'oscope. (*«fcds; tLSos.form, 
resemblance ; o-Koirtw, to look at.) An instru- 
ment for observing and estimating reflex images ; 
a modification of an instrument formerly termed 
an ophthalmoscope. (Dunglison.) 

Phacomalaci'a. (*aicos; /xaXanos, 
soft.) Softening of the crystalline lens. 

Phacometachore'sis. (#a/<os; m«- 
Taywpnai^, a going from one place to another. 

F. phacometachorese ; G. Linsenverschiebung .) 
Dislocation of the crystalline lens. 

Phaco'meter. See Phakometer. 

Phacometoece'sis. (*aKo's ; /xitoI- 
K);cri9, change of abode, migration.) The same 
as Phacometachoresis. 

Phac'onine. Fremy's name for the al- 
buminoid substance composing the greater part 
of the fibres of the crystalline lens. (Littre.) 

Phacopaling en'esis. (*i«o? ; ira- 
\iyyivt(rta, new birth. F. phacopaling enesie ; 

G. Phakopalingenese.) The reproduction of the 
crystalline lens. 

Phac'opis. See Phacocopis. 

Phacoplane'sis. (4>«kos ; "7r\aVi;<ns, 
a leading astray.) Displacement of the crystal- 
line lens. 

Phacoplas'ma. (<I>«kos, the lentil ; 
Trkacr/ia, anything moulded. F. phacoplasme.) 
Term for a linseed-meal poultice, Cataplasma 

Phacops'is. ("fca/cds, a lentil ; oi/at, ap- 
pearance. G. Linsenfleckiger.) Term for a 
person with freckles. 

Phacoptisa'na. ($aK07rTio-ai'i/,a dish 
of shelled or bruised lentils with barley ; from 
asos, a lentil, and ima-din), peeled barley. See 
alen, de Alim. Fac, i, 18.) Old term for a 
food composed of lentils and peeled barley. 

Phacopyo'sis. (*a«o's; iriWts, sup- 
puration.) A name formerly applied to soft 
cataract, under the mistaken idea that it was 
suppuration of the crystalline lens. 

Phac'os. (*aKds, a lentil.) The Ervum 

Phacosclero'ma. (<J>aKds ; <rK\vpu>na, 
a hard part or induration, Hipp. ) Scleroma or 
induration of the crystalline lens. 

Phacosclero'sis. ($aK-o'?; o-kXijioow, 
to harden or stiffen.) The process of formation 
of Phacoscleroma. 

Phac'oscope. See Phakoscope. 

Phacoscotas'mus. (*a/<o's ; vKoracr- 
/uo'9, a making dark.) The same as Phacosco- 

Phacoscoti'sis. ($aKo? ; anoTi^w, to 
make dark.) The same as Phacoscotoma. 

PhacOSCOtO'ma. (*ahds; a-KOTW/ia, 

giddiness, a darkening.) A darkening of the 
crystalline lens ; cataract. 

Phacoscoto matous. (Phacosco- 
toma.) Belonging to Phacoscotoma. 

Phaco sis. (<I>«ko's, a lentil.) The for- 
mation of freckles (cp. Phacopsis) ; also, the 
Macula nigra of the inner surface of the eye- 

Phacosyphilion'thus. (#a/v-ds, a 
lentil; 81/phthonthm.) Term for a variety of 


Syphilionthus in which the papules are len- 

Phacotos. (*a/vo's, a lentil.) Len- 
ticular ; formerly applied to an instrument, 
scalpellum lenticulare, used in fractures of the 
cranial bones for scraping or making smooth 
their edges. Also used in the same sense as 

Phac us. See Phacos. 

Phacydrops'ia. (4>aK-<5s, in the sense 
of the crystalline lens ; v&pw^r, drop6y, Hipp. 
F. phacydropisie ; G. Phakydrops.) Dropsy of 
the crystalline lens. 

Phacymenitis. (*a/fo's, in the sense 
of the crystalline lens ; up.iiv, a membrane ; 
terminal -itis. F. phacymenite ; G. Phaky- 
menitis.) The same as Phacocystitis. 

Phadaro des. Term for a mulberry 
tumour on the inner surface of the eyelid ; but 
considered by Kraus as probably a mistake for 

Phadaro Bis. The same as Phadarodes. 

Phae don bet'ulae. The Mustard 
Beetle, or " Blackjack." Family Chrysomelide, 
Division Phytophaga, Order Coleoptera. They 
feed together in large numbers, attacking mus- 
tard, onions, rape and kohl rabi, and clearing 
everything off the stems and stalks of these 
plants. It is known in Germany and France, and 
in N. Europe, as well as in Great Britain. 

Pha'en. See Phen. 

Phaenakis toscope. (#aiV<«; kiVtij, 
a box ; <ricoiria>, to look at.) Name applied by 
Plateau to an apparatus composed of a disc or a 
cylinder on which is fixed a series of drawings 
representing successive phases of one continuous 
movement. The disc is rapidly rotated, and on 
looking at it through a small opening, the im- 
pression of one picture remains on the retina 
until that of the next takes its place, and the 
appearance is of one figure in continuous move- 
ment. This apparatus was described by Car- 
danus in 1550. It is used as a toy under the 
name of Zoetrope. 

Phaenerobio'tus. See Phanerobiotic. 

Phaenicis mus. (? $au/u>, to show.) 
Term for Rubeola. 

Phaenocar pous. (*a£i/«>, to show ; 
KapTro^, fruit. F. phenocarpe.) Term applied 
to plants bearing fruits that are very easily seen, 
because of their having no adherence to neigh- 
bouring parts. 

Phaenocoe lia. (Neut. pi. $aiv<o, to 
show ; KoiXos, hollow.) Term for all those ani- 
mals that have a persistent neurocwle, as the 

Phse'nog'am. (*aiVw, to show ; ya/ios, 
the union of the sexes.) The same as Phane- 

Phaenopam ia. (Neut. pi. from Pheno- 
gam.) The same as Phancrogamia. 

Phaenopram'ic. Flowering, or produc- 
ingflowers ; belonging to the Phenogamia. 

Phaeno g-amous. (Phanogam. F. 
phenogame ; G. offenbarehelig .) The same as 

Phaeno'log-y. See Phenology. 

Pheenomenogen'ia. {Fhanommon ; 
ytv, the root of ytvuris, origin, source. F. 
phenomenogenie.) The generation or occurrence 
of phenomena, as in disease. 

Phacnomenogonia. The same as 

Phaenomenog-onolog ia. {Pheno- 

menogonia ; \6yot, a discourse.) A discourse 
on the occurrence of morbid phenomena. 

Phaenomenographia. {Phenome- 
non ; ypatpw, to write.) A history of morbid 

PheenomenologT'la. {Phenomenon ; 
\6yot, a discourse.) A discourse on morbid 

Phaeno menon. See Phenomenon. 

Phae nomenos cop'ia. {Phenomenon ; 
orKoirtto, to look at, contemplate.) The obser- 
vation and examination of morbid phenomena. 

Phaenophthalmotrop ia. (*aiVu>, 
to show ; d<pt)a\fx6s, the eye; Tpoirri [TpiTrco], a 
turning round.) Donders' apparatus for illus- 
trating the movements of the eyeball. 

Phtcno poda. {Qaivw, to show ; Trout, 
TroSot, a foot.) Mayer's name for a Family of 
the Ophidia in which rudiments of feet are 

Phaenoste'monis. {<&aivw, <tt^v.) 

The same as Phanerostemonis. 

Phaeochrous. {<t>ai6t, dusky; xP<" y > 
the surface.) Dusky-coloured. 

Phaeophthai mus. (#aids, dusky; 
o4>tfa\juds, the eye. F. pheophthalme.) Having 
a brown or dark eye. 

Phae ophyll. (#aids, dusky ; <pv\\ov, 
a leaf.) The hrown colouring-matter of the 
Fucoideae ; also called Phyllophein. 

Phaeophyllina. {Pheophyll.) See 

Phaeo'pterus. ("fccuo'y, dusky or dun- 
coloured ; TTTtpov, a feather ; later on, a wing, 
usually in plural, wings.) Having brown wings. 

Phaeore'tin. (3>aids, dusky; pn-rivt], 
resin. F. pheorrhetine ; G. Phaoretin.) A 
resinous substance of unknown chemical com- 
position existing in the root of plants of the Genus 
Rheum. Schlossberger and Dopping isolated it 
from the root in the following way : An alco- 
holic extract of the root was prepared, and the 
part of this extract which was insoluble in water 
was dissolved in a small quantity of alcohol of a 
strength of 80 per cent., and mixed with ether. 
A greyish brown substance was precipitated, and 
this was dried by pressure, and then some spirits 
of wine of a strength of 80 per cent, was added 
to it ; the Phaoretin was found to be dissolved 
in this, and another constituent, Aporetin, re- 
mained in the undissolved portion. (H. Thorns.) 

Phae'OS. (<!><uds, dusky or dun.) Brown, 
dusky, or dun-coloured ; the same as Fuscotts. 
Old epithet applied to a certain collyrium, from 
its colour. 

Phaeospor'eae. (<t>«ioV, enropos, a seed.) 
A large class of Algce, which, together with the 
class Fucacee, embraces all the brown and 
greenish brown seaweeds. 

Phag aeha. {Qayiiv, to devour.) Raven- 
ous hunger; also usea in the same sense as 

Phagredae'na. {ftaylSawa, a cancerous 
sore, canker ; from (paytiv, to devour.) _ A pro- 
cess of erosion with extensive destruction, and 
often accompanied by sloughing of parts. See 
Hospital gangrene, and Phagedenic chancre. 

P. gangrenosa. Term for Hospital 

P. pu'trls. Sloughing phagedasnic chancre. 
See Phagedenic chancre. 

P., slough ing. 8ee Hospital gangrene. 
P., slough ing, of the mouth. Can- 

crum oris. 



Phagedee'nic. Belonging to, or charac- 
terised by the presence of, Phagedena. 

P. Oban ere • Phagedaena is generally 
believed to affect both the simple chancre and 
the true primary syphilitic chancre. Some 
surgeons believe it to be always syphilitic, either 
affecting a syphilitic chancre, or a soft sore in 
a patient who already has syphilis. Berkeley 
Hill stated that a considerable proportion of 
cases were followed by secondary symptoms. 
There is a tendency to erosion, with destructive 
inflammation of the parts affected. The rapidity 
of progress varies ; also, in some cases it heals 
at one part as it advances at another (the serpi- 
ginous sore). In the very rapid cases, there is 
no healing. 

Erichsen gives the following clinical division 
of these sores : 1. Phagedsenic chancre without 
slough ; eroding ulcer, spreading with sharp- 
cut edges. 

2. "With white slough ; in this there is a thin 
margin of white slough. 

3. With black slough; very similar to the 
above, except in the colour of the slough, and in 
its tendency to extend more rapidly. 

Phagedaena most usually affects sores in debili- 
tated and broken-down subjects, often in soldiers 
exhausted by a campaign. When spreading 
quickly, phagedsenic sores give rise to much pain 
and general constitutional disturbance. 
P. ul'cer. See Phagedenic chancre. 

Phagedae'nism. Term for a special 
morbid condition of the body which was formerly 
supposed to exist as the cause of Phagedena. 

Phagedaenis mus trop icus. A 
circumscribed skin disease occurring in tropical 
countries. {Real Encyc. der Pharm. Geissler 
and Moller.) 

Phagedaenoceratodeitis. {Pha- 
gedena; ceratodeitis.) Term for phagedsenic 
inflammation of the cornea. 

Phagede na. See Phagedena. 

Phageden ic. See Phagedenic. 

Phag edenism. See Phagedenism. 

Phagede nous. Resembling, or of the 
nature of, Phagedena. 

Phag ocy tal. Belonging to a Phago- 

Phag'ocyte. {$ayitv, to devour ; kutos, 
a hollow.) MetschnikofFs name for the leuco- 
cytes concerned both in retrogressive metabolism, 
in which they ingest the parts to be removed in 
the form of fine granules, and in the destruction 
of bacterial organisms within the body, by the 
same process of ingestion. 

Phagocytic. The same as Phagocytal. 

Phag'ocytism. The function of a 

Phagocyto sis. MetschnikofFs term 
for the process of absorption of bacterial or- 
ganisms by leucocytes {phagocytes), which he 
believes to play a most important part in the 
production of immunity of an individual from 
any specific virus. 

Phagoma'nia. {&ayuv, to devour; 
uauia, madness.) An abnormal and uncontrol- 
lable craving for food, coming on in paroxysms. 

Phag-osyphiloch'thus. {bayeiv, to 
devour ; contr. of si/philodoehthus.) Term for 
an eroding form of Syphilodochthm. 

Phaki tis. See Phacitis. 

Phakohy drops ia. See Phacohydrops. 

Phakohymeni tis. See Phacohy- 

Phako'meter. (Seiko's, a lentil, hence 
used for the crystalline lens ; fitTpov, a mea- 
sure.) Zens-measurer. A small, disc-shaped, 
steel instrument, with a moveable flat plate, 
concave at the free edge, let into the circum- 
ference, and connected with a moveable dial on 
the face of the instrument. The surfaee of the 
lens to be measured is pressed against the move- 
able plate until its centre touches the circum- 
ference of the disc, and its surface on the two 
sides of the centre, the ends of the free edge of 
the moveable plate; the number of diopters is 
indicated by an index round the face of the disc. 

Phakoptis ane. (<I>aKos; irTiaavn, 
peeled barley.) A food formerly given to sick 
persons, composed of lentils and barley, crushed 
and shelled, and containing more lentil than 

Phak OSCOpe. ("fcaxros; (TKO-wiva, to look 
at.) An apparatus invented by Helmholtz for 
showing the three pairs of images formed by any 
object in the eye (see Pur Jcinje- Sanson 1 s images), 
and the alteration in size and position of the 
middle pair, i. e. those reflected from the anterior 
surface of the lens, &c, during accommodation 
of the eye for near objects. 

Phala'cra. {<ba\a.Kpa, baldness, a bald 
head.) Baldness of the head; the same as Alo- 
pecia and Calvities. 

Phalacro'des. The same as .Phala- 

Phalacro'ma. {$a\aKpwp.a, a bald 
head; also, a bald man. F. p/ialacrdme ; G. 
Kahlkopf.) A bald head ; also, a bald-headed 

Phalacromat'ic. Belonging to Phala- 

Phalacro'matous. The same as Phal- 

Phalacro'sis. {®a\aKp6s, bald.) Old 
term for the progress of Phalacroma, the process 
of becoming bald. 

Phalac'rotes. ("fcaXaKpo-rtjs, baldness.) 
The same as Phalacra. 

Phalacrot'ic. Belonging to Phalacrotes. 

Phal'acrous. {QaXaKpos, bald.) Bald- 
headed, or very bald. 

Phal acrum. {QaXaxpos.) Old term 
for an instrument with a blunt, smooth ex- 
tremity ; a probe, according to Turton. 

Phalai'a. (Probably $a\ds, bright.) A 
term, used by Basilius Valentinus Spagyricus 
(fifteenth century), for a universal medicine or 
panacea, which was really the Mercurius philo- 
sophicus ; also, by Rolfinkius (seventeenth cen- 
tury), de Purgant. s. ii, art. 3, c. 15, for the 
Tinctura jalape. 

Phalan gae. (L. phalange, rods slung 
between men's shoulders, for carrying burdens ; 
from Gr. (paXayyes, pi. of <paXayj-.) The flat 
bars joining together the rings of the reticulate 
membrane of the Cochlea. (Foster.) 

Phalangag'ra. {Phalanges, the bones 
of the fingers or toes; ay pa, a catching or 
seizure.) &out in a finger or toe. 

Phalan'gar pro'cess. {Phalange.) 
(1) The name for the projecting plates of the 
inner and outer rods of Corti, the outer ones 
being overlapped by the inner. The phalangar 
process of the outer rod is the beginning of the 
membrana reticularis. 

(2) Also, the tapering process into which each 
of the cells of Deiters (outer row of outer hair 
cells) is prolonged upwards, and which is attached 


to the phalangar bar on the outside of the ring 
in which lies the head of the twin cell of Corti. 

Phalangarthri tis. (Phalanx • arth- 
ritis.) The Bame as Phalangagra. 

Phal ange. The same as Phalanx. 

Also, in Entomol., a joint of the tarsus in In- 

Also, in Pot., a mass of stamens partly joined 
together by their filaments. 

Phalangeal. Belonging to one or more 
of the phalanges. 

P. bone. The same as Phalanx. 
P. pro cess. The same as Phalangar 

Phalange'an. The same as Phalangeal. 

Phalan ges. (PI. of Phalanx, and also 
of Phalange. G. Gliederreihen.) Anat. The 
small bones which make up the digits of the 
fingers and toes. There are three phalanges in 
each digit, except in the case of the thumb and 
great toe, which have only two each, it being 
generally considered that it is the phalanx 
of the second row, or middle phalanx, which is 
absent in both cases. En torn, and Pot., see 

P., articula tions of. See Metacarpo- 
phalangeal articulations, and Intei- -phalangeal 

P. basilar'es. The proximal or basal 
phalanges of the digits. 

P., cuta'neous lig'aments of. (Cle- 
land.) Fibrous bands springing from the edges 
of the phalanges, and inserted into the skin at 
the sides of the fingers. They keep the skin in 
position when the joints are flexed. 

P. me diae. The second row of phalanges 
of the digits. 

P. of Sei'ters. See Lamina reticularis. 

P. of fin gers. See under chief heading. 

P. of fin gers, extensors of. The ex- 
tensor communis digitorum extends mainly the 
first phalanx of the fingers. The four Iwn- 
bricaUs and seven interossei, being inserted into 
the expansion of the extensor tendons, have a 
double action, flexing the proximal phalanges, 
and extending the middle and distal phalanges. 

P. of fin'gers, flex ors of. The flexor 
sublimis digitorum flexes the second phalanges 
of the fingers, and the flexor profundus the 
third phalanges. The lumbricales and interossei 
flex the proximal phalanges (see under P. of 
Jingers, extensors of). 

P. of retic ular lam ina. The P. of 

P., ossifica tion of. Each has a centre 
for the shaft, and an epiphysis at the proximal 
end. In the phalanges of the fingers, the centre 
for the shaft begins to ossify in the eighth or 
ninth week of fcetal life, that for the epiphysis 
the third to the fifth year after birth. In the 
phalanges of the toes, the nucleus for the shaft 
appears in the ninth or tenth week, that of the 
epiphysis the fourth to the eighth year. They 
unite about the nineteenth to the twenty-first 

P. unguicular'es. The ungual or ter- 
minal phalanges of the digits. 

Phalan g'ial. The same as Phalangeal. 

Phalan gian. The same as Phalangial. 

Phalangi'asie. The same as Phalan- 

Phalan gic. Belonging to the Phalanges. 
Phalan giform. (Phalanx; L. forma. 

likeness.) Term applied by Nees von Esenbeck 
to vegetable hairs provided with transverse 
septa, and slightly contracted transversoly at 
each septum. 

Phalang lg ra da. (Phalanx ; L. 
gradxor, to walk.) A division, Tylopoda of 
Claus, of artiodactyl Ruminants of which the 
Family of Camelida forms the type. The feet 
are so formed that the animal walks on the 

Phalan g igrade. "Walking on the 
phalanges; also, belonging to the Phalangi- 

Phalan g ium. (&a\&yyiov, a venomous 
spider; also, the Phallangium, a plant said to 
cure this spider's bite. Diosc.) Pot. A generic 
name for various species of the Liliacea and 
Zobl. A Genus of the Arachnida. 

P. esculen'tum. The Scilla esculenta. 
Phalangosis. (4>aXay£; -uyyoi, a 
battiilion of loot soldiers.) Old term for I)is- 
tichiasis ; also, for Ptosis. 

Phalanx. (<t>aXay£.) Term for the small 
bones of the fingers and toes. See Phalanges. 

P., basal. A phalanx of the first or 
proximal row. 

P., bas'ilar. The same as P., basal. 

P., dis'tal. The P., ungual. 

P., mid 'die. A phalanx of the second or 
middle row. 

P. pri'ma. The same as P., basal. 

P., proximal. The P., basal. 

P., ter'minal. The P., ungual. 

P., un gual. The phalanx of the third or 
distal row, so called because it carries the unguis 
or nail. 

P. unguicular'Is. The Bame as P., 


Phalarid ess. Term of Link and Kunth 
for a Tribe of the Graminex, having the Phalaris 
for their type. 

Phal aris. (3>aXos, bright, shining; from 
its white, shining seed, supposed to be the <j>a\- 
apos of Dioseorides.) A Linn. Genus of plants, 
Class Triandria, Order Digynia. 

P. arundina'cea. This species grows by 
rivers and ponds; the stem is edible. 

P. canarien'sis. Canary-grass, the seed 
of which is the common food of the canary. In 
the Canaries, where it grows, it is ground into 
meal and made into a coarse kind of bread. The 
seeds were used by the ancients in the treatment 
of renal and vesical pains. 

P. zizano'ides. The Andropogon muri- 

Phal'era. (4>aXo?, the forepiece of a 
helmet.) Term used by Galen ((pakapai) meta- 
phorically for a kind of bandage for the nose (dc 
Ease, n. 52). 

Phalerocar'pus. (QaXvpos, having a 
patch of white ; KapirSi, fruit.) A Genus of the 
Natural Order Vacciniacees or Ericacece. 

P. serpyllifo'lia, Don. (L. serpyl/um, 
wild thyme ; folium, a leaf.) White cranberry. 
Berries esculent. 

Phallal gia. (4>aXXo?, the penis; aXyor, 
pain.) Pain in the penis. 

Phallal'giC. Pertaining to Phal/algia. 

Phallana'Btrophe. (*o\Xrf«, the 
penis; ivaa-Tpotpt), a turning back.) Distortion 
of the penis. 

Phallanastroph'ic. Belonging to 


Phallancylo sis. (*aXXds, the penis ; 
aytcvKuHTiv, a contraction of the limbs.) A 
bending of the penis, as in Chordee. 

Phallancylot ic. Pertaining to Phal- 

Phallaneurys ma. (*aXXds, the 
penis; avtvpva-fia, a widening.) Term for a 
penile aneurysm. 

Phallaneurysmat'ic. Pertaining to 

Phallankylo sis. The same as Phal- 

Phallic. Pertaining to the Phallus or 

Phalli tis. Inflammation of the Phallus 
or penis. 

Phalloblennorrhoe'a. (*aXXds ; 

blennorrhcea.) Term for Gleet. 

Phallocampsls. (*aXXds; kolh^li, a 
bending. ) A curving of the penis, as in Chordee. 

P hallo camp tic. Belonging to Phallo- 

Phallocarcino ma. (*aXXds ; car- 
cinoma.) Cancer of the penis. 
Phallocarcinomat ic. Of, or be* 

longing to, Phallocarcinoma. 

Phallocarcino matous. The same 
as Phallocarcinomatic. 

Phallocrypsis. (<J>aXXd<r; Kpui^is, a 
hiding.) A shrinking or retraction of the penis ; 
also, abnormal smallness of the penis. 

Phallocryp'tiC. Belonging to Phallo- 

Phallocylotlc. The same as Phal- 

Phallodynla. ($aXXds, the penis; 
oSvvri, pain.) The same as Phallalgia. 

Phalloid. (*aXXds; tlfios, likeness.) 
Resembling the penis in appearance. 

Phalloi'deaB. {Phallus.) A Family of 
gasteromycetous Fungi, including the Stink- 

Phallon cous. Belonging to Phalloncus. 

Phallon'cus. (#aXXds, the penis ; oyKos, 
bulk ; hence used to mean a tumour.) A morbid 
swelling of the penis. 

Phalloplasty. (<I>aXXds; ■nXaararw, to 
mould.) Plastic operative surgery of the penis. 

Phallopsoph la. (*aXAde; \j/6(pos, a 
noise.) Escape 01 gas from the penis, per ureth- 

Phallopsoph'ic. Belonging to Phallo- 

t Phallorrha'gia. (*aXXds, the penis; 
pnyvvm, to burst forth.) Haemorrhage from the 

Phallorrha gic. Belonging to Phallor- 

Fhallorrhoe'a. (*aXXds ; ptw, to flow. 
F. phallorrhee ; G. Phallor r hoe.) A discharge 
from the penis ; urethritis with a discharge, or 
gonorrhoea in the male. 

Phallor r hois che sis . (Phallorrhwa ; 
Gr. t<rx<u, to check.) Term for a stopping of a 
gonorrhoeal discharge. 

Phallorrhoischetlc. Belonging to 
Phallor rhoischesis. 

Phallus. (*aXXds, the penis, which the 
members of the under-mentioned Genus of fuDgi 
resemble in shape.) 1. The penis. 

2. A Linn. Genus of Fungi. 
P. esculen tus. See Morchella esculenta. 
P. lmpudl'cus. (L. impudicus, immo- 
dest.) The common stinkhorn ; a fungus which 

has, even at a distance, an extremely foetid odour. 
Near at hand it has the odour of a volatile alkali. 
It has been applied locally to allay pain in the 
limbs, and, in the form of an infusion of the 
powdered fungus, for inflammatory joint-affec- 

Phaner anthe'rous. (<Pavtp6t, visible ; 
iudtipSi, used in the sense of an anther. F. 
phaneranthere ; Q.offenbarstaubbeutlig.) Having 
anthers on the outer side. 

Phaneran'thous. {Qavtpos, visible ; 
avdos, a flower. F. phaneranthe ; G. offenbar- 
blumig.) Epithet applied by "Wachendorff to 
plants having flowers that are manifest. 

Phan'eri. (Nom. pi. of phanerus, a 
Latinized word from (pavepos, manifest.) Term 
for micro-organisms that are visible under the 
microscope, without being treated by special 

Phanerobio'tic. ($avtpd9, visible<; 
fiiwTiKos = fiiw<rip.os, possible to live.) Ex- 
hibiting distinct manifestations of life. 

Phanerobio'tus. (*ave^ds, visible, 
evident; /3/os, life.) The same as Phanerozdous. 

Phaner o bius. The same as Phanero- 

Phanerocotyledo'neee. ($ai/cpd?, 
visible ; kotvXiiSwv, any cup-shaped hollow ; 
used to mean a cotyledon.) A section of the 
vegetable kingdom under which Agardh ranged 
those plants whose cotyledons were easily seen. 

Phanerogam. A flowering plant, a 
member of the Subkingdom Phanerogamia. 

Phanero gama, (Nom. pi. n. Ety- 
mology the same as that of Phanerogamia.) 
Latreille's name for a branch of the Mollusca, 
including those among which copulation is a 
necessary factor in the reproduction of the 

Phanerog-am'ia. (Qavtpos, visible, 
evident ; yd/xos, marriage ; used here in the 
sense of the sexual organs.) Flowering plants. 
A subkingdom of the vegetable kingdom, com- 
prising plants having flowers, normally composed 
of whorls of leaf-like organs enclosing stamens, 
or ovules, or both. Fertilisation is accomplished 
by the union of pollen cells with the nucleus of 
the ovule. These plants are propagated by 
means of seeds. 

Phanerogamic. Belonging to the 

Phanerogam ious. The same as 

Phanero gamous. 1. The same as 

2. Belonging to the Phanerogama. 

Phanero'gena. (Nom. pi. n. Qavepos, 
visible; yivos, stock, descent.) An Order of 
homogeneous rocks, the composition of which is 
apparent, and allows of their being certainly 
referred to the mineral species already deter- 
mined (Hauy, Brongniart, and C. Prevost). 

Phanero'genous. (F. phanerogene ; 
G. offenbarursprunglich.) Belonging to the 

P. tis'sue. M. Robin's name for the pulp 
of the teeth. 

Phaneroglos sa. (Nom. pi. n. 4>av- 
Epds, visible; yXdicro-a, the tongue.) Wagler's 
name for a Family of the Genus Rana, Class 
Anoura. in contradistinction to the Family 
Pipa, which he named Aglossa. 

Phaneroglos sal. The same as Phan- 



Phaneroglos sate. The same as 
Phanerog los sous. Belonging to the 


Phaneroneu'rous. (Qavepos, plain, 
apparent; viupov, a nerve or tendon.) Having 
distinct or differentiated nerves. 

Phanero phorous tis sue. (*av- 
tpds ; (ptpto, to bear.) The same as Phanero- 
genous tissue. 

Phan erophvte. (<bavtp6s, visible; 
<p\>Tov, a plant.) Term applied by Link to the 
more distinct or perfect plants, as distinguished 
from the more imperfect, the Cryptophyta. 

Phaneroste monis. (<, evi- 
dent ; <T-rvp\mv, a thread, hence a stamen.) Term 
applied by G. Allman to plants that have dis- 
tinct stamens. 

Phanerozo'ous. (ftavipik, visible ; 
£<«»}, life.) That which is distinctly alive, as 
opposed to Cryptozoous. 

Pha nion. (<baviov.) A little lamp or 
torch. Also, name for two different compound 
medicines described by Galen. 

Phanta'sia. (<PavTa<ria, a making 
visible.) A phantasy; a false or imaginary 
representation or set of ideas. 

Phanta'sioid. (<&avTa.<r'ia; eio»s, like.) 
Resembling Phantasia. 

Phan tasm. (<&a\rravp.a, an appearance, 
spectre; from cpuvTa^w, to make visible. F. 
phatitasme ; I. fantasma; G. Trugbild.) An 
imaginary representation of an object or objects 
not really present, the effect of morbid or altered 
conditions of the sense-organs or brain. Thus, 
it may be merely an illusion of the senses, the 
subject of the illusion realising that it is merely 
subjective; or it may give rise to an actual 
delusion of the mind. 

Phantasmat ics. (Phantasm.) Term 
for an exposition of the cause of the appearance 
of phantoms. 

Phantasma tion. (Dim. of cpavrav- 
fia.) A little imagine or phantom. 

Phantasmatographia. See Phan- 

Phantasmatomo'ria. (<$avTa.<rp.a, 
-a-ros, a phantasm; piopiu, folly.) An entertain- 
ing of mere childish fancies. 

Phantasmatoscop ia. See Phan- 

Phantasmog-en esis. (Phantasm; 
genesis.) The causation of phantasms. 

Phantasmog-enet'ic. Giving rise to 

Phantasmograph'ia. (^avratrpa, 
an image or appearance ; ypa<p<a, to write.) 
Zenneck's term for a history of sensible or per- 
ceptible external appearances. 

Phantasmolog-'ical. Belonging to 

Phantasmo'logy . (<bdvra^pa ; \6yos, 
discussion.) The scientific study of Phan- 

Phantasmophreno'sis. (#«i/t<i<t- 
pta; <bpivu>ai<!, instruction. G. Bildirren.) C. 
H. Scnultze's term for dreamy fancies occurring 
in the waking state. 

Phantasmoscopia. ('Xuivraapa ; 
o-Koirt'w, to look at. F. phantasmoscopie ; G. 
Gespenstersehen.) Term for the imaginary 
seeing of ghosts or spectres. Also, Metamor- 
phopsia (Dunglison). 

Phantastic. ($>ain-a<rt'«, a making 

visible.) Creating or conceiving visions or sub- 
jective appearances. 

Phantas ticon. Term used to mean 
either Phantasm or Phantasia. 

Phantas ton. ("tai/Tairrot, conceiving 
visions or images.) Term for a mental concep- 
tion or idea. 

Phantas tus. The same as Phantastic. 

Phan tom. (<t>avTa£to, to make visible.) 
The same as Phantasm. 

Also (see Fantome), the name for a figure of a 
foetus used to illustrate the advance of the living 
foetus during labour. 

_ P.s, au'dltory. Also called auditory hal- 
lucinations. Subjective sensations of sound, 
occurring as a result of changes in the auditory 
epithelium or in the central auditory mechanism. 
Such auditory phantoms are common in several 
forms of insanity. 

P.s, oc'ular. Also called ocular hallucina- 
tions. Subjective sensations of light occurring 
when the eyes are open, and mingling with the 
ordinary visual perceptions. They are very 
marked in certain forms of delirium, especially 
delirium tremens. 

P.s, tac tile. Subjective tactile sensations 
occurring as a result of changes in the central 

P. tu'mours. More or less rounded abdo- 
minal swellings occurring in hysterical women, 
and believed by them to be actual tumours 
(either pregnancy or a pathological tumour). 
They are smooth, soft, resonant, and freely 
moveable, are not painful or tender, and entirely 
disappear, for the time, under the influence of 
an anaesthetic. This condition is believed to be 
due to paralysis of the intestines from disorder 
of nervous function. 

Fhanto'ma. The same as Phantom. 
P. obstetri cium. (Obstetricius, obstet- 
ric.) See under Phantom. 

Phanto'scopy. (Phantom; <TKOTrim,to 
look at, examine.) Ketinoscopy. 

Pharbet'isin. Name for the resin ob- 
tained from the Pharbitis nil. Its action is very 
similar to that of Jalapin. 

Pharbi'tin. The same as Pharbetisin. 

Pharbi tis. A Genus of the Order Con- 
volvulacem, identical with the Genus Ipomcea. 

P. his'pida. Eab., Tropical America. It 
is very similar in appearance and characters to 
the P. triloba. 

P. nil. A tropical plant ; also called Ipomtea 
carulea. The seeds and resin have a hydragogue 
purgative action, very similar to that of Jalap. 

P. trilo ba. A plant native to Japan. It 
is purgative, containing a resin apparently 
identical with Convolvulin. It contains also an 
alkaloid, a yellow crystalline colouring matter, 
and other substances. 

Phar cidous. (4>apM'v. a wrinkle. F. 
pharcideux ; G. runzlicht.) Wrinkled, or full 
of wrinkles. 

Phar icon. ($>dpiKov, some kind of poi- 
son.) Name for a simple but powerful poison 
employed by the ancient physicians ; it is not 
known what special drug this was. 

Pharmacei'a. (Qappcuctia, the using of 
medicines, and especially of purgatives, Hipp.) 
The use of drugs, especially those producing 
purgation. In ancient times, sometimes used in 
the same sense as ») (pappantuTiKi'i, the know- 
ledge of drugs ; see Jac. le Mort, Pharmac. Med. 
Phys., e. i. 


Pharmaceum. (Qappanuov.) A 
druggist's shop (Apotheka). 

Pharmaceu ma. (<bapp.aKzvp.a = 
<p&PnaKov.) The same as Pharmacon. 

Phar maceus. (QappuKiii?, one who 
deals in medicines, charms, or poisons ; a sor- 
cerer, a poisoner.) The same as Pharmacopmus. 

Pharmaceu ta. The same as Phar- 

Pharmaceu tic. (Jbappamvoo, to ad- 
minister a drug. F. pharmaceutique ; G. phar- 
maceutisch.) Belonging to pharmacy. 

Pharmaceu tica. Pharmaceutics. 

Pharmaceu tical. The same as Phar- 

P. chemist. A chemist who practises 

P. chem istry. That branch of Chemistry 
which deals with the chemical compositions and 
reactions of drugs. 
Also, see Pharmacy. 

Pharmaceu tice. (QappaKtvTiKv 
[xtxfj], the pharmaceutic art.) Pharmacy. 

Pharmaceutics. (&appaK£vrit<6s, 
medical, or connected with a Pharmaceus.) The 
art of preparing medicines. 

Pharmaceutist. (^appaKzvnU = 
<pappaK£vs.) An apothecary or druggist. 

Pharmaceu tria. (&ap/jtaKzvTpia, fern, 
of (pap/xaKtvTvs ; see Pharmaceutist.) A female 
druggist ; a woman who deals in poisons. 

Pharma cia. See Pharmacy. 

Pharma'cicus. {®app.a.Kov, a remedy 
or drug.) Belonging to medicines or remedies. 

Phar'macist. (QuppaKo?, in the same 
sense as <papp.aKtvTm.) The same as Pharma- 

Pharmaci'tes. (&app.aKov.) An epi- 
thet applied to drugged or medicated wine. 

Pharmacoba sanus. (QuppaKov, a 
drug; f3d<xavo<s, the touch-stone. "F.pharmaco- 
basane ; G. Arzneipriif stein.) Term for a prover 
or tester of medicines ; the title of a work by 

Pharmacocatagrapholog ia. 

(QapptaKov, a drug ; KaTaypa<pto,to write down; 
Xo-yos, a discourse. G. Meceptschreibenkunst.) 
An unwieldy term, used by J. J. Plenk, for the 
art of writing prescriptions. 

Pharmacochy mia. (Qappaxov, a 
drug; v xu/«k»; [x u M°s]> chymistry, or chemistry.) 
Pharmaceutical chemistry. 

Pharmacocollocys'tis. (QappaKov ; 
collocystis.) A gelatinous capsule containing a 

Pharmaco'des. (&app.aicov ; terminal 
-tofitjs.) Having, or full of, medicine ; pharma- 
ceous. Also, poisonous. 

Pharmacodynam ic. Belonging to 

Pharmacodynamics. ('bapp.aicov, 
a drug; SOvapn, power. F.pharmacodynamioue; 
G. Pharmacodynamik.) That division of Phar- 
macology which deals with the specific properties 
and actions of drugs. 

Pharmacodynamic log-y. (Quppa- 
kov, a drug; 6vuap.iv, power; Xdyos, a discourse.) 
The same as Pharmacodynamics. 

Pharmacol; no sia. (QuppaKov ; a 
drug; yvmah, an enquiry, hence knowledge.) 
The study of simples or crude drugs ; also used 
in the same sense as Pharmacognosies. 

Pharmacognosies, (tidpnanov, a 
drug ; yKioo-TiKo's, capable of knowing.) A 

knowledge of the properties and actions of 

Pharmacological. Belonging to 

Pharmacologist. One learned in 

Pharmacology. i^&ppaK °", a drug ; 
Xoyos, a discourse.) That division of Materia 
Medica which treats of the action of drugs upon 
the living body (Lauder Brunton). 

Pharmacoma'nia. {<ba.pp.aKov, adrug; 
pav'ta, madness.) Excessive fondness for trying, 
or making use of, medicines. 

Pharmacomani'acal. Afflicted with 

Pharmaco'mathy. (.<bdpp.aKou; 
/udtii; = pdtiijcris, acquiring knowledge.) The 
same as Pharmacognosies. 

Pharmaco meter. (&dpuaKov,adrug; 
p.tTpov, a measure.) A medicine measure. 

Pharmaco metry. (<S?dppa KO v,a drug; 
ptTptai, to measure.) The weighing or measur- 
ing of medicinal substances. 

Pharmacomor'phic. (Qdppaicov ; 
p.opcpv, form.) Pertaining to the appearance of 
drugs ; applied to the ability (Ars pharmaco- 
morphica) to distinguish drugs by their appear- 

Phar macon. (®dppa>cov, a drug. G. 
Arzneimittel.) A drug or medicine. 

Also, a poisonous drug, dye or paint (F. 
teinture ; G. Gift, Far be). 

Also, a philtre or love-potion (F. philtre; G. 

Also, a spice (F. epice ; G. Gewurz). 

Pharmacon'. (®appaKu>v. F. tein- 
turerie ; G. Farberei.) A dye-house. 

Pharmacopae'us. See Pharmacopmus. 

Pharmacopoeia. (Qappanov, a drug ; 
troum, to make. F. pharmacopee ; G. Pharma- 
kopoe.) Literally, the art of rightly preparing 
medicines. A book containing a system of direc- 
tions for the identification of drugs, and for the 
preparation of drugs and other therapeutic 

Most European countries have each their own 
pharmacopoeia, which is published by authority, 
and fresh editions of which (with additions, 
erasions and alterations) are published at stated 
times, the last edition being authoritative. Any 
drug included in the last-published edition is 
spoken of as official. (For full information on 
the various pharmacopoeias, see under Pharma- 
copoeia in " Reference Handbook of Medical Sci- 
ences," edited by Alfred H. Buck, M.D.,of New 

Also, term for a chemical laboratory. (Cen- 
tury Diet.) 

Pharmacopee ial. Belonging to, or 
contained in, a pharmacopoeia. 

Pharmacopae'us. (Same as Pharma- 
copoeia.) The same as Pharmacopola. 

Pharmacopeia. (* appaKOTrwXlw, to 
sell medicines.) Old term synonymous with 
Apothecarius, not in its modern sense (see 
Apothecary) ; but in its ancient sense of a quack 
or mountebank who sells medicines, besides pro- 
fessing to cure diseases. 

Pharmaco polist. A druggist. 

Pharmacopolium. (•bapnaKo-rroaXzu). 
F. apothicairerie ; G. Apotheke.) Old term for 
an apothecary's or druggist's shop. 

Pharmacopo'sia. (bappaxov, a drug ; 
tto'o-is, a drink. F. pharmacoposie ; G. Arznei- 



trinken.) Old tenn for any liquid medicine; 
also used specially for a purgative, by Hippo- 
crates, Galen, Foesius, &c. 

Pharmaco sa medicamen ta. 
{'['.:.'..:■ .. Neut. pi. Term for medicines 
containing poisonous substances. 

Pharmacotax is. (Qapnatcov, -ra^is, 
an arranging.) The prescribing and preparing 
of medicines. 

Pharmacothe ca, (<bdpuanov ; Owv, 
a box. F. pharmacotheque ; G. Arzneikiste.) 
Old term for a medicine chest. 

Pharmacotherapeu tic. (Pharma- 
cotherapia.) Belonging to Pharmacotherapia. 

Pharmacotherapia. (<bapp.aK.ov, a 
drug ; titpairtla, service done to the sick. G. 
Pharmakotherapie.) The curing of diseases by 
means of medicines. 

Pharmacotim ia. (b&pp.aK.ov ;, 
worth, value.) Allesandris's term for the quan- 
titative analysis of drugs, carried out in order 
to estimate their commercial and therapeutic 

Pharmac'ter. ($app.aKTnp = <papp.a- 
k£us, one who deals in drugs and charms.) The 
same as Pharmacopceits, 

Phar macum. See Pharmaeon. 
P. ad aur'es. A preparation used formerly 
for cleansing ulcers of the ears. It was made up 
of white pepper, saffron, myrrh, bitter almonds, 
castor, verjuice, frankincense, opium, vinegar, 
sulphate of iron, unguentum nardinum, and 
pomegranate root bark. 

P. aegyptiacum. See JEgyptium. 
p. amato'rium. (L. amatorius, loving.) 
The same as Philtre. 

Fharmacur g icus. (*apjuajcoi/,adrug; 
ipyov, a work ; terminal -ikos.) Epithet ap- 
plied by Harder, in Apiario Obs., 75, to remedies 
selected from pharmacy. 

Pharmacur g-us. ($>app.aK.ovpy6s = 
cfrapnaKOTroios, making medicines.) The same 
as Pharmacopceus. 

Phar macy. (<b&pp.aKov, a medicine. F. 
ph.arm.acie; G. Pharmacie.) That division of Ma- 
teria Medica which includes the identifying and 
collecting of drugs, together with the art of pre- 
paring, from the crude drugs, medicines to be used 
m the treatment of diseases. It was formerly 
divided into chymical pharmacy, on pharmaceuti- 
cal chemistry, and Galenical pharmacy, the 
latter comprehending all that part of pharmacy 
not included in the former. 

Also, used in the sense of Pharmacopolium. 
P. jars. Term for vases made of various 
sorts of earthenware, which were used in the 
dispensaries of convents in some places on the 
Continent for holding drugs, each being painted 
with the name of the drug to be kept in it. 
(Century Diet.) 

Pharmax'is, (<iapp.a£i'! = (papfiaKtia.) 
] The same as Pharmaceia. 

Pharmia num. (>kapp.iav6v.) Old term, 
used by Galen, for a Malagma. 

Pharna ceum linea're. (The plant 
(bapv&niiov, named after Pharnaces, King of 
Pontus.) A plant of the Order Portulaceai. It is 
a bitter astringent, and is employed medicinally 
in Asia and America. 

Pharyg athron. See Pharyngcthron. 

Pharyng-al'g-ia. i^^pyy^ the joint- 
opening of the gullet and windpipe, according to 
Galen ; a\yos, pain. G. Schlundtcopfschmerz.) 
Pain in the pharynx. 

Pharyng-al'glc. Belonging to Pharyng- 

Pharynge al. (Pharynx, .?igis. F. 
pharyngieri ; I. faringeo.) Belonging to the 

P. aponeuro sis. See Pharynx. 

P. ar ches. See Post-oral arches. 

P. ar tery, ascen ding. The smallest 
named branch of the external carotid. It arises 
about half an inch to an inch above the origin of 
the external carotid, and runs straight upwards 
on the inner side of the internal carotid and 
lying on the wall of the pharynx, to the base 
of the Bkull. It gives off small pharyngeal, 
prevertebral, and meningeal branches. 

P. ar'tery, infe rior. The same as P. 
artery, ascending. 

P. ar'tery, superior. The Pterygo- 
palatine artery. 

P. bones. Certain elements of the 
branchial arches in Fishes, which are divided 
into epipharyngeal and hypopharyngeal. Of 
the epipharyngeal, or superior pharyngeal 
bones, there are generally from one to four 
pairs ; they correspond to the dorsal elements of 
the firsf four branchial arches, being applied to 
the base of the skull and articulating inferiorly 
with the epibranchial elements of the arches. 

Of the hypobranchials, or inferior pharyngeal 
bones, there is generally only one pair ; they 
are probably homologous with the cerato- 
branchial element of the fifth arch. 

P. bur'sa. Term for a mucous crypt 
situated in the mid-line of the roof of the 
pharynx, behind the vomer and beneath the 

P. cav'ity. See Pharynx. 

P. clefts. The same as Visceral clefts. 

P. fas'cia. The fascia which invests the 
walls of the pharynx. 

P. gang lion. A small ganglion of the 
sympathetic lying on the ascending pharyngeal 
artery near its origin (Valentin). There are often 
also one or more ganglia on the pharyngeal 

P. glands. Mucous glands found in the 
mucous membrane lining the uppermost part of 
the posterior wall of the pharynx. 

P. nerves. There are four sets : the 
pharyngeal branch of the pneumogastric ; pharyn- 
geal branches of the glossopharyngeal, and of the 
sympathetic ; and the pharyngeal branch of the 
spheno-palatine ganglion, usually spoken of as 
the pharyngeal nerve. See Ganglion, spheno- 

P. plex'us of nerves. This plexus lies 
on the outer surface of the middle constrictor ; 
it is formed by the union of the pharyngeal 
branches of the sympathetic with those of the 
glossopharyngeal and pneumogastric nerves. 

P. plex'us of veins. See P. veins. 

P. slits. The same as P. clefts. 

P. spine. See P. tubercle. 

P. steno'sls. Constriction or narrowing 
of some portion of the pharynx, duo to cicatricial 
contractions following ulceration. Syphilis is 
the commonest cause ; but the ulceration is 
occasionally strumous, or it may be simple. 

Stenosis commonly occurs in one or other of 
three places : (1) between naso- and mid- 
pharynx, (2) between the mouth and pharynx, 
(3) about the level of the hyoid bone. Of these 
the most serious is the third, Bince food may 
easily block completely the narrowed passage. 


Treatment consists in dividing the cicatricial 
tissues and preventing re-contraction. (Heath's 
Diet, of Surg-.) 

P. teeth. The teeth present on the P. 

P. ton sil. A collection of lymphoid fol- 
licles forming a tonsil-like mass, lying across 
the posterior wall of the pharynx between the 
pharyngeal openings of the two Eustachian 
tubes (Kolliker). 

P. tu'bercle. A small elevation in the 
mid-line of the inferior surface of the basilar 
portion of the occipital bone, to which is attached 
the strong median band which strengthens the 
fibrous wall of the pharynx, passing downwards 
between the recti capitis antici muscles of the 
two sides. 

P. veins. These form a plexus covering 
the external surface of the pharynx, and col- 
lecting blood from the Eustachian tube, soft 
palate, and the prevertebral muscles, and also 
communicating with the pterygoid plexus on the 
internal surface of the internal pterygoid muscle. 
From the lower part of the plexus two or three 
veins pass downwards and open, either separately 
or together with the superior thyroid or lingual 
veins, into the common facial vein or the internal 

P. voice. See under Voice. 

Pharyng-ea lia. (N. pi. of adj. pharyn- 
geals, from Pharynx, ossa being understood.) 
The Pharyngeal bones. 

P. inferlo'ra. The inferior pharyngeal 
or hypopharyngeal bones. 

P. superio'ra. The superior pharyngeal 
or epipharyngeal bones. 

Pharyng-ec'tomy. {Pharynx ; tKrofi-n, 
a cutting out.) Excision of the Pharynx. 

Pharyng-emphrac'tic. (Pharyng- 
emphraxis.) Belonging to Pharyngemphraxis. 

Pharyngemphrax'is. (*a,ouy£, the 
pharynx ; ifKppat is, a stoppage. F. pharyng- 
emphraxie ; G. Schlundverstopfung.) A stop- 
page or obstruction of the pharynx. 

Pharyn xes. Plural of Pharynx. 

Pharyn'gethron. The same as 
Pharynx. Also, used for the Hyoid bone by 
Galen. (Gorrseus.) 

Pharyngeurys'ma. (<t«ipvy£, the 
pharynx ; tvpvvw, to make wide.) A morbid 
widening or enlargement of the pharynx. 

Pharynge'us. (*<S|Ovy£, -yyos.) Pha- 

Pharyn'gicus. Pharyngeal. 

Pbaryng-is'mus. (Pharynx. F.pha- 
ryngisme; l.Jaringismo.) Spasm of the muscles 
of the pharynx. 

Pharyng-it'ic. Belonging to Pharyng- 

Pharyngitis. (Pharynx; terminal 
-itis. F. pharyngite ; I.faringite ; 6. Schlund- 
kopfentziindang.) Inflammation of the Pharynx. 

P., acute'. Also called Angina simplex 
or Sore-throat. It may be caused by cold or 
exposure, or may be due to constitutional causes, 
such as rheumatism, gout, or digestive disturb- 
ance. There is general congestion of the mu- 
cous membrane of the pharynx, and the uvula 
may be swollen, as also the tonsils. The sym- 
ptoms are pain on swallowing, and a constant 
desire to clear the throat. If the larynx be 
involved, the voice becomes hoarse ; and if the 
congestion spreads up the Eustachian tubes, 
there is slight deafness. The glands in the neck 

may be enlarged, causing stiffness on movement. 
There is generally slight constitutional disturb- 
ance, with the temperature somewhat raised, anda 
quickened pulse. The disease only lastsafew days. 

P. apostemato'sa. ('K.ir6cTt\fi.a, an 
abscess.) General term for any abscess in rela- 
tion with the wall of the pharynx. 

P., atrophic. Often called P. sicca. The 
mucous membrane becomes atrophied, and is 
covered with a thin film of dried secretion. 
There may be also crusts in the naso-pharynx. 
The mucous glands are affected. In certain 
cases the disease seems to follow upon the hyper- 
trophic form, in others the cause is unknown. 
It is sometimes associated with Bright' s disease 
or diabetes (Schech.) The symptoms are dryness, 
and an occasional feeling as of a foreign body. 

P., catarrhal. Also called Catarrhal 
sore throat and Hospital sore throat. It is caused 
by cold, or by impure air. There may be merely 
some dysphagia. In more severe cases there 
is general congestion of the pharyngeal and 
faucial mucous membrane ; and in still worse 
cases ( Ulcerative pharyngitis, or ulcerated sore 
throat) there are superficial ulcerations on the 
palate, tonsils, and pharyngeal walls, with raised 
temperature and considerable constitutional dis- 
turbance. The secretion of saliva may be either 
excessive or deficient. 

P., chron'lc. This is divided clinically 
into simple catarrhal, hypertrophic, and atrophic 
pharyngitis (P. sicca). 

P., diphtheritic. See Diphtheria. 

P., follic ular. The same as P., hyper- 

P. gangreno sa. See Sore throat, putrid. 

P., gran ular. See P., hypertrophic. 

P., hypertrophic. Also called granular 
phar3 r ngitis or clergyman's sore throat. It is 
often found in those who have to use the voice 
constantly. The rheumatic and gouty diatheses 
are considered predisposing causes. Small reddish 
granules, up to the size of a split pea, are present 
over the surface of the pharynx ; in some cases 
the whole surface is covered with red elevations. 
The tonsils may be a little swollen, and there is 
often congestion behind them. The symptoms 
are discomfort leading to frequent clearing of the 
throat, heat, soreness, occasionally a feeling as of 
a foreign body, and there may be slight pain on 
swallowing. Loss or impairment of voice is 

P., lat'eral. A synonym of Pharyngitis, 

P. leucse'mica. A pharyngitis in which 
the inflammation spreads to the neighbouring 
lymphatic glands, and is accompanied by an in- 
creased proportion of leucocytes in the blood 

P. maligna. See Sore throat, putrid. 

P., sep'tic. Term for the varieties of 
pharyngitis that are due to absorption, either local 
or general, of septic matter. McBride subdivides 
it as follows: 1. Slight septic inflammation or 
Hospital sore throat ("Ulcerated sore throat" 
of Sir Morell Mackenzie). 2. Phlegmonous ox Ery- 
sipelatous sore throat. 3. Gangrenous pharyng- 

P. sic ca. (L. siccus-, a-, urn, dry.) See 
P., atrophic. 

P., ul cerative. The same as P. maligna. 

P. ulcero'sa. P., ulcerative. 
Pharyn'go. (<bapvy%, <papvyyo<; [earlier, 
-uyos], the joint-opening of the gullet and wind- 


pine, according to Galen.) Prefix signifying 

Phary ngobr an'chii. (Pharyngo ; 
branchia.) See Leptocardii. The same is syn- 
onymous with Pharyngostomi and Cirrostomt. 

Pharyngo'cace. See Cacopharyngia. 

Pharyn'gocele. (Pharyngo ; Gr. kvXii, 
a tumour. G. Schlundkop/bruch.) Term for a 
dilatation of the upper end of the oesophagus, in 
which food may sometimes be retained in con- 
siderable quantity. 

Pharyngoce'lic. Belonging to a 

Pharyngocente'rium. (Pharyngo ; 
Gr. Kti/Ttipios, fitted for piercing. F. pharyngo- 
cetiterion.) An instrument for puncturing the 

Pharyngoceph'ale. (Pharyngo; Gr. 
KMpaXti, the nead. G. Schlundkopf.) Term 
for the upper part or head of the pharynx. 

Fharyngocephal'ic. Belonging to 
the Pharyngocephale. 

Pharyngocynan'che. (Pharyngo ; 
cynanche.) The same as Angina Ludovici. 

Phary ngodyn'ia. (Pharyngo; Gr. 
oovvtj, pain. G. Schhmdkopfschmerz.) Pain in 
the pharynx. 

Pharyn gpo-epiglot tic fold. Term 
for a fold of mucous membrane on each side of 
the base of the epiglottis, continuous with the 
aryteno- epiglottic fold, and passing on to the 
lateral wall of the pharynx. 

Pharyngo-epiglot'ticus. Term for 
occasional fibres of the stylo- pharyngeus muscle, 
which are inserted into the lateral borders of the 
epiglottis, and into the pharyngo -epiglottic fold. 

Pharyng-Oglos'sal. (Pharyngo; Gr. 
yXwaau, the tongue.) The same as Glosso- 

Pharyng;ograph ic. Belonging to 
Phary ngograpny . 

Pharyngo'graphy. (Pharyngo ; Gr. 
ypcupn, a writing.) Term for a description of 
the anatomy of the pharynx. 

Pharyn go larynge al. Belonging 
both to the pharynx and larynx. 

P. canity. A name for that part of the 
harynx which is shut off from the nasal cavity 
y the soft palate in deglutition (Billings). 
P. sinus. Also termed Sinus pyrif or mis. 
A depression in the mucous membrane on the 
outer side of the aryteno-epiglottidean fold, be^ 
tween it and the lateral wall of the pharynx. 

Pharyn'g-o-laryngi'tis. An inflam- 
mation including both the pharynx and larynx. 

Pharyngolog ical. Belonging to 
Pharyngoiogy . 

Pharyngo'logy. (Pharyngo; Gr. 
Xoyos, a discourse.) That branch of medical 
science which deals with the Anatomy, Patho- 
logy, Medicine, and Surgery of the Pharynx. 

Pharyngo'lysis. (Pharyngo; Gr. 
Auo-is, a loosening, setting free.) The same as 

Pharyngolyt'ic. Belonging to Pharyn- 

Pharyn'go-mastoid'eus. An occa- 
sional muscle in the human subject, described by 
Ketel, which arises from the deep surface of the 
mastoid process of the temporal Done, and is in- 
serted into the contiguous part of the lateral wall 
of the pharynx. 

Pharyngomyco'sis. (Pharyngo ; 
mycosis.) The growth of a fungus, almost in- 

variably Leptothrix, on the walls of the pharynx. 
See P. leptothricia. 

P. leptothri cia. (Leptothrix.) A dis- 
ease described by Frankel and Heryng, which is 
caused by accumulations of leptothrix on the 
walls of the pharynx. White or greyish-yellow 
nodules are present on the base of the tongue, 
the tonsils, or the pillars of the fauces. Sym- 
ptoms may be absent, or there may be a sensation 
of dryness or pricking. The disease is very 
chronic and difficult to get rid of. 

Pharyn g o na sal cav ity. Term 
for that part of the cavity of the pharynx which 
lies above the level of the soft palate during the 
act of deglutition. 

Pharyn' go oesophage al. Belong- 
ing to the pharynx and oesophagus. 

Pharyn'go-o'ral. The same as Bucco- 

Pharyn'go-pal'atine. Belonging to 
the pharynx and soft palate. 

Pharyn go-palati nus. Term for 
the Palato-pharyngeus. It is also used to 
designate that part of the palato-pharyngeus 
muscle which is inserted into the wall of the 

Pharyngopara'lysis. See Pharyn- 

Pharyng-oparalyt'ic. Belonging to 


Phary ng-opath'ia. (Pharyngo; Gr. 
•n-aflos, suffering, sickness. G. Eachenkrankheit.) 
Disease of the pharynx or fauces. 

Phary ngoperi'stole. (Pharyngo ; 
Gr. TrcpicrroXv, a dressing up.) The same as 

Pharyngoplegia. (Pharyngo ; Gr. 
irXtjy?), a stroke.) Paralysis of the muscles of 
the pharynx. 

Pharyngople'gic. Pertaining to, or 
the subject of, Pharyngoplegia. 

Pharyng opletho'ra. (Pharyngo ; 
Gx.TrXnQwp-i], fullness.) A local plethora of the 
pharynx or fauces. 

Pharyngopleu'ral. (Pharyngo ; 
pleural.) Belonging both to the pharynx and 
to the lateral body-walls. 

Pharyng-orhini'tis. (Pharyngo ; 
rhinitis.) Term for inflammation of the pha- 
ryngeal and nasal cavities. 

Pharyn'go-rhino'scopy. (P/»«- 
ryngo ; rhinoscopy.) Visual examination, by 
means of a small mirror, of the posterior nares 
and upper part of the pharynx. See Rhinoscopy. 

Pharyng'orrha'g'ia. (Pharyngo ; 
Gr. pvyvuni, to burst through.) Any sudden or 
considerable hajmorrhage from the pharynx. 

Pharyng-orrhag-'ic. Belonging to 

Pharyn'g-oscope. (Pharyngo ; Gr. 
crKoiriw, to look at. I. faringoscopio ; G. 
Schlundkopfspiegel.) A modification of the 
laryngoscope, for getting a view of the fauces 
and upper part of the pharynx. 

Pharyng-o'scopy. (Pharyngoscope.) 
Visual examination of the pharynx. 

Pharyn' g-OSpasm. (Pharynoo ; Gr. 
o-iratr/nos, a convulsion. G. Schlundkrampf.) 
Spasm of the pharynx. 

Pharyng-ospasmod'ic. Belonging 

to Pharyngospasm. 

Pharyng-oBtaphyli'nus. (Pha- 
ryngo ; staphylinus, from Gr. <rT<z</>u\»/, the 
uvula, from its likeness, when swollen, to a 


grape.) Belonging to the pharynx and uvula; 
a name for the Palato-pharyngeus muscle. 

Pharynsostenla. (Pharyngo ; Gr. 
a-Ttvos, a strait or difficulty. G. Schlundver- 
engerung.) Constriction or stricture of the 

Pharyng-o'stenous. Belonging to 

Pharyngo'atomi. (Pharyngo; crro/xa, 
the mouth.) See Pharyngobranehii, 

Pharyn g'otome. (See Pharyngotomy.) 
An instrument used for making an opening into 
the pharynx, usually into the posterior wall to 
open a post-pharyngeal abscess. It is shaped 
like a trocar and cannula, with a slight curve. 
The part corresponding to the trocar can be 
suddenly protruded. 

Pharyngotomy. (Pharyngo; Gr. 
to/ij}, a cutting down. F. pharyngotomie ; I. 
faring otomia ; G. Pharyngotomie, Schlund- 
schnitt.) An operation sometimes necessary for 
the removal of a foreign body impacted in the 
pharynx (see also (Esophagotomy). An incision 
four inches long is made along the anterior edge 
of the left sterno-mastoid muscle. A careful 
dissection is made backwards, between the carotid 
sheath and the larynx and trachea, the omohyoid 
muscle being first divided. Great care is neces- 
sary to avoid the inferior and superior thyroid 
arteries. When the wall of the pharynx has 
been reached, a sound is passed through the 
mouth into the pharynx, and its end is cut down 
upon. The opening is enlarged with a probe- 
pointed bistoury. 

P., subhyoid. Also termed supra- 
thyroid pharyngotomy. A transverse incision is 
made just above the superior border of the thyroid 
cartilage, the pharynx being opened through the 
thyro-hyoid membrane. This operation is of use 
if the upper part of the epiglottis calls for surgical 
interference, or if a foreign body be lodged about 
that part. It is, however, rarely practised, 
as the incision gives very little room for the 
passage of instruments. 

Pharynx. (<I>apuy£, the joint-opening 
of the gullet and windpipe, according to Galen. 
I.faringe; G. Schlundkopf.) A sac extending 
from the base of the skull to the level of the 
lower border of the cricoid cartilage, continued 
at its lower end into the oesophagus, and having 
apertures in front, at its upper part, leading into 
the mouth, nose, and larynx. The soft palate 
extends back into it, and during the passage of 
food is drawn backwards by its muscles so as to 
completely separate the nasal cavity and upper- 
most part of the pharynx from the buccal cavity 
and lower part of the pharynx. There are 
seven openings into the cavity of the pharynx : 
above tne soft palate, the two openings of the 
posterior nares, choance narium, at the sides, 
the trumpet-like openings of the right and left 
Eustachian tubes; below the soft palate, the 
buccal or mouth cavity, the superior aperture of 
the larynx, and the upper opening of the oeso- 
phagus. The pharynx is considerably greater 
from side to side than from front to back ; its 
length is about four and a half inches. It is 
widest opposite the greater cornua of the hyoid 
bone, below which it contracts to its narrowest 
portion at the lower end. Its walls are formed 
by the pharyngeal aponeurosis, dense above, 
where it is attached to the base of the skull and 
the Eustachian tube, thin and loose below ; this 
is covered by the constrictor muscles and lined 

I by mucous membrane. There are numerous 
racemose mucous glands beneath the mucous 
membrane, near the openings of the Eustachian 
tubes and the posterior nares, and lymphoid 
follicles are present throughout the entire 
pharynx. The epithelium is columnar and 
ciliated as far downwards as just above the base 
of the uvula; below that, it is squamous and 
stratified. The fcBtal condition, in which the 
ciliated epithelium is more widely distributed, 
often persists in the recesses and gland-ducts. 

P., acute' lnfec'tlous phlegmon of. 
Senator's name for Sore throat, phlegmonous. 
See also under Pharyngitis, septic. 

P., anaemia of. A symptom occurring 
in general ansemia and in phthisis ; in the latter 
disease, there is often localised congestion to- 
gether with general anaemia of the pharynx 

P., anaesthe'sia of. This symptom is 
present in central lesions involving the glosso- 
pharyngeal nerve (being sometimes an early 
symptom in bulbar paralysis, according to Kris- 
haber), and in cases of inflammation of or pres- 
sure on the nerve-trunk itself, in which latter 
case it is unilateral. It occurs most commonly 
as a sequela of diphtheria ; incomplete anaesthesia 
of the pharynx often occurs in hysteria. 

P., constric tors of. See under Con- 

P., development of. See Foregut. 
P., gran ules on pos'terlor wall of. 

These occur in children, in association with 
adenoid vegetations of the naso-pharynx. See 
Naso-pharyngeal vegetations. 

P., nyperaesthe'sia of. This often 
occurs in association with gout, and alcoholic 
excess (McBride). 

P., Inflamma tions of. See under 

P., lympnat les of. From the upper 
part of the pharynx, the lymphatic vessels enter 
the group of internal maxillary glands, some of 
which lie upon the side wall of the pharynx. 
From the lower part of the pharynx, the vessels 
pass into the superior group of the deep cervical 

P., mns'cles of. See Constrictor, and 
also Palato-pharyngeus, and Stylo-pharyngeus. 

P., nerves of. The pharyngeal muscles 
are mainly supplied by the pharyngeal branch of 
the vagus ; but the stylo-pharyngeus is supplied 
by a branch from the glosso-pharyngeal nerve, 
and a twig from this passes through the muscle 
to supply the mucous membrane. Branches also 
pass to the pharynx from the superior cervical 

P., tn'monrs of. These may be either 
innocent or malignant. 1. Innocent tumours. 
Of these, the commonest are papillomata, which 
grow from the pillars of the fauces, or the free 
end of the uvula. The other varieties, which 
are all rare, are fibromata, angiomata, lipomata, 
cysts (including Echinococci), and ohondro- 

2. Malignant tumours. Carcinoma, lympho- 
sarcoma (of the tonsil). Carcinoma when grow- 
ing from the tonsil is generally of the glandular 
kind, not epitheliomatous. 

Phar'yz. (<I>a/uu£, a form of <papvy£ 
which appears not to have been used.) The 

Phasca ceae. Pot. The third Order of 
the Class Musci. 



Phase'. (*u<ris, an appearance. F. phase; 
I. fase; Qr. Ansehen.) In Astronomy, the 
position in which the moon or other planets 
appear to us at any moment. An appearance, 
or the manner in which anything shows itself 
to us ; also, an era. Metaphorically, a stage in 
an individual's state of mind or opinions. 

Phase lus. See Phaseolus. 

Phaseol'eee. Name given hy De Candolle 
and Ebermaier to a Tribe of the Leguminosce, 
having the Phaseolus for their type. 

Pbaseol'io ac id. Name applied to 
Phaseolin, because, like an acid, it combines with 
saline bases. 

Phase olin. Name applied by Vauquelin 
to the crystalline exudation of a black poisonous 
species of haricot (Phaseolus) growing in the Isle 
of France. 

Phase olite, Unger's generic term for 
remains of various fossil plants, mainly leaves, 
supposed to belong to the Leguminosm, many of 
them closely resembling the Genus Phaseolus. 
(Century Diet.) 

Pliase'olllS. (tf>d<n)\os, (j>acrrio\oi or 
acrioXos, a sort of kidney bean. F. haricot; 
. Phaseole.) A Linn. Genus of plants, Class 
Diadelphia, Order Decandria ; now classed under 
the Leguminosce. 

P. cre'tlcus. A decoction of the leaves of 
this plant, which is called by the Americans 
Cajan or Cayan, is said to restrain the bleeding 
from piles. 

P. vulgar' is. The French, or kidney, 
bean plant. The unripe pods, when well boiled, 
are nutritious and easily digestible. The juice is 
sweet owing to the presence of phaseomannite. 

Also, an Indian or American climbing dwarf 
herb. The young and sugary pods contain mu- 
cilage, and the seeds (haricots) are farinaceous 
and edible. 

Phaseoman nite. Term for the Inosite 
present in the juice of the kidney bean. See 
Phaseolus vulgaris ; see also Inosite. 

Phasiani'dae. Name given by Vigors to 
a Family of the Gallinacea, having the Phasi- 
anus for their type. 

Phasiani'nee. The pheasants proper; 
a Sub-family of the Phasianida. 

Phasia'nus. (3>ao-ts, a river in Colchis 
or Pontus, in Asia, from the neighbourhood of 
which pheasants were originally brought to 
Europe.) The Genus Pheasant, Order Gallin- 

P. col'cnlcus. (F. faisan vulgaire ; G. 
der gemeine Fasan.) The common pheasant. 
It is now abundant in most parts of England, 
and in the southern and middle divisions of 
Scotland, and is harboured by most large land- 
owners for its beauty, the sport it affords, and 
the goodness of its flesh. 

P. gal lus. Gallus domesticus. 

Pha sic. Of the nature of a Phase. 

Phasi'olus. See Phaseolus. 

P ha sis. Astron. A Phase. 

Phas'ma. (*do>ia, an apparition, spectre.) 
The same as Phantasm. 

Pha'sol. C 1S H 24 0. A substance found in 
the husks of the Pea (Pisum sativum). It is ob- 
tained by crystallisation from alcohol, is in- 
soluble in water, soluble in chloroform, and gives 
a purple colour on shaking up its solution in 
chloroform with sulphuric acid of a sp. gr. T76. 

Phat ne. (*ari/^, a crib or feeding-trough 
for horses and oxen.) Term for Alveolus. 


Phat nion. The same as Phatne. 

Phat'nium. The same as Phatne. 

Phatnorrba'g-ia. (Phatne; jvywfii, 
to burst through. G. Zahnh'ohlenblutjfuss.) A 
sudden discharge (as, e.g., of blood) from an 
alveolus, or tooth-socket. 

Phatnorrhag-'ic. Belonging to Phat- 

Phausin'gres. See Phausinx. 
PhaUS'inX. (4>aDo-iy£ [<puvu>, 4>au£to],a 
blister from burning.) Old term for circular red 

f latches (phausinges, nom. pi.), arising on the 
egs from the action of fire; also used in the 
plural in the same sense as Pho'ides. 

Phaustia nos. ($auu>, in the sense of to 
burn.) Old name for a strongly escharotic pastil 
used to destroy large fleshy excrescences, de- 
scribed by Aetius, ix, 49. 

Pheas ant. (Mid. E. fesaun, later form 
fesaunt ; 0. F. faisan. L. Phasiana, for Phasi- 
ana avis, the Phasian bird. Gr. (paaiavot, a 

Eheasant, because coming from the neighbour- 
ood of the river Phasis [4>aeri«], in Colchis, 
now called the Bioni, which flows from the Cau- 
casus into the Black Sea.) The common name 
for the Phasianus colchicus. 

P.'s eye. Common name for the genus of 
plants termed Adonis. 

Phellan drene. Name given by Pisci 
to a terpene occurring in Elemi, in the seeds of 
Phellandrium aquaticum, in oil of fennel (dex- 
trorotatory variety), and also in oil of eucalyp- 
tus (la?vorotatory variety). 

Phellandrium. (*t\Xds, the cork- 
tree ; av&piov, dim. from avvp, a man, in the sense 
of a male. L. quercus suber ; F. phellandre ; G. 
Pferdefenchel.) A Linn. Genus of plants, Class 
Pentandria, Order Digynia. 

P. aquat'icum. (L. aquaticus, belonging 
to the water. F. fenouil d'eau; G. Wasser- 
fenchel.) The water-fennel or fine-leaved 
water-hemlock, which is narcotic. The seeds 
have been recommended with Peruvian bark in 
phthisis, and have been also given in dysentery. 

Phelloderm. (*eA\o's; Slp/ia, the 
skin.) A series of concentric layers of cellular 
tissue in woody plants, arranged also in radial 
rows, which is developed from the inner side of 
the Phellogen, and acts as a support to the living 
parenchyma of the cortex. 

Phel'log°en. (*e\Xo's ; yti/, root of ytu- 
vau>, to beget.) The cork-cambium in woody 
plants, which is developed usually in the layer 
of the primary cortex cells immediately beneath 
the epidermis, or in the epidermis itself, or else 
in a layer somewhat deeper than the former. It 
gives rise to the Periderm on the outer side, and 
frequently to layers of tissue on the inner side 
constituting the Phelloderm. 

Phellog enet ic. Belonging to the Phel- 

Phel lyl al cohol. A name for Cerin. 

Phelps' box. An apparatus, invented 
by Phelps, an American surgeon, used in tu- 
berculous disease of the spine, Pott's disease. 
It consists of a wooden trough to contain the 
head and body, continued into two shallower 
troughs for the legs. The sides of the trough, 
about six inches high for the body, are hollowed 
out opposite the shoulders, the floor of the trough 
is hollowed out at the lower end to admit of de- 
feecation, and the leg-pieces are fitted each with 
a vertical foot-piece. The splint is prolonged 
for sixteen inches above the head, so as to allow 



of elastic extension from beneath the occiput and 
chin. The patient is wedged in by means of 
pads, and then bandaged to the apparatus. 

P.'s opera tion. For the cure of Talipes 
valgus. It consists in section of the tendo 
Achillis and of the whole of the tense, con- 
tracted tissues below and in front of the internal 

Fheinos. Old term for a medicine against 
dysentery, invented by Martianus, according to 
Aetius, i, 9. (Gorraeus.) 

Phen. (4>a£ii/ds, shining. It was more cor- 
rectly written Phaen by Gmelin.) The name first 
used by Laurent for the radical of Phenol (then 
supposed to be C 5 H 12 ). Afterwards he applied 
the name Phenyl to it, and assigned it the for- 
mula C.oHjO. 


Phena'cetin. C 6 H 4 <j^H(CHoCO). A1 " 
60 called Para-acet-phenetidin. It is the acetyl 
derivative of the ethylic ether of paramido- 
phenol, namely phenetidin. It occurs in white, 
shining crystals, without odour or taste, soluble 
in hot alcohol, insoluble in water, acids, alkalies 
and glycerine. It is an antipyretic and, at the 
same time, a sedative ; it has been given success- 
fully in rheumatism, neuralgia, migraine and 
hysteria. (Ex. Ph.) Dose, 4 to 8 grains, in- 
creased to 15 grains. It is given either sus- 
pended in mucilage, or in "cachets." 

Phenaceturic acid. C,oH n N03. 
This acid occurs normally in horses' urine, and 
also in the urine passed by a person after taking 
phenylacetic acid (Salkowski). It can be pre- 
pared by digesting phenylacetic anhydride with 
glycocoll and benzene. 

Phe namide. A name for Aniline. 

Phe nas so'dicus a qua solu'tus. 
Fr. Codex. Sodic phenate dissolved in water. An 
aqueous solution of sodium carbolate. 

Phe'nate. A salt of Phenic acid. 

Fhe'nazone. Antipyrin. 

Phe'ne. A name for Benzene. 

Pheng-opho'bia. (^tyyos, light ; 0o- 
/3t(u, to frighten.) Fear or intolerance of light; 
the same as Photophobia. 

Phengophob'ic. Belonging to, or af- 
fected with, Phengophobia. 

Phe nic. (Phenol.) Obtained from coal- 

P. ac id. Another name for carbolic acid, 
or Phenol. 

Pheni'ceous. Belonging to, or of the 
colour of, Phenicin. 

Phe nicin. (Phmniana ; Gr. <£otmV-£os, 
purple-red. G. Phoinihin.) Name for Indigo- 
carmine by its discoverer, Crum. 

P. sulpho'nic ac id. Indigo -monosul- 
phonic acid. 

Phenicisulphu'ric ac id. The same 
as Phenicin sulphonic acid. 

Phe'nion. A name for the Anemone Pul- 

Phe nol. (Either from (paiivot, shining, 
brilliant, or, more probably, from (poivi£, purple- 
red.) Carbolic acid. 

P. camphor. Term for camphorated 
phenol. See Camphor, earbolated. 

P., i odised. See Iodised phenol. 

P. mer'cury. Carbolate of mercury. A 
whitish powder. Dose, £ to 2 grains daily. 
(Ex. Ph.) 

P.-pnthal'ein. B. Ph. Phenol combined 
with a derivative of benzene. It forms yellowish 

crystals, and is used for the preparation of P.- 
phthalein, tincture of. 

P.-pnthal'ein, tlnc'ture of. B. Ph. 

One part by weight of phenol-phthalei'n in 100 
of proof-spirit. This is colourless, but becomes 
purple-rea with a preparation of a fixed alkali, 
and is again decolourised by an excess of acid. 

P. so dique. (F.) Sodic phenol, Liq. 
sodii carbolatis. Its approximate composition 
is, in 100 parts of distilled water, 8 parts of 
phenol, and 4 of caustic soda. (Ex. Ph.) 

P.s, the. The hydroxyl derivatives of the 
aromatic or benzene series of hydrocarbons. 
These bodies occur in the living tissues of many 
of the higher animals, where they combine with, 
the sulphuric acid originating from decomposi- 
tion of albuminates ; the sulphuric acid is con- 
verted into a monobasic acid, and appears as an 
alkaline salt in the urine. See Phenolsulphate 
of potassium. 

Phenolog' ieal. Belonging to Phen- 

Pheno'loglst. One who studies Phen- 

Phenology. (Contr. of Phenomenology.) 
A branch of applied Meteorology comprehending 
the study of the influence of climate upon the 
annual cycle of animal and vegetable life. (Cen- 
tury Diet.) 

Phenolsul phate of potas sium. 

^°^ 5 >S0 4 . This substance is found to be al- 
ways present in human urine and that of her- 
bivora, and in that of carnivora also, except 
when on an exclusive meat diet. See Phenols. 


Phenolsulpho nic ac'id.C 6 H 4 <qh. 

Obtained, in colourless crystals, by dissolving 
carbolic acid, phenol, in strong sulphuric acid. 
Of its crystallised salts, sulphocarbolate of zinc 
is official. 

Pheno'lum ioda'tum. Latinised 

term for Iodised phenol. 

Phenom ena. Plur. of Phenomenon. 

Phenom enal. Of the nature of a Phe- 

Phenom'enism. The doctrine of the 


Phenom'enist. (Phenomenon.) One 
who believes only in phenomena, rejecting the 
idea of a necessary relation between cause and 

Phenomenolog- ical. Belonging to 


Phenomeno logy. (Phenomenon; Gr. 
Xo'yos, a dictum.) A scientific account of phe- 

Phenom enon. (Qaivofiai, to appear.) 
An appearance; also, an unusual appearance. 
A directly-observed fact, such, for example, as 
any change in any organ or organic function 
which can be appreciated by the senses ; a sign 
or symptom of any disease. 

Phenoxycarfein. A derivative of Caf- 
fein, first prepared by von Merck. It has been 
used subcutaneously to produce local anajs- 

Pheno'zyg'OUS. (*<u'i«o, to show; X,vyoy, 
used for the zygoma.) Epithet for a skull in 
which the two zygomatic arches are both visible 
at the same time from above. 

Phe nyl, The monovalent radical (C C H 5 ) 
of Phenol. 

P. al'cohol. Carbolic acid. 


P. by'drate. Carbolic acid. 

P., hydra ted ox'lde of. A name for 
Carbolic acid. 

P. hydride. A name for Benzene. 

P. hydrox ide. Carbolic acid. 

P., hy druret of. P. hydride. 
Phenylace tamide, Antifebrin. 
Phenylacetic ac id. This acid occurs 
in white crystalline scales, having a strong aro- 
matic taste, and an odour resembling that of 
horses' perspiration. The crystals are soluble in 
an equal quantity of spirit, or 1 part in 20 of oils. 
It is a disinfectant, and, as such, has been given 
internally in phthisis, as has also Phenyl- 
propionic acid. Dose, 1 to 3 grains in spirit or 

Phenylacetu'ric ac'id. C 10 H n NO 3 . 
This acid, as well as Phenaceturic acid, occurs 
in horses' urine, and in human urine when 
phenylacetic acid is taken internally It can 
be prepared by the action of the anhydride or 
chloride of phenylacetic acid on glycocoll. 

Phenyl amine. Aniline. 

Phe nyl-ben zamide. Benzanilide. 

Phe nyl-ben zene. See Diphenyl. 

Phenyl ia. Another name for Aniline. 

Phenylboric ac'id. C 6 H 5 Bo(H a O). 
This acid is antiseptic and, taken internally, an- 
tipyretic ; it is slightly soluble in cold water, 
readily in hot water and in ether and alcohol; it 
has an odour like that of marjoram. 

Phenylco cain. This substance has 
been recommended by Vian as a local anaesthetic 
in Dentistry. It is prepared by mixing 1 part of 
carbolic acid with 2 of cocain, and gently heating 
the mixture for a short time. 

Phenyl - dihy'dro - chinaz'olin. 

Phe nyl - dimeth yl - pyraz olon. 


Phe nyl-g-lycolyltro'pein. Soma- 

Phe nyl-hy drazine hydrochlo - 
rate. This substance occurs in colourless 
crystalline scales, and is used as a test for sugar. 
A portion is warmed with twice its weight of 
sodium acetate dissolved in water, an equal 
volume of the solution to be tested is added, and 
the whole boiled for twenty minutes. If sugar 
be present, yellow crystals of phenyl-glucosazine 
are deposited on cooling. 

Phe nyl - hydra'zin - laevulin'ic 
ac'id. Antithermin. 

Phe nyl-meth yl ac etone. See 

Phe'nyl - metb'yl - ke tone. The 

same as Phenyl-methyl-acetone. 

Phe nyl-propionic ac'id. Hydro- 
einnamic acid. 

Phe'nyl-sulphu'ric ac id. Suipho- 
carbolic acid. 

Phe'nyl-u'rethane. A white, crys- 
talline powder soluble in alcohol but not in 
•water, melting at 51° C, and acting, when given 
internally, as an energetic and safe antipyretic. 
It has not been found to give rise to any un- 
pleasant symptoms. A single dose of 14 grammes 
has been found to lower the temperature from 
about 2° to 6° F., causing profuse sweating. It 
ia best given dissolved in wine. (Villaret.) 

Phenyl'ia. A synonym of Aniline. 

Phenyl ic. The same as Phenic. 
P. ac'id. The same as Phenic acid. 

Phe nylin. A mixture of Lieven's, the 

composition of which is not known. According 
to Casselmanit is an aqueous solution of sulphate 
of iron and carbolic acid. (Geissler and Hol- 

Pheore tin. See Phaoretin. 

Phe osine. (F.) A brown resinous sub- 
stance found in the seeds of the Laurel, and ex- 
tracted by means of sodium carbonate. (Gro- 

Pherea. Nom. pi. n. (Qripta, t&, a 
swelling of the parotid glands, supposed to re- 
semble the budding horns of Satyrs [4>Fjots], 
Foesius' Oec. Hipp.) Ancient term for swelling 
of the parotid salivary glands, or of the parotid 
lymphatic glands. 

Pheugyr'dron. (Qtvyv&pos, -ov [<pi vym ; 
Cito/o], shunning water. G. wasserscheu.) Flying 
from or shunning water. A synonym for Hydro- 

Phi'al. See Phiala. 
P., Bologna. A small phial made of 
unannealed glass, which breaks if scratched by 
a hard body. 

Phi ala. (*ia\»;, a shallow drinking bowl. 
F. phiole ; G. Phiole.) Term for an alembic or 
still; a phial or vial. Byphial is usually under- 
stood a small glass bottle, such as those in which 
druggists send out liquid medicines. 

Pbilac'ter. (Philo- ; ayw, to guide.) A 
term employed to signify a talisman ; also, a 

Philadel phia fleabane. See Eri- 

geron philadelpnicum. 

Philadel phus. (Philo- ; aStkcpSs, a 
brother.) Term applied to the Galium aparinc, 
because of its rough leaves, which attach them- 
selves to anything with which they are brought 
in contact. 

Also, applied by Bory to an Order of Polyps 
among the Protozoa, including those in which 
there are many polyps in one colony and on a 
single stem. 

P. coronar'ius. A shrub, the Syringa, 
Order Philadelpheee. The plants of this Order 
inhabit South Europe, Japan, and North India. 
The Syringa bears strongly-scented flowers, 
which were formerly used as a tonic. 

Philadynam'ica. (Nom. plural n. 

From Philadynamos.) A term for Bebilitants. 
Philadyn'amos. (4>tXa5ui>a/uos ; from 

<pi\£w, to love ; advva/xos = idvvaTos, without 
strength.) An old adjective, applied to that 
which soon weakens; used by Hippocrates, de 
Pat. Vict, in Acut., iii, 40, as an epithet for 

Philagria'non. (Philagrius, the name 
of its inventor.) Name for a Malagma described 
by Paulus 2Egineta, vii, 18, Adams' Transl., 
vol. iii, p. 577. 

Philalus'tes. (Philo- ; &\vu>, to be dis- 
tracted.) Term used by Hippocrates for one 
who is always in a state of anxiety and per- 
plexity ; especially applied to those mentally de- 

Philanthro PUS. (Philo-; avdpoiire<:, 
mankind. Cp. Philadelphus.) A name for the 
Galium aparine. 

Also, an old term for a compound medicine 
used in diseases of the kidney. 

Philant'ia. See Antophilia. 

Philetai rion. (Philo- ; tTaipos.a com- 
panion. ) A name applied by Hippocrates to the 
Galium aparine. 

Philia ter. (Philo- ; lartp, a surgeon ; 



later, a physician.) A lover of physicians or of 
their profession; also, an amateur student of 

Philia'tric. Belonging to a Philiater. 

Philip pi trochis cus. Term for a 
troche against dysentery, described by Paulu9 
JEgineta, vii, 12, Adams' Transl., vol. iii, p. 581. 

P hilly g-enin. See Philygenin. 

Philly'rea. See Phi/yrea. 

Philly rine. See Philyrine. 

Phil o-. (*t\t(o,tolove.) Prefix, signifying 
love of, or a lover of. 

Philobio sis. {Philo- ; /3/os, life.) The 
love of life. 

Philoboli tes. {Philo- ; " bolus," a kind 
of fungus. P '. philobolite ; G. Schwammfreund.) 
A lover of fungi. 

Philoche micus. {Philo- ; xiM"'a> 
chemistry. P. philochemigue.) A lover of 

Philocbirur'g-icus. {Philo- ; 6 xw 
oupyos, an operating medical man, a surgeon. 

F. philochirurgique.) A lover of surgeons, or 
of the art of surgery. 

Philochym icus. See Philochemicus.. 

Philocot yle. Name for a plaster, ac- 
cording to GorraBus, described by Paulus ^Egineta, 
vii, 17, where, however, it is written in the text, 
p. 130, line 18, ^iXokotuxi- Adams' Transl., 
vol. iii, p. 563, gives phycotyche. 

Philoc'ratis emplast rum. Name 
of a plaster described by Celsus, v, c. 19, p. 130, 
line 18, n. 14. 

Philoenia. {Philo-; oli/os, wine. G. 
Weinliebe.) The love of, or an addiction to, 

Philog'en'iture. {Philo- ; L. genitura, 
a begetting.) The love of begetting progeny. 
Philogynia. {Philo- ; yvuri, a woman. 

G. Weiberliebe.) A love of womankind; also 
termed gynophilia. 

Philomath ia. {Philo-; /ua0rj<ris, ac- 
quiring knowledge. G. Zerngebierde.) The love 
of learning. 

Philomath ic. Belonging to Philo- 

Philomime sia. {Philo- ; /it/xj)<ri9, imi- 
tation. G. Nachahmungssucht.) F. B. Os- 
seander's term for an affection of the mind 
characterised by a propensity for imitating. 

Philomimet'ic. Belonging to Philo- 

Pbilonis collyr'ium. (Philo, a 
Greek physician.) Term for a collyrium de- 
scribed by Celsus, vi, c. 6, n. 3. 

Philo nium. (Philo, a Greek physician, 
who invented it.) Old. term for a narcotic anti- 
dote, described in the dispensatories of Bavaria, 
&c. ; two others were described by Jac. le Mort, 
Pharm. Med. Phys., c. 23, p. 174, one called 
the warm, the other, the cold. 

P. londlnen'se. (L. Zondinensis, -e, of 
London.) Old term for Confectio opii. 

Philopatridal'g-ia. {QiXo-n-aTpi*, 
loving one's country ; <J\yos, any pain, whether 
of body or mind.) The same as Nostalgia. 

Philopatridoma'nia. (*i\ 
fiavia, madness.) The same as Philopatrid- 

Philophys icus. {Philo-; tf>uo-is,nature. 
G. Naturfor setter.) A lover of nature; an in- 
quirer into the mysteries of nature. 

Philopos'ia. {Philo-; iroo-is, a drink- 
ing.) The same as Philoenia. 

Philopo'strophous. {Philo- ; v-n-oa-- 
Too<pv, a turning round.) Loving to return; 
also, recurring. 

Philoproffen'itiveness. {Philo- ; 
L. progenies, descent, family.) The instinctive, 
love of young, common to man and all the higher 

In Phrenology, its organ is supposed to be 
situated immediately above the middle of the 
cerebellum, corresponding to the external occi- 
pital protuberance externally. 

Philoris tia. {QiXopicrTta [Galen] ; from 
<pi\iw, to love ; Ofjt^oi, to mark out boundaries. 
G. Definirsucht.) Too much study in bringing 
out definitions-(Galen, de Biff. Puis. 1. i, c. i, 
17, in Jin.). 

Philosaprot'ic. {Philo-; o-cnrpoTtjs, 
rottenness, decay.) Loving, or disposed to, rot- 
tenness or decay. See Saprophytic. 

Philosophe'ma. {<f?i\oa6^i\p.a.) A 
subject of scientific inquiry ; a demonstration ; a 
demonstrative argument or conclusion. 

Philo soptier. (*iXoVo0os, a lover of 
wisdom or knowledge.) A searcher after truth; 
hence, in a narrower sense, a metaphysician. 
Also, one who lives according to the rules of 

P.'s plas'ter. An ancient plaster used for 
wounds that were slow in healing ; described by 

P.'s stone, the. (F. la pierre philoso- 
phale; G. der Stein der Weisen.) An alchemical 
substance by which metals were to be trans- 
muted, and all diseases cured. It was believed 
to be possessed of the greatest virtues ; but was 
not of the nature of stone, this word having 
been applied by the alchemists to every fixed 
solid which did not evaporate. The modes of its 
preparation were, for the most part, altogether 
hyperbolical, and the recorded examples of 
seeming transmutation of metals effected by its 
power wear an aspect of imposture and absurdity 
too great for rational belief. 
Philosoph ia. See Philosophy. 

P. cor'poris vi'vi. Philosophy of the 
living body. A term for Physiology. 

P. hermet'ica. Term for Alchemy. 

P. natura'lls. See Natural philo- 

P. per ig-'nem. Term for Chemistry. 
Philosophic. {Philosophia.) Belong- 
ing to, or in accordance with, Philosophy. 

P. can 'die. Term for an incandescent jet 
of hydrogen. 

P. wool. See Zana philosophica. 
Philosoph' ical. The same as Philo- 
sophic ; also, thinking like a philosopher. 
P. ana'tomy. See under Anatomy. 
Philosophy. {$i\ocro<pia, love of 
knowledge and wisdom.) The sum of scientific 
truth. Also, the general principles of any special 

Phil otae emplas'trum. An ancient 
plaster which was used especially for broken 
heads ; described by Celsus, 1. 5, c. 19. 

Philozo ia. {Philo- ; £0117, life. G. Ze- 
bensliebe.) The love of life. 

Phil ter. {$>l\Tpov, a love charm.) A 
love potion. See Philtrum. 

Phil trum. {QiX-rpov. F. philtre; G. 
Ziebestrank.) Med. Ancient term for a medi- 
cine given for the purpose of conciliating or of 
winning the love of another ; such a medicine 
being at one time held in high esteem. 


Anat. Old term for the groove or depression 
running from the columna nasi to the upper lip. 

Phily drous. (Philo-; UStap, water. 
F. philydre.) Loving water ; epithet applied to 
plants, Philydra planta, and animals that grow 
in, inhabit, or frequent the water. 

Phily ft-enin. C a ,Hj 4 0». A crystallisablo 
substanoe obtained, together with glucose, in the 
decomposition of the glucoside Philyrine by 
hydrochloric acid, with the aid of heat. It is 
soluble in ether ; on the addition of strong sul- 
phuric acid, it gives a permanent red colour. 

Phily'ra. (The name of the mother of 
Chiron the Centaur.) See Tilia. 

Philyr'ea. ('biWvpia, or <pi\up£a, a 
kind of Ligustrum or Privet.) A Genus of the 
Order Oleinea. The bark and leaves of plants 
of this genus were formerly used medicinally as 
bitter astringents. 

P. latlfo'lla. (L. latifolius, broad- leaved.) 
A shrub growing in Spain and the South of 
France. The leaves are astringent and have 
been used in ulcerations of the mouth ; a decoc- 
tion of the leaves has been given as a diuretic. 

Phily rine. C 27 H 3 ,0„. A glucoside 
discovered in 1836 by Carbonici in the bark of 
several species of Philyrea, and afterwards in- 
vestigated by Bertagnini. It crystallises out 
from a strong aqueous solution in silvery scales. 
It has a feebly bitter taste, and is readily soluble 
in hot water, alcohol, and warm acetic acid. 

Phimos. (4>t/uos, a muzzle.) The same 
as Capistrum. Also, a syn. for Phimosis. 
Phi mosed. Having a Phimosis. 
Phimo'sic. Relating to Phimosis. 
Phimosien tomy. (*i>a><ns, a muz- 
zling; ivTofjLi), an incision.) The operation of 
dividing the tight prepuce in Phimosis. 

Phimosio'tomy. (<J>i'jU<o<rts; touv, a 
cutting.) The same as Phimosientomy. 

Phimo sis. ($i^a>cris, a muzzling.) A 
condition of the prepuce in which this extends 
beyond the glans penis, and is so much con- 
tracted at its orifice as to prevent uncovering of 
the glans. It may be either congenital or 

P., acquired'. This is generally caused 
by 6olid oedema or false hypertrophy of the pre- 
puce, resulting from repeated inflammatory 
attacks. It sometimes comes on in elderly men, 
from the irritation of fissures or shallow ulcera- 
tions round the orifice of the prepuce, and some- 
times, in gouty patients, from repeated attacks 
of herpes preputialis. 

P. adna'ta. (L. adnascor = agnascor, 
agnatus, to grow to.) The same as P., congenital. 

P. circumlig-a'ta. (L. circumligo, to 
fasten round.) Term for Paraphimosis. 

P., congenital. The pressure of the 
narrow prepuce usually prevents a full develop- 
ment of the glans penis. The skin of theprepuce 
is lax and abundant, but the mucous lining is 
short and undeveloped ; the constricting band is 
at the junction of mucous membrane and skin. 
As a rule the condition merely causes local incon- 
venience ; but it may give rise to irritation and 
inflammation from retention and decomposition 
of the smegma preputii, difficulty in micturition, 
or irritability of the bladder. In some cases 
calculous concretions form under the prepuce. 
In children, incontinence of urine, intermittent 
flow, hematuria, priapism, or general spasmodic 
affections may occur as a result. The straining 
in micturition may give rise to hernia, ana 

hydrocele is often associated with phimosis in 
young children. Some surgeons consider con- 
genital phimosis to be one predisposing cause of 
cancer of the penis in later life 

P. cedemato'dea. {(Edema; ilSos, form.) 
See Sydrophimosis. 

P., operations for. These are three: 
dilatation of the contracted and elongated pre- 
puce ; simple slitting up of the prepuce along 
the dorsal surface ; and circumcision. 
P. puerilis. P., congenital. 

Phimot ic. Belonging to Phimosis. 

Phlas ma. (#Xa<r/ua, Ion. for 6\a<rpa, a 
bruise.) Old term for a bruise or contusion. 

Phi eb angioma caverno'sum. 
<t>\tf36s, a vein ; angioma.) A venous 
vascular tumour ; one of the varieties of Angeio- 
ma, cavernous. 

Phlebarteriecta'sia. (*Xi>; & P - 
Tij/oia ; tV-Tacris, a stretching out.) Term for a 
Varicose aneurysm. 

Phlebarteriodia lysis. (*Xe<^, & p - 
Ttipia, an artery ; <5iaXu<ris, a separating.) Term 
for an arterio-venous or varicose aneurysm. 
. Phlebarteriodyalyt ic. Belonging 
to Phlebarteriodialysis. 

Phlebecta sia. The same as Phlebec- 

Phlebectasis. ($Xi>; 
stretching out. G. Blutaderausdehnung .) Di- 
latation of a vein or veins. Term for a Varix 
in which there is marked extension of the 
knotted veins. 

P. haemorrhoida'lis. Term for Hxmor- 

Phlebec'tasy. Phlebectasis. 
Phlebectat ic. Belonging to Phlebeo 

Phlebectop ia. (<1>X£\|/, a vein; l K - 
tottos, out of the way.) An abnormal situation of 
a vein, either from congenital abnormality, or 
from displacement caused by a tumour ; or occur- 
ring as the result of violence. 

Phlebectop'ic. Belonging to Phlebec- 

Phlebemphrac tic. Belonging to 

Ph lebemphraxis. 

Phlebemphrax'is. (*X£i|f ; £p.<ppafn, 
a stoppage.) A stoppage or obstruction of a 
vein or veins. 

Phlebepati'tis. (#Xity; hepatitis.) 
Term for venous hepatitis, or inflammation of 
the veins of the liver. 

Phleb'es. Nom. pi. of Phleps or Phlebs. 
P. ae'tioi. See Ae'tioi phlebes. 

Phlebeurys'ma. (*x £ >; ivpi?, wide. 
G. Blutadernausdehnung .) A widening or ex- 
pansion of a vein ; synonymous with Varix. 

Phlebeurysmat ic. Belonging to 

Phleb'icus. (4>X£/3t*.os, belonging to the 
veins.) Belonging to Phlebs. 

Phleb ion. (Dim. of <p\iip.) Term for 
a small vein. See Venula. 

Phlebis'mus. (*Xm//.) Term used by 
Dr. Marshall Hall for the compression of the 
veins of the neck by contraction of the muscles, 
in the class of cases termed by him Trachelis- 

Phlcbit ic. Belonging to, or affected with, 

Phlebi tis. (^Xt'i/', terminal, -itis. F. 
phlcbite ; G. Blutaderentziindung.) Inflamma- 
tion of the walls of a vein. It may arise from 


injury, from periphlebitis, or from the formation 
of an unhealthy thrombus within the vein. In 
some cases, spoken of as idiopathic, the cause 
cannot be made out. Traumatic phlebitis may 
be simple and localised, or septic and spreading. 
A clot forms as a result of the injury, within 
the vein, adherent to the injured spot. In the 
septic and spreading variety, the clot softens 
and decomposes and excites spreading inflamma- 
tion in the vein- wall ; this process may extend 
until it reaches a large vein, into which frag- 
ments of the clot may then get washed, giving 
rise to septic embolism and pyaimia. Spreading 
phlebitis may arise in veins leading from the 
seat of many infective inflammations, without 
any injury to the veins themselves. 

The so-called idiopathic phlebitis almost 
always affects a large vein of the lower ex- 
tremity, most commonly the internal saphenous, 
and usually a vein that has long been varicose. 
It is apparently most frequent when erysipelas 
is epidemic ; but the relation between the two is 
not certain. The inflammation extends into the 
surrounding connective tissue ; but it rarely goes 
on to suppuration. When suppuration occurs, 
the disintegrating thrombus is shut off on each 
side by adherent unsoftened thrombus, and 
therefore no extension usually occurs. The 
symptoms of phlebitis are, in the case of a super- 
ficial vein, hardness, swelling, and knob-like 
projections of the affected vein, with a reddish- 
purple colour of the skin over it, and some feeling 
of stiffness, and darting pains on movement. In 
the case of a deep vein, there are deep-seated 
pain and tenderness, with well-marked oedema 
of the parts from which the affected vein brings 
blood. There may be swelling without any sub- 
cutaneous oedema. The oedema usually continues 
long after inflammation has subsided ; in fact, 
either until the channel of the vein has been 
restored, or the superficial veins have become 
large enough to completely restore the venous 
circulation of the part. The constitutional 
symptoms are not severe, unless suppuration 
takes place. Where the clot becomes organised 
and the vein remains imperforate, this is spoken 
of as adhesive phlebitis. 

In the case of spreading septic phlebitis of the 
deep veins, there are localised pain and tender- 
ness, considerable and rapidly-occurring oedema, 
and, later on, the symptoms of pyaemia. 

P., cru ral. Term for Phlegmasia dolens. 

P., embolic. The same as Spreading 
septic phlebitis. See under chief heading. 

P., grout y. The phlebitis that occurs as 
a common symptom in Irregular gout. 

P., intracra nial. Usually secondary to 
middle-ear disease, and giving rise to throm- 
bosis. Either the lateral or the petrosal sinus is 
most commonly affected. This thrombosis often 
causes optic neuritis. 

P., umbilica lis. Inflammation of the 
veins at the umbilicus in a new-born infant, due 
to septic infection at that spot. 

P., uterine. A term for Puerperal fever. 
Phlebo carcinoma. (<l>\t\'>; icapKi- 
vio/na = Kapictvov, a cancer.) Term for cancer 
growing into the walls of the veins. 

Phlcbocholosis. (*Xty; 
lameness. F. phlebocholose ; G. die Lahmung 
der Venen.) General term for a morbid condition 
of the veins. 

Phlebocholot'ic. Belonging to Phlebo- 

Phlebo'des. (•fcXAk; tlSot, form. F. 
phlebeux ; G. voll Adern.) Full of, or having 
abundance of, veins. 

Phlebodia stasis. (#Xt»|/; oido-rao-is, 
a standing apart. F. phlebodiastasc.) Term 
for the standing apart from one another of the 
ends of a divided vein. 

Phlebodiastat'ic. Belonging to 

Pblebodono'des. ($\tf3odovu)8ris, apt 
to disturb the veins ; d>Xt'x// ; Soviw, to shake to 
and fro ; tlSos, form. F.phlebodonodeux.) Full 
of agitated veins. Epithet used by Hippocrates, 
Prcedict., t. iii, 9, and Coac, t. 20, and t>y Galen, 
Comm. ad loc. prim., for blood-vessels agitated 
and distended on account of great heat and 
febrile effervescence of the blood ; it is, however, 
considered by good authorities that <p\t8ov<!>$iis 
is intended. See Phledonodes. 

Phlebo genous. (*Xt\^; ytw&w, to 
bring forth, produce.) Giving origin to veins. 
A term applied to large angiomata that are in 
communication with venous trunks. 

Phleb'ogram. (*Xt'(k; yp&nna, a draw- 
ing.) A Sphygmogram of the movements of a 

Phlebograph'ical. Belonging to 

Phlebography. (*Xt>; ypdcpw, to 
write.) A description or history of the veins. 

Phleboi dal. The same as Phiebo'ides. 

Phleboides. (fcXfty; tlSos, form. G. 
aderdhnlich.) Resembling a vein. 

Phlebolite. (*Xt'\^; Xi'flos, a stone. 
F. phlebolithe ; G. Aderstein.) A veinstone, or 
calcareous concretion in the interior of a vein. 

Phlebolith. The same as Phlebolite. 

Phlebolithi'asis. (*Xt»//; Xi6ia<ris, 
the disease of the stone.) The tendency to the 
formation of Phleboliths. 

Phlebolith ic. Belonging to Phlebolith. 

Phlebolit ic. Belonging to Phlebolite. 

Phlebolog" ical. Belonging to Phleb- 

Phlebo logy. (fcXtifr; Xoyos, a dis- 
course. G. Venenkande.) The anatomy of the 

Phlebomalacl'a. (*Xe\^; p.a\a.Kia, 

softness, weakness. F. phlebomalacie.) Lob- 
stein's term, Phlebomalacie, for pathological 
softening of the veins. 

Phlebometri'tis. See Metrophlebitis. 

Phlebopal ia. (#Xe'»// ; iraXXco, to leap, 
or quiver. G. Aderschlag.) Venous pulsation, 
or simply pulsation ; the most ancient physicians 
not distinguishing between the veins and the 
arteries, and therefore using the term (p\£\fr for 

Phlebophlogo sis. (*X<ty; <p\6y- 
(uffts, inflammation.) The same as Phlebitis. 

Phlebo phorus. (<b\i\fr ; (popoi, carry- 
ing. G. venentragend.) Mot. Bearing veins. 

Phlebophthalmo tomy. See Oph- 

Phleboplerosis ecphractica. 

(*Xe<// ; TrXtiptoo-is, making full. 'EtccjypaKTiKo-:, 
-v, -ov, fit for clearing obstructions.) A term 
for Inflammation. 

Phlebopneumo'nia. (*Xt<// ; pneu- 
monia. F. phlebopneumonie ; G. die venose 
Pneumonic) Venous or hypostatic pneumonia. 

Phleborrha'gia. (tfXity ; pfiyvvfxi, to 
burst forth.) A sudden hemorrhage from rup- 
ture of a vein. 


Phleborrhag'ic. Belonging to Phlebor- 

Phlebor rhec'tic. Belonging to Phlebor- 

Phleborrhe xis. pv£is, a 

breaking. G. Aderriss.) Rupture of a vein ; 
also, venous hsemorrhage. 

Phlebosceno »'raphy. (#\t>; 
ctkijuv, the scenes of a stage ; yp&cpm, to write. 
G. Venenbeschreibwig .) An illustrated descrip- 
tion of the veins. 

Phlebosclero sis. (<t<\t\j/; <tk\>ip6w, 
to harden, stiffen.) Thickening of a vein-wall, 
a process often followed by calcification, com- 
monly accompanying arterio-sclerosis. 

Phlebostemma. (<b\ty;, a 
chaplet.) A venous circle. See Thelophlebo- 

Phlebosteno sis. (<P\i\f/ ; crrivwan, a 
being straitened.) A narrowing or constriction 
of the veins. 

Phlebostreps'is. (<b\i\j/ ; 
turning, twisting.) A tortuous condition of the 

Phlebosynize sis. (<i>\l\j/; <ri/iu£tjo-is, a 
falling in of the ground.) Collapse of the veins. 

Phlebothrombo'sis. (*\t^; throm- 
bosis.) Venous thrombosis. 

P. puerpera'lls. A name for Phlegmasia 

Phlebotoma'nia. See Phlebotomo- 

Phleb'otome. (*Aty ; to/iv, a cutting.) 
Old name for an instrument used for incising a 
vein ; a lancet. 

Phlebotomia. Phlebotomy. 
P. spoliati'va. (L. spoliatio, a robbing, 
spoiling.) Spoliative phlebotomy ; blood-letting 
for the purpose of diminishing the whole mass 
of the blood in circulation. 

Phlebotom'ic. Belonging to, or of the 
nature of. Phlebotomy. 

Phlebotom ical. The same as Phleb- 

Phlebo'tomist. One who practises or 
advocates Phlebotomy. 

Phlebotomoma'nia. (Phlebotomy; 
mania. G. Aderlassxouth.) A mania for Phleb- 

Phlebo tomy. (See Phlebotome.) Blood- 
letting from a vein. See Blood-letting. 

It is usually the median basilic vein of the arm 
which is opened. A bandage is tied round the 
arm, above the vein, and the patient is directed 
to clasp some object in his hand, so as to com- 
press the blood out of the deep into the super- 
ficial veins. A longitudinal incision rather less 
than half an inch long is then made in the vein 
with a lancet, care being taken not to wound the 
opposite wall of the vein. A graduated com- 
press is bandaged over it when enough blood 
has flowed. The amount necessary is judged by 
the effect ; in an adult it is usually from six to 
ten ounces. 

Pblebs. (*\t»j>, 4>\t/3o's, a vein.) See 

Phlebypecta sia. (*Xti// ; hypec- 
tasia.) Slight morbid dilatation of a vein. 

Phlebyperecta'sia. The same as 

Phledoni'a. (*b\ioovda, idle talk. F. 
delire ; G. Wahnsinn/) Term for Delirium. 

Phledono'des. (fiKiimp, an idle talker; 
tlSoi, resemblance.) The same as Phledonous. 

Phled'onous. (Phledonia.) Talkative; 

Phleghy men. See Phlegmymen. 

Phleg m. (4>\t'y/xa, having two meanings, 
inflammation or heat, and also one of the four 
Humours, a cold slimy humour, supposed to be 
the cause of many diseases; from ehXtyw, to 
burn. F. phlegme ; G. Phlegma.) The thick, 
viscid mucus of the nose, bronchial tubes, and 
also, according to Charlton (Ex. Physiol., vii, 
6 8), of the stomach and intestines. Also used 
for dullness or apathy. Formerly used also for 
inflammation or heat. In Chemistry, a name for 
water that is formed by distillation. 

Phleg ma. (<S>\typ. a , see Phlegm.) Phlegm. 
Used among the Ancients to mean one of the four 
" humours " of the body, the other three being 
blood, choler, and gall. 

P. nar'ium cras'sum. (L. crassus, 
thick.) Nasal mucus. See under Phlegm. 

P. sal'sum. (L. salsus, briny.) A name 
applied in the middle ages to a general disease, 
especially attacking the skin, closely allied to 
Leprosy (Littre). 

P. vitriol. Term for a very dilute aqueous 
solution of sulphuric acid. 

Phlegmago'gic. Of the nature of a 

Phleg m agOgue. (Phlegma; aywyos, 
drawing forth.) That which removes, or assists 
in the expulsion of, phlegm. A term formerly 
applied to medicines that had such an action. 

Phlegma'pyra. See Phlegmatopyra. 

Phlegmasia. (fyXtypaerLa = (pkeypovv, 

inflammation beneath the skin, a swelling. F. 
phlegmasie ; I. flemmasia; G. Entzundung.) 
Term for inflammation accompanied by fever; 

P. adeno'sa. Qk5t]v, a gland.) Term for 

P. al'ba dolens. A plastic phlebitis 
occurring in the veins of the lower limb, appa- 
rently accompanied by lymphatic obstruction, 
spreading from some of the uterine veins, which 
occurs in women during the puerperal state, and 
is probably the result of a general blood-dyscrasia 
dependent on that state. It usually begins with 
severe pain in the limb, which is followed, within 
twenty-four hours or so, by swelling. There 
is general constitutional disturbance (possibly 
beginning with a rigor) with a raised tempera- 
ture. The swelling usually begins in the groin 
and spreads downwards ; the limb is hard, tense, 
brawny, not pitting on pressure, and of a shiny 
white appearance. Thrombi can often be felt in 
the femoral and popliteal veins, there may be 
some redness along their course, and they are 
very tender. The left leg is the one more often 
affected. The disease rarely begins before the 
second week after labour ; the acute stage lasts 
from a week to a fortnight. Absorption takes six 
weeks, or longer. Suppuration rarely occurs. 
Pulmonary embolism may take place, causing 
sudden death. 

P. cellular'ls. Cellulitis. 

P. dol ens. The same &s P. alba dolens. 

P. Rlandulo sa. The same as P. adenosa. 

P.myo'ica. Term for Myositis. 

P. of the peritone um. Term for Peri- 

Phlegmas'ice. (Nom. plural of Phleg- 
masia.) Inflammations with fever. An Order of 
the Class Pyrexia, of Cullen's nosology. 

P. membrano'sae et parenchyma- 



to'sae. Membranous and parenchymatous in- 
flammations ; a term for internal inflammations. 
See Empresma. 

Phlegmasit ic. {Phlegmasia.) Be- 
longing to Phlegmasia. 

Phlegrmathy men. See Phlegmymen. 

Phlegmasia dolens. See Phleg- 
masia alba dolens. 

P. lao'tea. The same as P. dolens. 

Phlegmat ic. Belonging to, or abound- 
ing in, Phlegma, in its ancient meaning of one of 
the four "humours" of the body. It was 
believed to give rise to a dull, sluggish tempera- 
ment. The same as Lymphatic. 

P. tem'perament. See Phlegmatic. 

Phleg- matoid. (<b\typ.a; tlSos, form. 
G. entzundungsahnlich.) Besembling inflam- 
mation ; resembling mucus. 

Phlegmato pyra. (Phlegma; irvp, 
fever heat. G. Schleimfleber.) The same as 
Fever, mucous. 

Phlegmatorrhagia. (Phlegma; 
pi'iyvvfii, to burst forth.) The same as Catarrh. 

Phlegmatorrhagic. Belonging to 

Phlegmatorrhoe'a. (Phlegma; p(a>,to 
flow. F. phleg matorrhee ; G. Phlegmatorrhde.) 
Term for a milder degree of Phlegmatorrhagia. 

Phlegmatorrhoic. Belonging to 
Phleg 'matorrhcea. 

Phleg matous. (Phlegma. F. phleg- 
mateux ; G. entziindungsartig.) Inflamed, or 
much inflamed. 

Phlegmon. ($\£yp.ovv, inflammation 
beneath the skin, a swelling, I.flemmone; G. 
Phlegmone.) An acute localised inflammation, 
in which redness and swelling are well marked. 

P., paramet ric. An acute Parametritis 
in which the swelling is very well defined. 
P., perinephrit'ic. See Perinephritis. 
P., periu terine. An acute Perimetritis 
in which the swelling is very well defined. 

Phlegmonaposte'ma. ($\typ.ovn, 
inflammation beneath the skin, a swelling ; 
apostema. G. Blutabscess.) A simple inflam- 
matory abscess; an abscess containing blood 
mixed with the pus. 

Phleg mone. See Phlegmon. 
P. col li profun da. The same as Angina 

P. mam mae. See Mastodynia apostema- 

P. mastodynia. The same as P. mammae. 

P. musculo'rum. A term for Myositis. 

P. parotlde'a. Parotitis. 

P. paru'lls. See Parulis. 

P. pel'vlca. Parametritis. 

P. peritonei. Peritonitis. 

P. ventrlc'uli. A term for Gastritis. 
Phleg'monoid. (Gr. eL5os, form.) Be- 
sembling Phlegmon. 

P. erysip'elas. Phlegmonous erysipelas. 
Phleg monosphee'ria. (*\ey/uoi»; ; 
(Hpaipiov, a molecule. F '. phleg monospherie ; G. 
Entzundungskiigelchen.) Term for a globular 
inflammatory swelling. 

Phleg monous. (<b\typ.ovu>fa\<:, like an 
inflammation or swelling. F. phleg monode ; G. 
entziindlich.) Belonging to, or characterised by, 
the presence of Phlegmon. 

P. ab scess. See Abscess, phlegmonous. 

P. erysip'elas. See Erysipelas, phleg- 

P. gastritis. See Gastritis, phlegmonous . 

P. inflammation. See Inflammation, 

P. rhinitis. See Rhinitis, phlegmonous. 
P. sore throat. See under Sore throat. 
Phlegmo'pyra. See Phlegmatopyra. 
to burst forth.) See Phlegmatorrhagia. 
Phlegmorrhoe'a. See Phleg matorrhcea. 
Phlegmymen. (Phlegma;, a 
membrane.) Term for Mucous membrane. 

Phleg-mymen'ic. Belonging to Phleg- 

Phlegmymenitic. Belonging to 


Phleg;mymenl tis. (Phlegmymen. F. 
phlegmymenite ; G. Schleimhautentziindung .) 
Inflammation of a mucous membrane. 
P. enter'ica. Term for Enteritis. 

Phleme. The same as Fleam. 

Phle os. (4>Xta>s.) According to Sprengel, 
name for the Arundo ampelodesmon. 

Also said to be the same as Pimpinella spinosa. 

Phleps. (<&\i\}r, <£\e/3os, a vein.) Avein. 

Phlo baphenes. (*A.oos, rarer form of 
d>\otos, bark ; Bacbri, a dye, probably the saffron- 
aye. F. phlooaphenes ; I. floobafeni ; G. die 
Phlobaphene.) Certain not yet thoroughly- 
understood brown or red colouring matters, 
developed in dying or dead plant-tissues by the 
oxidation of the different varieties of tannic acid. 
They are readily soluble in alkalies, and slightly 
in alcohol ; but insoluble in water. Cinchona- 
red, Quercitrin, &c., belong to this group. 

Phlo em. (*\<nos, bark.) Pot. The bast 
in a vascular bundle. 

P. Interfascicular. Parenchymatous 
tissue formed between the sieve-tubes of the 
phloem, and consisting of long cells which con- 
tain various fluids. 

P. sheath. The sheath of Phloem occa- 
sionally found surrounding the xylem in a vas- 
cular bundle. 

Phloeorrhizi na. ($\oto'9, bark ; p/£a, 
a root. F. phleorrhizine.) The same as Phlo- 

Phloeosteosclero'sis. (*\oi 0 's; os- 
teosclerosis.) The same as Lemmosteosclerosis. 

Phloe'um. (4>\<hos, bark.) Pot. The same 
as Epiphlceum. 

Phlog-ee'mia. (*Xo£, a flame; aip.a, 
blood.) See Hcemitis. 

Phlogecphlog-'ia. (*\o£, a flame ; 
tKcpXiyto, to set on fire, to inflame.) Term for 
the variety of small-pox, Variola, called inflam- 

Phlogerysip elas. (*Xo'£; erysipe- 
las. F. phlogerysipele.) See Erysipelas inflam- 

Phlogrerythro'pyra. (*Xo'£; eryth- 
roppra.) The so-called inflammatory variety 
of Scarlatina. 

Phlog"'ia. (®\oyia, poet, for <£Xd£, a 
flame.) A term for Inflammation. 

Phlog'ic. Belonging to Phlogia. 

Phlog* inos. ("fcXoSj, a flame.) Burning. 
Formerly applied as an epithet to a certain col- 
lyrium described by Galen and Aetius. 

Phlogistereth isis. (4>Xoy«n-os, 
burnt, set on fire ; ipEQi^io, to rouse or kindle.) 
Term applied (Phlogisterethises, nom. pi.) by C. 
H. Schultz to inflammations affecting the mus- 
cular or nervous systems. 

Phlogis tian. (Phlogiston.) One who 
believes in the existence of Phlogiston. 



Phlogistic. {Phlogiston. F. phlogis- 
tique ; G. phlog istischr) Belonging to the sup- 
posed principle Phlogiston ; also, Inflammatory . 

P. the ory. The theory of the existence 
of Phlogiston (q. v.). 

Phlogis ticated air. A term for Ni- 

P. al kali. Term for a fixed alkali ; so 
named from former theories built up on the fact 
of its having been found combined with hydro- 
cyanic acid, when ignited with animal substances 
and afterwards lixiviated ; also termed, from 
the above fact, Prussian alkali. 
P. gas. A term for Nitrogen. 

Phlog is tici. (Norn. pi. From Phlo- 
giston.) The same as Empresma. 

Phlogistocaus'us. See Phlogmo- 

Phlogistolog ia. ('DXcyKXTo's, set on 
fire; Xdyos, a discourse.) A treatise or history 
of combustible bodies ; it was the title of a work 
published by J. Lippert. 

Phlog is ton. (QXoyicrTos, burnt, set on 
fire. G. Brennstoff.) Old term for the supposed 
inflammable principle, which was thought to be 
pure fire, or the principle of fire resident in 
combustible bodies, as distinct from fire in action, 
or combustion. 

Phlogrnocaus us. (<b\oy\i6i, burning 
heat ; causes.) Term for acute inflammatory 

Phlog mus. (3>\oy/uos, burning heat, 
inflammation, Hipp. F. ardeur ; G. Hitze.) 
Term for burning heat. 

Phlogochro ma. (*Xd£, a flame; 
ypto/ia, the colour of the skin.) The colour 
characteristic of inflammation. 

Phlogochromat'ic. Belonging to 

Phlogodes. (4>\oyiiS)js, contr. for 
4>\oyotL6tit [Hipp.] heated, inflamed. F. 
phlogode.) Resembling inflammation ; used by 
Hippocrates (Goac. vii, p. 264) for an intensely 
red colour of the face. 

Phlog ogene. (3>Xd£ ; obsol. pres. yivw 
= yiwaia, to beget.) Flame producer ; a name 
for Hydrogen. 

Phlogogenet'ics. (*Xd£ ; ysi/tTtjs, a 
begetter.) Substances that give rise to inflam- 
mation, i.e. Irritants (q. v.). 

Phlogogen'ic. The same as Phlogo- 

Phlogo'genous. (Phlogogene.) Giving 
rise to inflammation. 

Phlogogonorrhoe a. (*Xd£, a flame ; 
gonorrhoea.) Term for very acute gonorrhoea. 

Phlog oid. (4>Xd£; tlfios, form. G. 
flammdhnlich.) Having an inflamed appear- 

Phlogoporphyroty'phus. (tfXd£; 
porphyrotyphus.) Term for inflammatory Por- 

Phlogopyra. (*Xd£; irup, fever-heat. 
G. Entziindungsfleber.) Inflammatory fever. 

Phlogosed'. Acted upon by Phlogosis ; 

Phlog-osiaBtlolog-'ia. See Phlogosi- 

Phlogo'sic. {Phlogosis.) Epithet applied 
by Brongniart to an Order of pyrogenous earths, 
comprehending the pseudo-volcanic, that is, 
those formed by inflammation without ejection 
or swelling. 

Phlogosietio'logy. (*Xdy<«<ris, in- 

flammation; al-riokoyia, a giving the cause. G. 
Phlogosidtiologie.) The doctrine of the causes of 

Phlogo Sin. (Phlogosis.) A product of 
cultures of the Staphylococcus aureus prepared 
by Leber, who found that it produced acute local 
inflammation going on to suppuration. 

Phlog-osio graphy . (Phlogosis ; 

ypdfpu, to write.) A description of inflamma- 

Phlogosionto logy. (Phlogosis; on- 
tology.) The doctrine of the nature of inflam- 

Phlog-osiophysio'log-y . (Phlogosis ; 
physiology.) The doctrine of the nature and 
predisposing causes of inflammation. 

Phlogo sis. (*Xoy<oo-i9, inflammation. 
F. phlogose.) Inflammation. The first Genus 
of the Order Phlegmasia, in Cullen's nosology. 

Phlogot'ic. Belonging to Phlogosis; in- 

Phlogot'ica. (Phlogotic.) The second 
Order of Class HI, Hcematica, of Good's noso- 

Phlogozelotism. (Phlogosis; SijXos, 
any vehement passion.) Excessive zeal or ardent 
passion, especially of a morbid kind. 

Phlogurethri'tis. (#Xd£; urethritis.) 
The same as Phlogogonorrhcea. 

Phloi oplasty. ($\<uo9, the bark of 
trees ; irXdcrcraj, to form.) See Phlobplasty. 

Phloiorrhizi'num. Phlorizin. 

Phloi OS. (4>Xoids, the bark of trees.) The 
same as Cortex. 

Phlomus. (*Xo'ynos, or <f>Xayios; L. 
verbascum, the Mullein, of which the ancients 
knew several kinds.) See Verbascum thapsus. 

Phlo obaphenes. See Phlobaphenes. 

Phlo'oplasty. (#Xdos; irXdo-o-uj, to 
form.) Term for the scraping away of the old 
or diseased bark of a woody plant, in order to 
effect a growth of healthy new bark (Littre). 

Phlo OS. ($Xdos = <p\oi6i.) The same 
as Phloios. 

Phlor etate. A salt of Phloretic acid. 
Phloret ic ac'id. (C 9 H 8 0)". I Q TMg 

H 2 }' 

acid is formed, together with phloroglucin, when 
phloretin is boiled with potash-ley. It crys- 
tallises in long prisms, of an acid, astringent 
taste, soluble in alcohol, and, to a less extent, in 

Phlor etin. C 3 oHi 4 Oio. A white, crys- 
talline substance, of a sweet taste, very soluble 
in alcohol and in strong acids, obtained by heat- 
ing together phlorizin and dilute sulphuric acid 
to 90° 0. Given internally, it causes temporary 
diabetes. It is not a glucoside, and therefore 
does not form sugar by decomposition. Part of 
the sugar, at least, seems to come from decom- 
position of the glycogen stored up in the liver ; 
but phloretin also causes glycosuria in starving 

Phlorid'zin. See Phlorizin. 

Phlorizein. A red-coloured, bitter, 
resinous substance, soluble in boiling water, 
obtained by the action of ammonia on phlorizin 
in the air. 

Phlorizin. (*Xdos, cortex; a 
root.) C 4 2H3 4 O 10 . A crystallisable, bitter gluco- 
side, existing in the root of the apple, pear, 
plum, and cherry tree. Nitric acid transforms 
it into oxalic acid. When boiled with dilute 
sulphuric acid, it splits up into phloretin and 



glucose. "When given internally to animals, it 
has been found to cause glycosuria, even after 
extirpation of the liver, and to give rise to 
diabetes in animals that have a diet free from 
carbohydrates. The sugar thus formed must 
necessarily come from proteids (von Mering). 
Phlorizin has been given internally, in doses of 
10 to 20 grains, either in pills or powder, as a 
substitute for quinine in intermittent fever. 

Phloroglu'cin. C 6 H,,03. Symmetrical 
trioxybenzol (Benedikt). This substance is 
found widely distributed in nature, mainly in 
combination as the complex body phloroglucide, 
but partly also in the free state. Phloroglucin 
can be obtained from phloroglucide by heating 
it with caustic potash. Perfectly pure phloro- 
glucin is colourless ; it is intensely sweet, and is 
soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. In solution 
together with vanillin (see P.-vanillin), it gives 
a deep red colour with hydrochloric acid, and is 
used as a test for the free acid in the contents of 
the stomach. As a 1 per cent, alcoholic or 
aqueous solution, phloroglucin is used as a test 
for the presence of lignin in vegetable cellular 
tissues ; it changes the tissues containing lignin 
to a cherry-red colour. 

P.-vanil'lin. Giinzburg recommends an 
alcoholic solution of this body (2 grammes of 
Phloroglucin, and 1 gramme of vanillin in 30 
grammes of absolute alcohol, forming a reddish- 
yellow liquid) as a test for free hydrochloric acid. 
Mineral acids, even when dilute, give with this 
solution a bright-red colour with a deposition of 
red crystals. 

Phlo rol. Another name for Hydro- 

Phlorrhi'zin. See Phlorizin. 

Phlous. (*\oDs, contrd. form of <£\o'os.) 
The same as Phloos. 

Phlox. (*Xo£, a flame.) A Genus of the 
Polemoniacece. Also, the Verbascum thapsus. 

P. Caroli na, or carolinia'na. An 
American herbaceous plant, Order Polemoniacece. 
The root is said to be used in commerce as Spi- 
geliee radix, and to be similar in its therapeutic 
action to that root. 

Phlox' ol. The name given by Trimble to 
a special variety of camphor that he found in the 
root of Phlox Carolina. 

Phlyctae'na. ($\vKTaiva [<p\vw, to 
bubble up], a rising on the skin, either a blister, 
pustule, or pimple.) An inflammatory vesicle ; 
according to Good, a syn. for Impetigo her- 

P. pal lida. See under Infectious lymph- 

Phlyctsenid'ion. (Dim. of Phlyctenis.) 
A minute vesicle, pustule or papule. 

Phlycteenis. The same as Phlyctcena. 

Plilyctseno'des. See Phlyctenous. 

Phlyctaeno'i'des. {Phlyctcena; eTSos, 
form.) Resembling a Phlyctcena. 

PhlyctEenophthal'mia. {Phlyc- 
tcena; ophthalmia?) Phlyctenular ophthalmia. 
See Conjunctivitis phlyctcenulosa. 

Phlyctajno ses. (Nom. pi. of Phlyc- 
teenosis!) A Class of skin diseases of Hebra, 
under which he described pemphigus acutus, 
herpes and miliaria. 

Phlyctaeno'sis. {<t>\vKTaivw<ris, an 
eruption of pimples or pustules, Hipp.) The 
formation of phlyctance ; also, one of the Phlyc- 

P. aggrega'ta. An eruption of minute 

vesicles on a bright-red base, appearing in suc- 
cessive crops on different parts of the surface 
and accompanied by much itching (Billings). 

P. labialls. A synonym of Herpes 

P. spar sa. A synonym of Herpes. 

Phlyctsen'ula. (Dim. of Phlyctcena.) 
See Phlyctenula. 

Phly cte'na. See Phlyctcena. 

Phlycte'nic. Belonging to Phlyctena. 

Phlycte'noid. See Phlyctcenoides. 
Epithet for one of the varieties of Herpes. 

Phlycte nous. Having Phlyclence. 

Phlycten ula. A small inflammatory 
vesicle occurring on the conjunctiva in phlyc- 
tenular conjunctivitis. See Conjunctivitis phlyc- 

Phlyctenular. Having, or charac- 
terised by, the presence of one or more phlyc- 

P. conjunctivitis. See Conjunctivitis 

P. corneitis. See Keratitis, phlyctenu- 

P. kerati tis. See Keratitis, phlyctenu- 

P. ophthalmia. See Conjunctivitis 

Phlyc'tides. Nom. pi. of Phlyctis. 

Phlyctid'ium. (Dim. of Phlyctis.) A 
circumscribed spot of inflammation of the dermis 
proceeding to suppuration in the centre; e.g. 
the pustule of variola. 

Phlyc tis. (4>Xu/ct£s, -itios = (pXvKTaiva, 
a phlyctsena.) One of the four varieties into 
which "Willan divided Pustules ; he described it 
as a small pustule seated on a circular, slightly 
inflamed base, and containing either transparent, 
or curdy whitish, or pearl-coloured lymph. 

Phly jyeth'lon. See Phygethlon. 

Phlys'is. (*\uo-ts, a breaking out, erup- 
tion.) Old term for a cutaneous eruption. Also 
used for Phlyctcena. Also, the seventh Genus of 
the Order Phlogotica in Good's nosology ; it con- 
tained the varieties of Paronychia. 
P. ecthy ma. See Ecthyma. 
P. impeti'go. See Impetigo. 
P. porri'go. See Porrigo. 
P. sca'bies. See Scabies. 

Phlyza'cia. (See Phlyzacion.) A name 
for Ecthyma. 

Phly za'cion. {$\vX,aKiov, dim. of (p\6 K - 
Taiva, a phlyctaena.) Term for a small pustule 
on a raised, circular, inflamed base, and termi- 
nating in the formation of a dark-coloured 
scab ; also, term used for Phlyctcena. It was 
Willan's term for the largest of his four varie- 
ties of Pustules. 

Phlyza'cious. Of the nature of, or 
belonging to, Phlyzacion. 

Phlyza'cium. See Phlyzacion. 

Phobi'ferous. (#o/3>i, a lock of hair, 
the mane of a horse ; li.fero, to bear.) Bearing a 
mane like that of the horse ; applied to the 
(Estrus phobifer, the dorsal surface of whose 
thorax is beset with hairs. 

Phobodips'ia. (#o/3o'<5i\//os, hydro- 
phobic, like one bitten by a mad dog.) A badly 
constructed term intended to mean, not fear of 
thirst, but the fear of allaying thirst atteuding 
certain diseases of the throat and stomach. It 
has been used also to mean Hydrophobia. 

Phobodipson. (*o/3o<5n//o9.) Term 
used, like Phobodipsia, for Hydrophobia. 



Phoca. (*iiki|.) The common seal; 
Class Carnivora. Formerly used as food, and 
also in medicine, according to Aldrovandus, de 
Cetis, i, 10. 

Phoca'ceee. Peron's name for the Pho- 

Phocoo'na. ($wicawa } a porpoise.) A 
Genus of the Cetacea containing the porpoises, 
as distinguished from the dolphins. 

P. commu'nls. The porpoise. Formerly 
used as food and in medicine, as described by 
Aldrovandus, de Cetis, i. Also called Porcus 

Phocean'ic ac id. See Phocenic acid. 

Phoce nate. A salt of Phocenic acid. 

Phoce nic ac'id. A synonym of Del- 
phinic acid. 

Phoce nil. Phocenin. 

Phocenin. (Phocccna. I. focenina.) 
The same as Delphinin. 

Phoci dae. {Phoca.) The Seal Family ; 
Order Ferce, Suborder Pinnipedia. 

Fhoci'ni. Vicq d'Azyr's name for the 

Phocomelia. {Phocomelus.) The 
special kind of deformity present in the Pho- 

Phocomelus. ($o>k)|, a seal ; /uf\os, a 
limb.) A monster with limbs bo much aborted 
that the hands and feet appear to spring from 
the trunk. 

Phoenic eum emplas trum. See 

Emplastrum phceniceum. 

Phoenic eus. (<boivi£.) Originally, 
Phoenician ; hence, purple, the Phoenician dye. 

P. mor bus. A name for Leprosy. See 
Morbus phwniceus. 

Phcsnicin. (*oim'/c£os, purple-red.) See 
Phenicin. Also used for Hcematin (Dungli- 

Phoenici num emplas'trum. The 

same aB Phceniceum emplastrum. 

Phcenicis'mus. (<I>ou/i£, purple-red.) 
Plouquet's name for measles, Rubeola. 

Phoenicis'tic. Belonging to Phcenicis- 

Phcenicisulphu'ric ac'id. The 

same as Indigo-monosulphonic acid. 

Phoenicites lap is. (3>£uVi£, the 
palm tree ; from a supposed resemblance of this 
stone to the fruit of the palm. L. lapis, a stone.) 
The Lapis judaicus. 

Phoenic ium emplas trum. The 
same as Phceniceum emplastrum. 

Phoenic ius. See Phceniceus. 
P. mor bus. See Phmiiceus morbus. 

Phcenig mus. (4>on/iy/uo's, a making 
red, irritating the skin by blisters and the like.) 
Old term for a red skin-eruption without fever 
(Hooper) ; also, for rubef action ; also, for the 
agents (phoenigmi, producing this, *. e. 

Phoe nix, (*<ni>j£, originally, Phoenician ; 
also, the palm tree ; also, the fabulous Egyp- 
tian bird.) A Linn. Genus of plants, Class 
Licecia, Order Triandria. 

Also, the date-palm tree. 

Also, the fabulous Egyptian bird. 

P. dactyli'fera. (L. daclylus [ouktvKot:], 
a date ; fero, to bear.) The date-palm ; a di- 
oecious tree, Order Palmee. Of the three berries 
produced by the female flower, two are generally 
arrested. These berries have a vinous, sweet 
taste, and are used as food by the Arabs and 

Negroes of the Date Country, which extends 
from Tunis to Morocco. 

P. excel sa. The same as P. dactylifera. 

Phoenix is. (*oti/t£is, a making red.) The 
same as Phcenigmus. 

Phoeno'des. (*oii>a>5>)« [<poiv6s; tlSos], 
of blood-red aspect.) Of a blood-red colour. 

Phoenodi na. (Phcenodes.) Term used 
by Hunefeld for the cruor sanguinis or blood- 
clot ; also, by others, for hcematin. 

Phoeno'men. See Phenomenon. 

Pho ides. (Norn. pi. *o>io£s, nom. s. cpwU 
not used, blisters or weals on the skin. ) Old term 
used by Hippocrates, Coac. Prcenot. 318, in the 
same sense as Phausinges. 

Pholidote. (QoXiSunSv, clad with 
scales.) Scaly. 

Phol'is. (*o\ts, -tios, a scale; strictly 
that of a reptile as opposed to Atirts, the scale of 
a fish ; but the two are often interchanged). Old 
term for a squama, or scale. 

Phonasce'tics. (4>o)i/ao-K»iT»;s= 
vacrKoi, a practising singing.) Systematic prac- 
tising, either to strengthen or to bring back the 

Phonas'cia. ($wva<nda, practice in 
singing. G. Stimmbildung.) The art of prac- 
tising singing. 

Phonas'CUS. ($u>i/gio-kos.) A singing- 

Pho nate. To utter sounds by means of 
the vibration of the vocal cords. 

Phonation. {$>u>vri, the voice.) The 
combination of phenomena in the production of 
the voice in man and animals (Chaussier). 
P., cen'tre for. See Speech, centre for. 

Pho'natory. Belonging to Phonation. 

Phonaut ogram. A diagram produced 
by means of the Phonautograph. 

Phonaut'ograpn. (<bu>vi'i\ autograph.) 
An instrument invented by Scott for producing 
a diagrammatic representation of articulate 
sounds. A trumpet, resembling an ear-trumpet, 
collects the sound-vibrations and conveys them 
to a stretched caoutchouc membrane, carrying a 
recording stylet in contact with a revolving 

Phone. (*uji/t;, a sound, the voice.) 
Sound ; also, the voice. 

Phone'sis. (*a>i/ijcris, a speaking, calling.) 

Phonet'ic. {$>wvi)tik6<s, belonging to 
sounding, or speaking.) Belonging, or according, 
to sound or the voice. 

P. para lysis. See Paralysis, phonetic. 

Phonet ics. The study, in languages, of 
articulate sounds. 

Pho nic. (<I>«)i<ii. a sound.) The same as 
Phonetic. Also applied to the place where the 
sound is produced ; the position of the person 
speaking or the body emitting sound is termed 
the phonic centre. 

P. cen'tre. See Phonic. 
P. spasm. A spasm of the larynx occur- 
ring on attempting to speak. It occurs usually 
in neurotic people, or in those who are in the 
habit of over-exerting their voices; and also 
occasionally as a reflex neurosis in nasal disease. 
It is probably an analogous condition to that 
which Prosser James speaks of as stammering of 
the vocal cords. 

Phonica. (Nom. pi. n. *o>i'tj.) In 
Good's Nosology, the first Order in the Class 
Pneumatica; it comprehends all diseases of the 


throat or larynx in which the voice is affected. 

Pho nics. Acoustics. Also, the same as 

Phonocamps'is. (^ww'u., to produce 
sound; Kdp.i/nr, a bending.) Reflection of 
sound ; an echo. 

Phonocamp'tic. Belonging to Phono- 

P. cen tre. The situation of the ear that 
is receiving reflected sounds. 

Phonocamp tics. (Phonocampsis.) 
That branch of Acoustics which treats of the 
reflection of sound. 

Phonochor dse. ($u>i/eu>, to produce 
sound ; x°/°°''> a string of gut, the string of a 
lyre, &c. ) The vocal cords. 

Phonognomon ics. (tewviw, to sound, 
or speak clearly ; yviDp-ovinos, experienced or 
skilled.) The study of the characters and the 
different modes of production of the voice. 

Pho nograph. (&toutu> ; ypa<pm, to 
write.) A variety of Phonautograph invented 
by Edison for reproducing the sounds of the 
voice. A delicate membrane is stretched over 
one end of a hollow cylinder, and the words are 
spoken in front of this membrane. A style 
fixed to the centre of the membrane stamps the 
movements on a sheet of soft tinfoil, which is 
fitted into a revolving apparatus. To reproduce 
tb,e sound, the style is placed 60 as to impinge 
upon the tinfoil, and the apparatus holding 
the latter is made to revolve ; in this way 
the membrane is made to vibrate, and thus 
to reproduce the sounds. Lichtwitz has sug- 
gested its use in ear disease for establishing a 
standard of measurement of the acuteness of 

Phonography, The art of writing 
according to the sound of the voice in pro- 
nouncing words. Also, a description of sound, 
or of the voice. 

Phonoma nia. (<I>oW, slaughter ; 
mania.) A mania for killing. 

Phono metry. ($u>vtu> ; /utTp>i<ns, a 
measuring, from ixi-rptw, to measure.) Term 
for a method of recognising a cavity beneath the 
surface by noting the intensity of the sound 
emitted by a vibrating tuning-fork resting firmly 
on that surface. 

Phono nosus. ($wve<i>, to produce 
sound, to speak clearly ; i/d<ros, disease.) Dis- 
ease of the organ of voice. 

Phono pathes. The same as Phono- 

Phonopath'ia. {Qioviw ; TrdOos, sick- 
ness.) An affection of the voice consequent upon 

Phonopathic. Belonging to Phono- 

Phono phori. (Nom. pi. <Ptovij, sound ; 
<j>op6s, bearing.) Collective term for the os- 
sicula auditus in the Mammalia. 

Phonor eranon. (*o>i/ta> ; opyavov, an 
instrument. F.phonorgane; G. Sprachmachine.) 
An instrument devised to imitate vocal sounds 
or speech. 

Phono ris. Phonation. 

Phonospasm. (Jbwvlw; citao-^a, a 
convulsion. Q. Stimmkrampf.) Term used by 
B. Semmola, of Naples, for Phonic spasm. 

Phonosynac ter. {>\><,wi<.> ; 
a collector.) An ear- trumpet. 

Phor'a. (#opd.) Gestation. 

Fhoradendron naves cens. 

(*opd, in the sense of that which is borne or 
carried ; Stvdpou, a tree.) A name for the Vis- 
cum Jlavescens. 

Phoran'thium. (*opds, bearing, carry- 
ing; di/Oos, a flower. Y.phoranthe ; G.Blumen- 
boden.) Term originated by L. C. Richard for 
the widening of the peduncle in the Synantherece, 
which bears the flower, and is more generally 
named the receptacle, or clinanthium. 

Phor'be. (*op/3j}, pasture, fodder.) Old 
term for Pabulum. 

Phorbei'a. (QopPaa, a halter.) The 
same as Capistrum. 

Phori' ne. (Jboplvn, the skin or hide of 
swine. Hipp.) Formerly used to mean Corimn 
or leather ; also applied to the hide of swine, 
according to Hippocrates, de Eat. Vict, in 
Acut., iv, 2. 

Phor'mia. See Phormine. 

Phormine. A synonym of Pseudomor- 

Phor mium. A Genus of the Order 

P. ten'ax, Forster. (L. tenax, -acis, that 
holds fast.) This plant furnishes the New Zea- 
land flax. A decoction made from the root and 
the basal part of the leaves is used as a lotion 
for wounds. (Billings.) 

Phoro meter. (*opds, bearing ; p-i-rpov, 
a measure.) An apparatus designed to estimate 
deviations from the normal in the different 
visual axes, such as occur in affections of 
the various muscles that move the eyeball. 

Phoromet'ria. («I>opds, bearing, carry- 
ing; (uet/oe'u), to measure. F. phorometrie). A 
measuring of motion. 

Phoronom'ia. (*opds; v6p\oi, law.) The 
same as Phoronomics. 

Phoronom ics. The same as Phor- 

Phoro'nomy. (*opd«, bearing; vop.oi, 
law. F. phoronomie.) Kinematics. 

Phortseo'ra. ($>do-ros, a burden ; alwpa, 
a hammock. F. phorteore.) A portable ham- 

Phortocremath'ra. (<I>dpTos; xpe- 
fiddpa, a net or basket to hang things up in.) 
The same as Phortmora. 

Phos gene gas. (4>o>s, contr. of cpdos, 
light; yivos, descent, offspring.) More correctly, 
Photogene. Name applied by J. Davy to Car- 
bonyUc chloride gas, because it is formed by the 
action of the sun's rays on a mixture of equal 
parts of chlorine and carbonic oxide. 

Phosphaina. ($d>s, contr. of <pdo«, 
light ; (paivofiaL, to appear.) See Phosphene. 
Phos phas, -atis. A phosphate. 

P. ammo'nlco-so'dicus, Fr. Codex. See 
Microcosmic salt. 

P. ammo'nicus. Ammoniac phosphas. 

P. blcal'clcus, Fr. Codex. See Calcium 
orthophosphale, monohydrogen. 

P. cal'cicus. See Ualcis phosphas. 

P. cal cium stlbla'tum. (L. stibium ; 
antimony.) The Pulvis anlimonialis. 

P. ferro'so-fer'rlcus. Fcrri phosphas. 

P. natricus. (L. natrium, sodium.) 
Sodii phosphas. 

P. so'dlcus, Fr. Codex. Sodii phosphas. 
Phosphate. A salt of Phosphoric 

P. of i ron. See Fcrri phosphas. 



P. of lime. See under Calcium phosphate ; 
also, under Calculus. 

P.s, sac charated wheat. Ex. Ph. The 

organic phosphates and cerealiu dissolved out 
of bran, and mixed with milk-sugar. Given in 
rickets, and generally to aid assimilation. Dose, 
i teaspoonful with food, twice or three times 

P., stel lar. A crystalline phosphate of 
lime (CaHP0 4 + 2H 2 0) very occasionally occur- 
ring in the urine together with the amorphous 
phosphate (Ca 3 P 2 O e ). See also Urine, phos- 
phates in. 

P., triple. See under Calculus. 
Phos phated. Epithet applied in Mine- 
ralogy to a base that has Tbecome converted into 
a phosphate by combining with phosphoric 

Phosphat' ic. Belonging to, or entirely 
composed of, a phosphate or mixture of phos- 

P. ac id. Term for the oily liquid formed 
by slow oxidation of phosphorus in moist atmos- 
pheric air, and supposed by Dulong to be a dis- 
tinct acid. Sir Humphrey Davy showed that it 
was merely a mixture of phosphorous and phos- 
phoric acids. 

P. cal culus. See under Calculus. 

P. deposits. Urinary deposits of phos- 
phatic calculi occur in the Phosphatic dia- 

P. dia'thesis. See under Diathesis. 

Phosphatu'ria. {Phosphas ; ovpiw, to 
make water. F. phosphaturie.) The presence 
of an excess of phosphates in the urine. In 
connection with this condition, mental depres- 
sion, hypochondriasis, and even melancholia have 
been known to occur ; possibly the phosphaturia 
in this relation is an effect, not a cause. 

According to Littre {Dictionnaire de Medecine), 
a condition often accompanying oxaluria, and 
depending on an abnormally large excretion of 
uric acid, in which the lime phosphates become 
decomposed by the uric acid in the urinary 
passages, phosphoric acid being set free, and 
the calcium uniting with uric acid to form 

Phosphene. A subjective sensation of 
light or illuminated pressure-picture caused by 
pressure upon the eyeball. It was known to 
Aristotle. See also PurJcinje's figures. 

Phos'phide. A chemical compound com- 
posed of phosphorus in combination with one 
other element or compound radical. 

Phos phine. PH 3 . Gaseous hydrogen 
phosphide, or gaseous phosphoretted hydrogen. 

Also, a phosphorescent yellow colouring- 
matter, red in alkaline solutions, occurring as 
nitrate of the two homologous Chrysanilincs, 
C 19 H|yN\, and C 20 H, 7 N 3 , formed in the manufac- 
ture of Fuchsin. Given internally in doses of 0 - 5 
gramme, Dujardin-Beaumetz has found it to 
act as an analgesic, but to cause gastric irrita- 

Phos phite. A salt of Phosphorous acid. 

Phosphochal'cite. {Phosphorus ; 
chalcitis.) Term for hydrated phosphate of 

Phosphog"en'ic. See Phosphor ogcnic. 

Phospho lein. (F. phospho/cinc.) The 
flesh and bone of beef, finely powdered and 
mixed, and further prepared by the addition of 
alcohol and sugar. It lias been proposed as a 
restorative food for invalids. (Littre.) 

Phospholeu leous. {Phosphorus, 
L. oleuleus, pertaining to oil. F. phospholiule.) 
Composed of phosphorus and oil; applied by 
Beral to a mixture of phosphorus and an ethereal 
oil used for surgical dressings. 

Phos'phorated. The same as Phos- 

P. cod-liv'er oil. Ex. Ph. Prepared 
by adding 160 minims of 01. phosphoratum, 
B. Ph., to 1 pint of 01. morrhuce. One drachm 
contains 1-100 grain of phosphorus; but it is 
unstable and very unpleasant to take. Dose, 
1 to 4 drachms. 

P. e'tber. See JEther phosphor atus. 
P. oil. See Oleum phosphoratum. 
P. su'et. Phosphorus 10 grains, carbon 
bisulphide 50 minims, prepared suet 90 grains. 
Used as a basis for several pills of phosphorus in 
the Ex. Ph. 

Phosphorelae'us. {Phosphorus; ZXaiov, 
oil.) The same as Phospholeuleous. 

Phosphorenese, Fr. (I. fosforenesi.) 
Term applied by Baumes to the group of diseases, 
gout, rickets, osteomalacia, &c, characterised by 
a want or excess of calcium phosphate, or by its 
decomposition in the tissues. 

Phosphoresce'. To exhibit Phospho- 

Phosphorescence. {Phosphores- 
cent.) The property possessed by certain bodies, 
under various conditions, of shining in the dark 
without giving forth sensible heat; as, for ex- 
ample, sugar when struck forcibly, air or water 
when compressed, and in several cases by chemi- 
cal action, as by slaking quicklime with water, 
and in the decomposition of dead animal matter. 
Certain animals and plants are phosphorescent 
during life. See under Light, emission of. 

Phosphorescence has been stated to have been 
occasionally observed in human beings, under 
two distinct conditions : when moribund at the 
end of some wasting disease, and after eating 
certain kinds of fish. See Phosphoridrosis. 

Phosphores'cent. {Phosphor = phos- 
phorus. G. phosphor eszir end.) Shining in the 
dark ; exhibiting phosphorescence. 

Phos'phoret. Old term for Phosphide. 

Phosphoretted. Occurring in com- 
bination as a Phosphoret. 

Phosphor ic ac'id. H 3 P0 4 . Normal 
or orthophosphoric acid. Formed by burning 
phosphorus in the air, or by its oxidation with 
nitric acid, by oxidation of phosphorous or hypo- 
phosphorous acid, by decomposition of native 
phosphates (e. g. apatite), &c. There are two 
other varieties of phosphoric acid, metaphos- 
phoric acid and pgrophosphoric acid (q. v.). 

As used in Medicine (as the Acid, phosph. 
con. or the Acid, phosph. dil. of the B. Ph.), 
phosphoric acid has the general therapeutic 
action of acids ; it also increases the amount of 
phosphates in the tissues, and possibly helps the 
growth of bones. Its value in disease is probably 
due to its action on the red blood-corpuscles, 
and to the bases (soda, lime, &c.) with which it 
is combined. 

P. ac id, anhy drous. A name for Phos- 
phorus pentoxide. 

P. ac'id, con'centrated. The A 
phosphoricum concentratum of the B. Ph. It 
is a strongly acid, colourless, syrupy liquid. 
Sp. gr. 1-6. Dose, 2 to 5 minims. 

P. ac'id, dilu'ted. See under Acidum. 
P. ac'id, gla'cial. Official, under the 


name of Acidum phosphoricum glaciate, in the 
U.S. Ph. of 1873. The same as P. acid, concen- 
trated, which has the chemical composition of 
Metaphosphoric acid. 

P. e'tber. See Ether, phosphoric. 
Phosphoridro sis. {Phosphorus ; 
i'fipuxrts, a perspiring.) The secretion of sweat 
that is luminous in the dark, which is said to 
have been observed in some cases of phthisis 
and intermittent fever (see under Phosphores- 
cence), and after eating some kinds of fish. 

Phosphoris'mus. A term for chronic 
phosphorus poisoning. 

Phos phorite. A synonym of Apatite. 

Phos phorize. To cause to combine with 

Phosphornecro'sis. (G-. Phosphor- 
nehrose.) Phosphorus necrosis. 

Phosphorog'en'ic. {Phosphorescence ; 
yivtvis, origin, source. F. phosphorogenique.) 
Giving rise to phosphorescence. (Little.) 

Phos'phoroscope. {Phosphorescence ; 
a-Koiriui, to look at.) An apparatus invented by 
L. Becquerel in 1857 for relative estimation of 
the degree of phosphorescence of solids, liquids, 
and gases. For the gases, he used a Geisster's 
tube, in which the gas under examination was 
rarified, and through which an electric current 
was then passed. (Littre.) 

Phosphorous acid. PH 3 0 3 . This 
acid may be prepared by heating phosphorus 
trichloride with crystallised oxalic acid, or by 
passing a current of chlorine gas through melted 
phosphorus covered over by a layer of water. 
Its crystals melt at 74° F. ; the acid is strongly 
deliquescent, and, on heating, splits up into phos- 
phoretted hydrogen and orthophosphoric acid. 

P. acid, Pellet'ier's. A synonym of 
Phosphatic acid. 

Phosphoru'ria. {Phosphorus; ovpov, 
urine.) 1. Photuria. 2. Phosphaturia. 

Phosphorus. (*uj?, contraction of 
(paos, light; (popo?, bearing.) P. = 30-96. 
Vapour density = 61*92. It is uncertain who first 
discovered phosphorus ; but it appears to have 
been first prepared in 1669 by Brand, an alchemist 
of Hamburg, from urine, by evaporating this to 
a syrup, and then heating it in a retort with 
white sand. He is believed to have sold the 
secret of his mode of preparing phosphorus to 
Krafft, from whom Kunkel learnt all that ap- 
peared in his pamphlet on the subject published 
in 1678. Krafft exhibited this element, which 
then commanded a very high price, in 1677, to 
Charles II of England among other European 
rulers. Even as late as 1730, phosphorus fetched 
10 to 16 ducats an ounce. Boyle also prepared 
phosphorus from urine in 1680. Gahn, in 1769, 
discovered the existence of calcium phosphate in 
bone-ash ; Scheele, in 1771, first obtained phos- 
phorus from this source. The name Phos- 
phorus mirabilis or ignetts was at first given to 
true phosphorus (the word phosphorus being then 
used for any phosphorescent substance), to dis- 
tinguish it from Bolognian phosphorus (q. v.). 
It was variously termed, in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, Brand's, Kunkel's, Boyle's, or English 
phosphorus. Lavoisier first showed, in 1772, 
that the phosphoric acid formed by burning 
phosphorus weighed more than the original 
phosphorus, the increase being due to combina- 
tion with one of the constituent gases of the air. 
Before his time, phosphorus was believed to be a 

compound of a special acid {phosphoric acid) 
with the hypothetical body phlogiston. 

Phosphorus is widely distributed as a natural 
product, generally as calcium phosphate. It 
occurs in various minerals, as the main con- 
stituent of coprolites, in animals, plants, sea- 
and river-water, and most spring- water, and in 
all plant-bearing soils. The phosphorus of com- 
merce is now prepared mainly from the calcium 
phosphate obtained from bone-ash ; of that made 
iu England, a considerable proportion is obtained 
from sombrerite, which is an impure form of 
calcium phosphate obtained from the "West 
Indian island of Sombrero. In 1874, 250 tons of 
phosphorus were prepared, of which the greater 
proportion was used for lucifer-matches, some 
for vermin poison, and some for use in chemical 
laboratories. Phosphorus occurs in three allo- 
tropic modifications: 1, common colourless, octo- 
hedral, or yellow phosphorus ; 2, red, or amor- 
phous phosphorus ; and 3, rhombohedral, or 
metallic phosphorus. 

1. Common yellow phosphorus. This is a waxy 
solid, translucent, and colourless or slightly 
yellow. At a low temperature it becomes brittle. 
It melts at 44 — 45° F. to a colourless, oily liquid, 
and it evaporates at temperatures below its 
boiling-point of 290° F. It is soluble in the 
essential oils, in ether and in turpentine, but 
hardly at all in water, and is very inflammable. 
In contact with moist air, it becomes luminous in 
the dark (phosphorescent), giving off garlic- 
smelling fumes ; this phenomenon is due to its 
becoming oxidised into phosphorous acid. It is a 
very poisonous substance, and even the fumes are 
exceedingly deleterious. See P., poisoning by. 

2. Red or amorphous phosphorus. Discovered 
by Schrotter in 1845. It can be prepared from 
ordinary phosphorus by the combined action of 
light and heat (temperature of 240° to 250° F.) in 
an atmosphere devoid of oxygen ; above 260° F. 
it is reconverted into ordinary phosphorus. It 
is a lustrous, red-brown solid, is tasteless and 
inodorous, non-poisonous, and insoluble in any 
of the solvents of ordinary phosphorus. When 
quite free from ordinary phosphorus, this variety 
appeal's to be absolutely inert. 

3. Metallic or rhombohedral phosphorus. Pre- 
pared by heating ordinary phosphorus in sealed 
tubes in contact with metallic lead for ten hours, 
at a temperature just below red heat. The lead 
when cooled is dissolved in nitric acid, leaving a 
lustrous dark mass of crystals, appearing red in 
thin layers, having a sp. gr. of 2-34. At 358°F. 
it is reconverted into ordinary phosphorus. It 
seems to be a better conductor of electricity than 
red phosphorus. 

Phosphorus appears to be as essential to the 
living organism as are carbon and nitrogen. It 
is an important constituent of lecithin and other 
fats, and of nuclein, and is found associated with 
proteids. Its exact physiological uses are not 

The Phosphorus of the B. Ph. (the ordinary 
yellow variety) is made from bone-ash, by treat- 
ing it with sulphuric acid, filtering and evapo- 
rating the product, then heating with charcoal 
and afterwards distilling. Dose, 1-200 to 1-30 
grain. Its two B. Ph. preparations are Ol. phos- 
phoratum and PH. phosphori. It is used also in 
the preparation of Valcii hypophosphis and Sodii 

Action. Both externally and internally, 
phosphorus is a local irritant and caustic (see 


P., poisoning by), and hence it is always, when 
given medicinally, thoroughly mixed with an oil 
or solid fat. Phosphorus is only incompletely 
oxidised in the blooa ; its action upon the tissues 
is to increase metabolism, but to arrest oxidation ; 
hence leading to an increased excretion of urea, 
but a storing up of fat. Small doses given for a 
long period tend to convert spongy into compact 
bone. The Hypophosphites of calcium and 
sodium are said to act internally in the same 
way as phosphorus, except that they are not irri- 
tant. They are apparently converted in the 
stomach into phosphates, and therefore probably 
have a stimulant effect on the stomach and 
intestines, and affect the nutrition of bones, 
lymphatic glands, and adenoid tissue. They are 
widely used iu the treatment of lung diseases 
and nervous affections. 

P., amor phous. See under main head- 

P., Bald win's. Phosphorescent calcium 
nitrate ; prepared as follows : recently fused 
calcium nitrate is broken up while still warm, 
placed in stoppered bottles and exposed for some 
time to the sun's rays; it phosphoresces in the 

P., black. A synonym of Metallic phos~ 
phorus. See under Phosphorus. 

P., Bolognian. Also , called Bolognian 
stone, or Kercher's phosphorus. Discovered 
quite accidentally by a shoemaker of Bologna in 
the seventeenth century. It is prepared from 
calcined sulphate of barium; this is powdered, 
made into a paste with mucilage, and rolled into 
sticks, which are dried and then ignited, and 
finally slowly cooled, and placed in stoppered 
bottles. After exposure to the sun's rays, it 
becomes phosphorescent. 

P., Bono nian. The same as P., Bolognian. 

P., Can ton's. Prepared as follows : a 
mixture of three parts of calcined oyster-shells 
•with one of flowers of sulphur, arranged in 
alternate layers, is heated strongly in a crucible, 
after which it becomes phosphorescent. 

P., detec tion and separa'tion of, in 
food-res idues. A method has been proposed 
by A. vou Bastelaer, depending on the solubility 
of phosphorus in ether, and the fact of its not 
being acted on by strong ammonia. The sus- 
pected substance is mixed with water to form a 
thin paste, and is then shaken up two or three 
times with ether. The ether is allowed to 
evaporate in a shallow dish, and to the residue, 
warm water (at 50° to 60° C.) is then carefully 
added, when the phosphorus and part of the fat 
present collect together in a spherical form at 
the bottom of the vessel. The fat is separated 
from the phosphorus by dissolving it out in a 
strong aqueous solution of ammonia. 

P., detec'tion of, in the stom'ach or 
tis'sues. This may be effected by 1. Smell, 
luminosity, detection of pieces nf phosphorus. 

2. Mitscherlich' s method. This is the only 
reliable method where the previous method gives 
no result. The tissue under examination is 
minced and placed in water iu a flask, or, if a 
fluid, is simply put into the flask ; enough sul- 
phuric acid is added to neutralise the ammonia 
given off during distillation (phosphorus not being 
luminous in the presence of ammonia). The 
mixture is now distilled in a condenser, in abso- 
lute darkness, and if phosphorus be present, the 
tube of the condenser will become luminous. 
The acid distillate becomes luminous on shaking ; 

it can be tested for phosphoric acid. Free phos- 
phorus may not be detected, owing to its oxida- 
tion in the tissues into phosphoric acid. 

P. emul sion, £. Dieterich's. An emul- 
sion is made with 5 grammes of the oil of phos- 
phorus of the G. Ph. (containing - 05 of phos- 
phorus) and 3 of gum acacia in 5 of water, this 
is diluted with 77 of the aqua menthaj piperita;, 
and sweetened with 10 grammes of simple syrup. 

P., Hom'berg-'s. Chloride of calcium 
which has recently been ignited ; this phos- 
phoresces in the dark, like P., Baldwin's, P., 
Bolognian, &c. 

P. oil. See Oleum phosphoratum. 

P. necro'sis. See Jaw , necrosis of, phos- 

P., poi soning by. 1. Acute poisoning. 
A very large number of cases have occurred 
since 1850, in France, Germany, and Austria ; in 
England and the United States they have been 
rare, and usually accidental or suicidal. The 
commonest source has been matches ; the next 
commonest, rat- paste; very rarely pure phos- 
phorus or medicinal solutions. 

Primary symptoms. Eructation of gas, tasting 
of phosphorus, and luminous in the dark, fol- 
lowed by sensations of heat in the throat, oeso- 
phagus, and stomach, with nausea and vomiting ; 
symptoms usually not severe for five or six hours, 
perhaps not for twenty-four hours. Recovery 
may then occur, if the vomiting has been early 
and complete, otherwise symptoms last two or 
three days, the urine may be slightly diminished, 
and the fasces may smell of phosphorus. Death 
may now occur by collapse ; generally, however, 
apparent recovery takes place on the second or 
third day, secondary symptoms appearing on the 
third or fourth day. 

Secondary symptoms. Three varieties. In 
all three the vomit may be luminous in the 
dark ; the urine is diminished and is albuminous, 
it is dark coloured, may contain leucin and 
tyrosin, and contains also a large quantity of 
lactic acid. 

a. Irritant. Jaundice and possibly urticaria, 
progressive enlargement of the liver, return of 
vomiting and abdominal pains, the vomit con- 
taining blood, fseces scanty and pale, pulse first 
very frequent, then slow and feeble. The tem- 
perature is usually little or not at all raised. 

b. Hemorrhagic. Abundant hsemateniesis, 
melsena and bleeding from mouth, nose, and, in 
females, the uterus, subcutaneous and submucous 

c. Nervous. Headache, disturbance of special 
senses, affection of speech, numbness and ting- 
ling, fainting, delirium, coma. In some cases 
where the patient has recovered, there has been 
noted continued debility, with paresis. 

One grain is usually considered a fatal dose for 
an adult. In recorded fatal cases, the time of 
death has varied between half an hour and 
seventeen days. Oil of turpentine is an antidote, 
and is given in doses of one drachm every four 
hours ; sulphate of copper acts both as an emetic 
and an antidote. Vomiting should be at once 
brought about, or the stomach-pump be used. 
When the phosphorus has passed on into the 
intestines a purgative shoula be given ; but fats 
and fixed oils, in all of which phosphorus is 
soluble, must be avoided. 

2. Chronic poisoning. Caused by the constant 
breathing of phosphorus- vapour, and occurring 
in match manufactories. The symptoms are 


necrosis of the jaw (see under Jaw), anorexia, 
dyspepsia, gradual loss of flesh, and often nausea, 
sickness, and diarrhoea, and bronchial irritation 
going on to bronchitis. The disease can be pre- 
vented almost entirely by good ventilation of the 
workshops and exclusion of workmen with carious 
teeth ; and entirely, by exclusive use of the inert 
red phosphorus. 

Phosphovinate. A salt of Phospho- 
vinic acid. 

Phosphovl nic a cid. A synonym of 

Ethylphosphoric acid. 
Phosphuret. Phosphoret. 
Phos phuretted. Phosphoretted. 
Phosphure tum zin'cicum. Fr. 

Codex. The same as the Zinc phosphide of the 
U.S. Ph. 

Fhosphu'ria. See Phosphoruria. 

Phosphypo'stasis. (Phosphas; hypo- 
stasis.) Any deposition of phosphates occurring 
in the living organism. (Dunglison.) 

Photaesthe'sin. (*<is, (puros, light; 
ato-6i)<ris, preception by the senses.) The same 
as Visual purple. (Villaret.) 

Pbotal'g'ia. (*ws, 0tuTo's, light ; aXyos, 
pain. F. photalgie ; G. Photalgie, Lichtschmerz.) 
Pain in the eyeball arising from an excessive 
stimulation of the optic nerve by light. 

Pho tic. (4>(os.) Belonging to light, to 
its production and transmission. 

Pho'tics. (*tos. F. photique; G. 
Photik.) The study of the theory and laws of 
the production and transmission of light. 

Pbotobiot'ic. (*^s; /3t<oTiKo'9 = /3tui- 
atfios, belonging to life.) Pot. Living in the 
light ; an epithet for certain vegetable cells. 

Photocamps'is. (*tos, (puro?, light; 
K&fuxf/is, a bending.) Refraction of light. 

Pho to-chem ical. Belonging to Photo- 

Pho to-chem istry. (3>u>s; chemistry.) 
The study of the chemical actions produced by 
the ultra-violet rays of light. See under Spec- 

P. of the ret ina. See Visual purple. 

Photodermat ic. (<bw<;; Sippa, the 
skin.) Having a phosphorescent skin. 

Photodynam'ic. (<J>«>s ; dynamic.) 
Belonging to the energy of light-rays. 

Photody sphor ia. (*is ; dysphoria.) 
Intolerance of lignt. See Photophobia. 

Fbo'todyspbor'ic. Belonging to Photo- 

Pbo'to-ep'inasty. (*uis; epinasty.) 
Pot. Epinasty consequent upon exposure to 
bright light. 

Pho'tog'en. (<I>to5, ((xotos ; light; yEvta-t.?, 
origin, source.) Hermostadt's term for a chemical 
compound formed by the action of light. 

Also, another name for Kerosene. 

Pho tOg~ene. A prolonged retinal im- 

P. gas. See Phosgene gas. 

Photogen ic. Belonging to Photogeny. 

Also, in Biol., giving rise to light without any 
sensible heat. 

Photogeny . (F. photogenic) Another 
name for Photography. 

Photohaematacho'metcr (Cybul- 
ski's). (<I>6us, Quito's ; light ; hecmatachometer .) 
An instrument for estimating and photographing 
the variations of level of the blood in two mano- 
meter-tubes which are put in connection with 
the cut ends of an artery, and which correspond 

with the variations of blood-pressure due to the 
respiratory and cardiac movements. 

Pbotohy'ponaaty. Pot. Hyponasty 
consequent upon exposure to intense light fol- 
lowing upon an arrest of growth. 

PbOtOli'mOS. l*tos, Quito's; Xt/uo's, 

hunger. G. Lichthunger.) An intense desire 
for light. 

Photolog-'ical. Belonging to Photology. 
Photo'logy. (3>£>s ; Xo'yos, a discourse.) 
The scientific study of light. 

Photomagriet'ic. (*««s; payvriT^, 
for Xit)os p.ayvnrns, the lodestone. F. photo- 
magnetique ; I. fotomagnetico ; G. pholomag- 
netisch.) Epithet applied to the green, blue, 
and violet rays of the solar spectrum, which 
possess the property of magnetising a steel 
needle placed in their course. 

Photomag netism. The Photomag- 
netic action of certain rays of the solar spectrum. 

Photomahia. (#u>s, <pwr6<s, light; 
mania.) The increase of symptoms caused in 
some insane patients by an exposure to light. 

Photometer. (4>tt>s ; p.iTpov, a mea- 
sure. F '. photometre ; I. fotometro ; G. Licht- 
messer.) An apparatus for estimating the in- 
tensity of the light given out by the body under 
observation, as compared with a light of definite 
intensity. See Punsen's photometer and Rum- 
ford' s photometer. 

P., Fbrs'ter's. This consists of a rectan- 
gular box, blackened inside, about one foot long 
and rather less in' height and width. At one 
end and to the side are two apertures with pro- 
jecting tubes for the eyes to look through. 
Alongside, at the end, is the illuminating appa- 
ratus, which consists of a standard candle (kept 
always at a certain height by means of a spring) 
which is opposite a hole in the box covered with 
white paper, the size of the aperture or window 
being regulated by a moveable diaphragm. In- 
side the box, at the opposite end to all this, are 
the objects to be recognised or simply perceived, 
which are usually two small squares of white 

P., von Graefe's. This is used for test- 
ing the acuteness of light-sense in cataract. It 
consists of a box, darkened on the inner surface, 
containing a lighted candle ; this is looked at 
through a window of ground glass, the size of 
which can be regulated. 

Photomet'ric. Belonging to Pho- 

P. u'nit. See under Photometry. 

Photo metry, (4>o:s ; p.tTpiw, to mea- 
sure. I. fotometria ; G. Lichtmessnng .) The 
estimation of the relative intensities of two or 
more sources of light, one of the sources being a 
standard light of known intensity. The in- 
tensity varies inversely as the square of the 
distance of the source of light from the point of 
observation. The London standard, or unit, is a 
sperm candle of six to the pound, burning 120 
grains in an hour. The absolute standard, or 
unit of intensity, which was adopted by the 
International Congress of Electricians, is " that 
given out by a square centimetre of melted 
platinum at the moment of its solidification." 

Photomicrograph. (4>ois; micro- 
graph.) An enlarged photograph of a micro- 
scopic object. 

Photomicro graphy. The process 
of photographing the enlarged image of a minute 
object produced t>y a microscope. 


Photonosus. (*tos; voaot, disease. 
G. Lichtkratikheit.) Light- disease ; applied to 
diseases, Photonosi, arising from exposure to a 
glare of light, as snow-blindness, sun-stroke. 

Photopho bia. (<l>cis; </>o'/3os, fear.) 
Dread or intolerance of light, a symptom in 
various diseases of the eye. 

Photophobic. Belonging to Photo- 

Photophobophthal'mia. (Photo- 
phobia; ophthalmia.) Ophthalmia that is 
characterised by well-marked photophobia. 

Photophone. (*(os; <poav>'i, a sound.) 
An instrument consisting of two mirrors, one of 
which receives the sound-vibrations of the 
person speaking, and, at the same time, a beam 
of light. The varying light is reflected on to a 
second (concave) mirror, and is focussed on a 
cell of selenium. Variations in the electrical 
resistance of the selenium are thus produced, 
and these reproduce the spoken words by means 
of a connected telephone. 

Pho'tophore. (3>(os; (popos, carrying.) 
The name for an electric light for use in laryn- 
goscopy, adapted to a forehead-band, so as to be 
reflected by the laryngoscopic mirror into the 
mouth and throat under examination. 

Phot ophosphores cent. 
phosphorescent.) Becoming phosphorescent from 
the action of light. 

Photo phyga. (Norn. pi. n. Ms; 
<pvyd$, a runaway.) Dumeril's name for a 
Family of the Coleoptera characterised by the 
habit of seeking their food at night. 

Photophys ical. (*<os ; physical). 
Belonging to the physical effects of light. 

Photops ia. (4>(os ; ox//is, an appearance, 
vision.) A subjective sensation of light. See 
also Phantoms, ocular. 

Photopto'meter. (*t«s; ottte'os, to 
be seen ; /wh-poi/, a measure.) An instrument 
designed for the estimation of relative acuteness 
of vision for homogeneous light. (Billings.) 

Photorexis, (Ws; o/>e£is, a longing 
after. G. Lichtbegierde.) Desire for light. 
See also Photolimos. 

Photorrhe'xis. (*5s ; pjj£is, a break- 
ing.) The same as Photocampsis. 

Photosantonic ac id. A crystal- 
lisable acid, obtained by exposing a solution of 
santonin in acetic acid to the action of sun- 

Photosan'tonin. (*cos; santonin.) 
A crystalline substance obtained by prolonged 
exposure of an alcoholic solution of santonin to 
the action of sunlight. It is soluble in alcohol 
and ether. 

Pho'tOSCOpe. ('tais; arKOTriu), to look 
at.) A small opaque tube, used for inspecting 
the nasal cavity, to compare the relative trans- 
lucency of the wall of the antrum of Highmore 
on the two sides, as an aid in diagnosis of dis- 
ease of either antrum. (McBride.) 

Pho'to-Shoo'tur. (Indian. Literally, 
"small-pox of camel.") Native Indian term 
for a malady to which the camel-milkers in the 
province of Lus are subject. It shows itself as a 
pustular rash affecting the hands and arms, and 
is derived from a similar affection on the udder 
cf the camel, closely resembling cow-pox, Vac- 
cinia. The disease appears never to be fatal, 
and it is remarked by the natives that those 
who have had it usually escape small-pox, which 
is occasionally endemic in that district. 

Pho tosphere. (4>u>i; atpaipa, a sphere. 
G. Lichtsphare.) Bode's term for the luminous 
atmosphere of the sun. 

Phototacho'meter. (*ws ; tacho- 
meter.) An instrument for estimating the ve- 
locity of light-rays. 

Phototax'is. (*is; T-a£n, arrange- 
ment.) Bot. The assuming of a certain relative 
position to incident light-rays. 

Phototon'ic. Exhibiting the phenome- 
non of Phototonus. 

Photo'tonus. (*ois; tokos, a stretch- 
ing.) The normal condition of motility or 
periodical spontaneous movement observed in 
certain plants, as in Mimosa, Acacia, Oxalis, &c, 
which is caused by the alternation of night and 
day. (Sachs.) 

Photo'xylin. (*51s; £uW, wood. I. 
fotossilina.) A form of nitro-cellulose prepared 
by nitrating wood-wool. It was originally pre- 
pared in St. Petersburg. Dissolved in ether, 
either as a J to 1 per cent, or a 5 per cent, solu- 
tion, it was used first by Krysinski for embed- 
ding microscopical preparations. The solution 
has been used instead of collodion. Guranowski 
has employed it for the formation of an artificial 
drum in perforation of the tympanic membrane. 
After cleaning the external meatus with boric 
acid solution and carefully drying, he instils the 
solution several times, allowing each quantity 
to dry and form a layer before instilling the 
next ; a very tough and serviceable artificial 
drum is thus formed. (Villaret.) 

Photu'ria. ($ais; olpov, urine. G. 
Lichtham.) The very rare symptom of the 
passing of urine that is luminous as it flows, 
from the presence of phosphorus. The urine 
has no other peculiarity that can be detected. 

Phox'i. (3>o£o's, tapering to a point.) 
Term applied by Hippocrates to those whose 
heads appear to taper to a point, and in whom 
the frontal and occipital eminences are either 
much depressed or much elevated ; as, e. g., the 
head of Thersites, according to Homer. 

Phoxocheil'ous. (<t>o£o's, tapering to 
a point; x t ~i\o'i, a lip- F. phoxochile.) Having 
pointed lips. 

Phrag'ma. (<bpayp.a, a fence.) A par- 
tition. In Zo'61., a partition. In Entom., 
applied by Kirby to the partition separating the 
posterior orifice from the prothorax in the Gryl- 
lotalpa. In Bot., a false dissepiment formed by 
an enlargement of the placenta, or an irregular 
projection from the sides and back of the peri- 
carp. Applied by Link to the transverse parti- 
tions of fruit. 

Phrag-'mata. Plur. of Phragma. 

Phragrnat'ic. (Phragma.) Inclosed, 
surrounded. Applied to cattle which suffer from 
colic, or obstruction of the bowels. 

Phrag-mi'g-erous. (Phragma ; L. 
gero, to carry. F. phragmigcre ; G. walltra- 
gend.) In Bot., applied to legumes which are 
divided into two or more cavities by transverse 
septa, as in Cassia fistula; also, to pili in the 
interior of which are transverse septa, as in 
certain species of Carduus. 

Phrag-mi'tes. (*pay/uiV»|s, growing in 
a hedge or fence.) Specific name of the P. 
communis or Arundo phragmites. 

P. commu nis. Order, Graminea. The 
common reed. The root was formerly given 
therapeutically, as a depurative and antisyphi- 


Phragmos. (bpayno?, a fence.) Old 
term for the whole of the upper and lower rows 
of the teeth, which encircle the mouth as with 
a fence. 

Phra'sis. (<t>paou, a speaking.) Term 
for articulate speaking. 

Phra sium viride. Old term for 
JEris flores. 

Phra sum. See Marrubium. 

Phren. ('Ppvv, see Phrenes.) The dia- 
phragm ; also, the epigastrium. 

Phrenalgfia. (fpvv, <pptv6s, in the 
sense of the seat of the mind ; &\yos, pain.) A 
terra for Melancholia. (Tuke.) 

Phrenastheni a. (*/>»;v, the seat of 
the mind ; asthenia.) Finkler's term for a 
variety of Neurasthenia, characterised by torpor, 
and coming on after infectious fevers, or after 
great mental strain. He states that it differs 
from the ordinary form of neurasthenia in the 
absence of vaso-motor symptoms. 

Phrenatroph'ia. (®pvv, the seat of 
the mind; a.Tpo(p'ia, want of food.) Atrophy 
of the brain-substance. 

Phrenaux'e. (3>/>w; av£v, enlarge- 
ment.) Hypertrophy of the brain-substance. 

Phren es. Nom. pi. of Phren. (3>/jw, 
<pptv6<s.) Old term for the prascordia ; also, for 
the diaphragm. 

Phrene'siac. The same as Phrenetic. 

Phrene'sis. (<bpnv, in the sense of the 
seat of the mental faculties.) The same as 

Phreneti'asis. (<fy>Evt-riao-is = <pptv- 
Itii.) The same as Phrenitis. 

Phrenet'ic. See Phrenitic. 

Phrenetis'mus. The same as Phre- 

Phreniat'ric. (#/o»jf; iuTpiKos, skilled 
in medicine.) The same as Psychiatric. 

Phrenic. (4y»}i/, (pptvos, the seat of the 
mind, also, the diaphragm.) Belonging to the 
diaphragm. Also, used in the sing, iu the same 
two senses as Phrenica, in the plur. 

P. arteries, infe'rior. Two small 
arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta, 
either separately or by a common trunk, at a 
level with the upper margin of the aortic open- 
ing in the diaphragm. In some cases they arise 
from the cceliac axis or some other neighbouring 
branch of the aorta. They diverge, pass across 
the under surface of the corresponding crura of 
the diaphragm, the right division passing behind 
the vena cava, and the left behind the oesophagus. 
Each supplies the diaphragm and gives a supe- 
rior suprarenal branch to the suprarenal body of 
its own side. They anastomose witli the supe- 
rior phrenic and musculo-phrenic branches of 
the internal mammary, and with the lower inter- 
costal arteries. 

P. ar'tery, supe'rior. Also called comes 
nervi phreniei. The artery of either side arises 
from the corresponding internal mammary, 
generally near the first rib, and descends to the 
diaphragm between the pericardium and pleura, 
in company with the phrenic nerve. Its terminal 
branches ramify on the upper surface of the dia- 
phragm, supplying its anterior portion, and 
anastomose with the inferior phrenic and mus- 
culo-phrenic arteries. This artery also gives 
small branches to the pericardium. 
P. cen'tre. See Centre, phrenic. 
P. ganglion. See under Ganglion. 
P. glands. A mass of smali lymphatic 

glands encircling the upper end of the inferior 
vena cava. 

P. hernia. See under Hernia. 
P. nerve. This nerve is a branch of the 
cervical plexus. It arises mainly from the 
fourth, but usually partly also from either the 
third or fifth cervical nerve. It descends in the 
neck over the scalenus anticus, passes into the 
thorax between the subclavian vein and artery, 
crosses over the internal mammary artery, and 
then passes in front of the root of the lung and 
by the side of the pericardium. It divides into 
branches which pass through the diaphragm to 
its under surface. The nerve of either side 
gives branches to the pericardium and pleura, 
and occasionally receives a branch formed by 
the union of the descendens noni and the cervical 
nerves. The right nerve descends first along 
the outer side of the right innominate vein and 
superior vena cava ; the left crosses in front of 
the left vagus and the aortic arch. Branches 
are given off to the peritoneum, and on the right 
side to the right auricle of the heart and the in- 
ferior vena cava (Luschka). One or two branches 
of the right phrenic nerve unite with diaphragm- 
atic branches from the solar plexus to form a 
small ganglion, phrenic ganglion, from which 
branches are given to the hepatic plexus, the 
suprarenal body, and the inferior vena cava. 
The left nerve has a similar communication, but 
no ganglion. 

P. nerve, acces'sory. Name proposed 
by Valentin for the descending branch of the 
hypoglossal, descendens noni ; as he considered 
that this branch supplied a great number of 
fibres to the phrenic nerve. Sappey thinks that 
Valentin probably mistook small blood-vessels 
for nerve twigs, and no other anatomist has ever 
found anything beyond a very slight connection 
existing between the phrenic nerve and the de- 
scendens noni. 

P. plex'us. This is formed by nerves from 
the upper part of the semilunar ganglion; these 
nerves accompany the arteries on the under side 
of the diaphragm. Besides supplying the dia- 
phragm, the plexus gives some branches to the 
suprarenal body, and others to join the spinal 
phrenic nerves. In the plexus of the right side 
is the phrenic ganglion (q. v.), making the 
junction of spinal and sympathetic nerves. 

P. veins, infe'rior. These are two in 
number on each side. They run with the in- 
ferior phrenic arteries, and open, on the right 
side directly into the inferior vena cava, and on 
the left either into the cava or the left suprarenal 

Phren ica. (Nom. pi. From cppvv, in 
the sense of the seat of the mind.) 1. Diseases 
affecting the mental faculties ; the first Order in 
Good's Class Neurotica. 

2. Also, term used for remedies that affect the 
mental faculties (Dunglison). 

Phrenicocolic lig-'ament. See 
Fhrenocolic ligament. 

Phrenicogas'tric. See Phrenogastric. 

Phren'ics. The same as Phrenica, in its 
second meaning. 

Also, metaphysics. 

Phreni'cula. (Dim. formed from <ppvi>. 
F. phrenicule ; G. Himjieber.) Term used by 
Bust for Brain-fever. 

Also, Acute hydrocephalus. 

P. nydrocephallca. The same as 
Phrenicula, in its second meaning. 


Phrenis'mus. The same as Phrenitis. 
Phrenit ic. Belonging to Phrenitis. 
Phienitic ula. The same as Phren- 

Phreni tis. (L. phrenitis, -idis, an in- 
flammation of the brain which causes madness ; 
from tppi'w, (pptvoi, the seat of the mental facul- 
ties.) A term improperly used for inflammation 
of the brain and its membranes. Phrensy ; a 
Genus of the Order Phlegmasia, Class Pyrexia, 
of Cullen's Nosology. 

P. oalentu'ra. (See Calentura.) A term 
for sunstroke. 

P. la' trans. (L. latrans, a barker, %\ c, a 
dog.) Hydrophobia. 

P. potato'rum. (L. potator, -oris, a 
drinker.) Delirium tremens. 

P. vermino'sa. (L. vermis, a worm. F. 
vercoguin.) A form of phrenitis formerly sup- 
posed to be due to the presence of a " worm" in 
the brain. 

Phreno'blabes. ( i t>pvv, <pptv6<s, the seat 
of the mental faculties ; /3\a/3ij, hurt, damage.) 
Impaired as to the intellect. 

Phrenoblabia. (Phrenoblabes.) Im- 
pairment of the intellect. 

Phrenocol ic ligament. The same 
as Pleuroeolic ligament. 

Phrenog'as trie. See Gastrophrenic. 

Phrenoglot tism. {Phren, the dia- 
phragm ; glottis.) The same as Asthma, thymic. 

Phren og'raph. {Phren, the diaphragm ; 
ypacpw, to sketch out.) Rosenthal's lever, which 
he introduced through an opening in the abdo- 
minal cavity, to record the movements of the 
diaphragm in respiration. He used it to de- 
monstrate the stoppage of those movements pro- 
duced by faradisation of the cut end of the vagus 

Phreno graphy. {Qptv, the seat of 
the mind ; ypa<pn, a writing.) The observation 
and description of phenomena in Comparative 

Phrenolepsia erotematica. 
{$pvv, the seat of the mind ; Xtj i^ts, a seizing ; 
«p<uTtjjuaTiKos, interrogative.) Insanity , doubting 
(q. v.). 

Phrenological doc'trine. (Of 

Gall and Spurzheim, 1828.) This is an assump- 
tion that the various mental faculties are 
situated in different parts of the brain, and make 
corresponding impressions on the inner surface 
of the skull, and that a considerable development 
of one particular "organ" can be detected by 
examination of the outside of the skull. See 
Cranioscopy . 

Phrenology. {Qpvv, (pptvos, the seat 
of the mental faculties ; \oyos, a discourse.) 
1. The Phrenological doctrine. 2. Comparative 
psychology {Century Diet.) 

Phrenomagnetism. (Q>pvv, the seat 
of the mind ; magnetism.) The same as Phrcno- 

PhrenomeB'merism. {Qpfiv, mes- 
merism.) See Mesmero-phrvnology . 

Pbrenonarco'sis. (*p»j» ; vapKuiaii, 
a benumbing. G. Phrenonarkosc.) C. H. 
Schultz's term for a dulling of the intellect, or 
of the senses. 

Phreno nomy. (*prji>; v6p.oi, law.) 
That part of comparative psychology which deals 
with deduction and prediction. 

Phrenopara lysis, {tfpvv, paralysis.) 
The same as Phrenoplegia. 

Phrenopath'la. (•Ppvv, <ppiv6*, the 
Beat of the mental faculties; ird8os, suffering, 
sickness. F. phrenopathie ; G. Gemiithekrank- 
heit.) Mental disease. 

P. eethe'rea. Term for the cerebral sym- 
ptoms produced by the inhalation of ether. 

Phrenople gia. (*p>ii/; irX^vn, a stroke. 
F. phrenoplegie ; G. Seelenldhmung .) C. H. 
Schultz's term for a failing or loss of balance of 
the mental faculties. 

Phrenortho'sis. The same as Ortho- 

Phrenorthot ic. The same as Ortho- 

Phrenorthot ica cu'ra. The cure 
of a mental disease, Orthophrenia. 

Phren'osin. C 34 H 67 N0 8 . One of the 
Cerebrins. First obtained, together with cere- 
brin and kerasene, from brain-substance, by 

Phreno sis. (3>p>?i/.) The same as Psy- 

Phrenosplen'ic. (*ptjv, the diaphragm ; 
a-irXvv, <rn-\i)t>os, the spleen.) Belonging to the 
diaphragm and spleen. 

P. lig ament. (G. Zwei-chfelmilzband.) 
A name for a fold of the peritoneum, continuous 
with the left extremity of the gastrosplenic 
omentum, which passes upwards from the spleen 
to the diaphragm. 

Phren'sic. Affected with Phrensy. 

Phrensy. {Phrenesis.) The same as 
Frenzy ; also used in the same sense as Phrenitis. 

Phren'zy. See Phrensy. 

Phricas'mus. {Q?piKa<rp.6s, a shudder- 
ing.) The same as Phriciasis. 

Phri'ce. (3>piK7i, a shivering, especially 
an aguish shiver or chill.) Old term for Horror, 
or a shivering or shuddering ; also, Torpor. 

Phrici'asls. {QpiKiacis, aguish shiver- 
ing.) A shivering, as in ague. 

Phrico'des. (* j o£Ka.oi|s, Optf, tloos], 
that causes shuddering or horror.) Causing a 
shivering ; in the act of shivering. 

P. fe'brls. (L. febris, a fever. Gr. irvpi- 
tos (ppLKtliSvi.) A fever with shivering fits ; a 
kind of ague. (Hipp.) 

Phricog"en'ium. (*p!/<os = <*/h<oi, a 
shivering or chill; ytvvaw, to beget. F.p/iri- 
cogene ; G. Kaltestoff.) Term for the supposed 
principle or producer of cold. 

Phricoi'des. The same as Phricodts ; 
also, resembling the act of shivering. 

Phrie'ule. {QpUn, a shivering or chill; 
the stuff of which a thing is made.) The 
same as Phricogenium. 

Phrone ma. {$p6viip:a, the spirit ; after- 
wards used to mean thought.) Thought, cogita- 

Phronemopho'bia. (<IyoV>i/ia, 
thought; </)o'/3os, ieor, dismay. G. Denkscheu.) 
A morbid dread or hatred of thinking. 

Phrone'sis. {Qpovnois, good sense.) 
Judgment, or common-sense. 

Phron'tis. {<i>pom-h, thought, attention.) 
Thought or reflection ; also, anxiety. 

Phryg-'ius lap'is. (L. lapis, a stone.) 
A natural earthy substance obtained in Phrygia 
and in Cappadocia, formerly used as a local 
astringent. (Dunglison.) 

Phry'nia. (*pCvo5, a toad.) An extract 
made by Jornara from the parotid glands of the 
toad. It has an action similar to that of digi- 


Phry'nos. (*/oiWs, a toad.) Old name 
for the Kubeta. 

Phthal amide. An old term, not now 
in use. Phthalamide (CinHoNOj) is a crystalline 
solid produced by the action of ammonia on an- 
hydrous phthalic acid. 

Phthar ma cali'gro. ($>ddpp.a, that 
which is corrupted.) See Caligo. 
P. catarac'ta. See Cataract. 
P. glauco'ma. See Glaucoma. 

Phthar'sis. (<i>0apTds, corruptible.) 

Phthar'tic. (*0apxiKO9, pernicious, 
deadly.) Deadly ; deleterious. Formerly applied 
to poisons. 

Phtheir. (<bddp.) A louse. See Pedic- 

Phtheirae'mia. (QOtipw, to destroy; 
alp. a, blood.) Term for a deteriorated state of 
the blood. 

Phtheiria'sis. (Qdupiavis, the lousy 
disease; from cptidp, a louse. L. morbus pedic- 
ularis.) The disease caused by the presence of 
the Pediculus capitis, P. vestimenti, or P. pubis. 
They cause great itching and irritation, and 
eczema, usually pustular. 

Phthei'rium. (4>0£i|O.) The same as 

Phtheiro ctonum. (QQeipoKTovtai, to 
kill lice.) A name for the Delphinium staphis- 

Phthin'as. (*6ti/as, -ados, wasting. 
4>t)ii/a9 voaos = phthisis ; voaoi (pdivdSts = 
wasting diseases in general.) A wasting. The 
same as Phthisis. 

Phthino'des. (*6iVa>, to waste away; 
tltios, form.) "Wasting. Term used, according 
to Foe'sius, n. 654, by Hippocrates, sometimes 
as a syn. for Phthisis, at other times for natural 
propensity or aptitude for wasting. See Diss, 
div. i. s. iv. 

Phthin oplasm. (Qdlvw ; ir\d<rp.a, 
anything moulded.) A term used by C. J. B. 
Williams for Tubercle. 

Phthinoporinus. (<bdivcnnx>piv6s, au- 
tumnal. F. phthinoporine.) Autumnal. 

Phthinosis. (4>thW) Wasting; de- 
cay or disintegration. 

Phthio sis. (*0t'«, to waste away. F. 
phthiose.) The progress of Phthisis. 

Phthiria cus. (Phthiriasis.) Belonging 
to Phthiriasis. 

Phthiria sis. The same as Phtheiri- 

Phthirio'phag-ous. (*0£i>, a louse; 
cpaytlv, to devour.) Louse-eating. 

Phthi rium. ($ffcip, a louse.) Term for 

Phthi rius. ($ddp.) See Pedicttlus. 

Phthis'es. (Nom. plural of Phthisis.) In 
Fuchs' classification, general term for diseases 
attended by hectic. 

Phthis ic. (*0«nKds, consumptive.) 1. 
Phthisical. 2. Phthisis. 3. A phthisical patient. 
(Century Diet.) 

Phthis ica spes. The phthisical hope. 
The hope of cure so characteristic of phthisical 
patients, often even to the end. (Tuke.) 

Phthis ical. (*tWiK-ds.) Belonging to, 
or the subject of, Phthisis. 

P. fis tula. See Phthisis, fistula in. 
P. insan ity . See under Insanity. 

Phthisicophthal mia. See Phthisi- 

Phthisio'log-y. (Phthisis; \6yov, a 
discourse.) The scientific study of Phthisis. 

Phthisiopho'bia. (Phthisis; <p6(3ov, 
fear, panic. F. phtisiophobie.) An ill-founded 
belief and panic possessing some patients that 
they have phthisis, when they really have not. 

Phthisiophthal'mia. The same as 
Ophthalmophthisis, or Phthisis bulbi. 

Phthisio'sus. Affected with phthisis. 

Phthisipneumo'nia. See Pneumono- 

Phthisis. (*0io-is, consumption, de- 
cline ; from <pdiu>, to waste away. L. tabes ; F. 
phtisie ; I. tisi ; G. Schwindsucht.) In general, 
progressive emaciation; but used almost ex- 
clusively for pulmonary phthisis, and here con- 
sidered m this sense. 

Dr. Douglas Powell has defined phthisis as 
" progressive consolidation and decay of the lung 
with progressive wasting of the body." 

Dr. Wilson Fox gives the following classifica- 
tion: — 1. Acute pulmonary tuberculosis ;_ 2. 
Acute pneumonic phthisis; 3. Chronic phthisis, 
which includes (a) latent phthisis, or other cases 
in which pulmonary symptoms are masked by 
those in other organs ; (b) cases in which definite 
pulmonary symptoms exist from the first. 

P., abdom inal. This occurs under two 
varieties: — 1. Intestinal tuberculosis, Entero- 
phthisis, or consumption of the bowels ; 2. Peri- 
toneal tuberculosis. 

1. Intestinal tuberculosis. This is rarely, if 
ever, a primary affection, and if so, more com- 
monly in children than in adults ; it occurs in 
more than one half of all cases of pulmonary 
phthisis, and is often associated with tubercle of 
the peritoneum and other abdominal organs. The 
lesions are found mainly in the ileum, ccecum, 
or colon, where the parts first affected are 
Peyer's patches and the solitary lymphatic 
glands. The tubercles undergo softening, and 
give rise to small, deep ulcers with overhanging 
edges. These ulcers tend to spread, and espe- 
cially to spread transversely. Cicatrization, 
where it occurs, gives rise to marked contraction 
of the lumen of the gut. The symptoms are 
uncertain ; but there is generally progressive 
diarrhoea, or perhaps at first irregularity of the 
bowels, with progressive emaciation and debility. 
The disease may prove fatal from perforation, or 
from peritonitis, or from both. 

2. Peritoneal tuberculosis. In all cases of in- 
testinal tubercular ulcers, there are found small 
grey tubercles scattered over the adjacent peri- 
toneum, and these may be found also apart from 
any affection of the intestine. Peritoneal tuber- 
culosis occurs almost invariably as a secondary 
affection to either acute or chronic tuberculosis 
of other organs. In children, infection seems to 
be most common from the intestines; in women, 
from the Fallopian tubes ; while in men the testes 
and epididymis are commonly caseous. The 
disease occurs at all ages. The symptoms are 
much the same as those of chronic peritonitis ; 
ascites is frequently present, but the effusion is 
not usually large. Both omentum and intestines 
tend to become matted together and thus form 
abdominal tumours ; these may be (1) puckered 
and twisted-up omentum, (2) sacculated effusion, 
held in amongst the viscera, (3) retraction and 
thickening of the intestinal coils, and (4) en- 
larged mesenteric glands. In these cases the 
disease may be difficult to diagnose roni cancer, 
ovarian tumour, &c. 


P. abdomlna Us. Syn. for " consump- 
tion of the bowels," i. e.. Tabes mesenterial 
(q. v.). 

P. ab haemo'ptoe. (Hippocrates.) P. 
from haemoptysis. It is not yet absolutely de- 
cided whether phthisis is ever directly originated 
by bleeding from the bronchial tubes or lungs. 
Hippocrates believed that it was. Modern 
authorities follow Laennec, who believed that 
haemoptysis was always presumptive evidence of 
the presence of tubercle. It is an observed fact 
that blood may enter the air-vesicles, coagulate, 
and cause broncho-pneumonia, which may be 
followed by phthisical chauges. 

P., acute'. See P., pneumonic, and P., 

P., albu minous. A name formerly used 
by some writers for a variety of P., tubercular. 

P. apostemato'sa. ('A / 7ro<rT>j/ua, an 
abscess.) The second variety in Good's classifi- 
cation of Phthisis ; a form with severe and dry 
cough and localised pain in the chest, followed 
by sudden and copious discharge of purulent 
matter. (Good.) 

P., bacil'lary. P., tubercular. 

P., black. Anthracosis pulmonum. 

P., bron'cbial. Name for a form of 
phthisis, believed to be caused by the pressure on 
the adjoining portion of the lung, of tuberculous 
bronchial glands, which may communicate with 
pulmonary cavities (Dunjrlison). 

P. bul'bi. (L. bulous, a globular root or 
bulb ; a term for the eyeball.) A shrinking and 
softening of the eyeball occurring in consequence 
of inflammations, such as iridocyclitis, panoph- 
thalmitis, or from the continued growth of 
granuloma of the iris ; it is sometimes accom- 
panied by pain. 

P. bul'bi essentia'lis. {Essential, be- 
cause occurring without previous inflammation 
of the eyeball.) A shrinking and softening of 
the eyeball accompanied by pain and leaving a 
painful stump, occurring in sympathetic oph- 

P. calculo'sa. Lit hiasis pulmonum. 
P., can cerous. Term for Lung, cancer 


P., carbona ceous. The same as P., 

P., ca'seous. P., pneumonic, or caseous 
pneumonia. See under Phthisis. 

P., catar rhal. Term for the early stage 
in some cases of Phthisis, pneumonic, where 
catarrhal signs in the lungs are very marked. 
By some it is looked upon as tubercular. 

P., coal mi ners'. See Anthracosis pul- 

P. consumma'ta. A name for P., tuber- 

P., cot'ton. A form of dust phthisis (see 
P., dust), occurring among those exposed to the 
mechanical irritation of the dust from cotton, 
especially in cotton-mills. 

P., diabe'tic. Generally an acute form of 
phthisis, fatal in from two to five months. It is 
now most generally believed to be tubercular, the 
characters being closely similar, and tubercle- 
bacilli having been found in several cases, either 
in the sputum, or, p.m., in the lung-tissue. 
The reasons given for believing it to he non- 
tubercular are its resemblance to pneumonic 
phthisis, and the failure to find tubercles, either 
in the lungs, or in the larynx or intestine. See, 
further, classification of Phthisis. 

P. dorsa lis. Tabes dorsalis. 

P., dust. A variety of fibroid phthisis set 
up by continued exposure to the irritation of 
dust in the air in certain industries (see 
P., coal miners', P., millstone grinders', &c). 
In young people working under such condi- 
tions, who nave a hereditary predisposition to 
phthisis, ordinary catarrhal phthisis may be 
set up. 

P., dyspep'tlc. Phthisis, generally 
tubercular, in which dyspepsia is a very marked 

P. exulcera ta. General term formerly 
used for phthisis in which pulmonary cavities 
were formed. 

P. lab rum molarlorum. (L.faber, a 
workman ; molarius, belonging to a mill.) Mill- 
stone grinders' phthisis. 

P. fe brile. Pulmonary phthisis in which 
fever is a very marked symptom, and is accom- 
panied by profuse sweating and rapid ema- 

P., fibroid. This is nearly always secon- 
dary to some inflammatory lung-affection ; lobar, 
lobular, or tubercular pneumonia, irritation from 
the inhalation of dust- particles in certain trades 
(pneumo-coniosis) . The disease is very chronic, 
and affects one lung only ; there are usually 
no constitutional disturbance, rise of tempera- 
ture, nor night-sweats ; there is often little or no 
loss of flesh even at an advanced stage, and the 
health often remains good. The main symptoms 
are paroxysmal cough, purulent expectoration, 
dragging pains, and dyspnoea ; haemoptysis 
sometimes occurs. The physical signs are those 
of consolidation, which may be very extensive ; 
it may affect the apex, middle, or base ; there is 
also usually considerable falling in of the affected 
side, from fibroid contraction, and the heart's 
apex is often considerably displaced. If the 
other lung becomes affected, it is usually by 
grey tubercle ; but the course is, as a rule, very 
chronic. Lardaceous disease sometimes super- 
venes. Douglas Powell notes great irritability 
of the heart in many left-sided cases, which he 
considers due to its uncovering, from retraction 
of the lung. 

P., ns'tula in. Patients suffering from 
phthisis are peculiarly liable to fistula in ano, 
which presents the usual features of that com- 

P., flax dressers'. One form of P., 
dust (q. v.). 

P. flo'rlda. (L.Jloridus, flowery ; metaph., 
lively, brisk.) P., acute. 

P., gas'tric. The same as P., dyspeptic. 

P., gran ular. A syn. for acute miliary 

P., grind'ers'. See P., knife-grinders'' . 

P., baemorrha'grie. Phthisis in which 
haemoptysis occurs early and is a prominent 
symptom in the case. 

P. bepat'lea. Mcpatophlhisis. 

P. ischiad'ica. ('Icrxiaouco! <}>dtais, 
Hipp.) Ischiophthisis. 

P., knife-grinders'. Formerly called 
Asthma, knife-grinders' (q. v.). 

P., laryngeal. This usually occurs 
as a complication of pulmonary phthisis, 
rarely as a primary disease. It occurs in two 
forms : 

1. True laryngeal phthisis. In this there is 
an infiltration of tubercle, followed by ulceration, 
affecting one or all of the following parts : the 


ary-epiglottic folds, the inter-arytenoid fold, the 
epiglottis, the ventricular bands, and the vocal 
cords. Sometimes the disease begins by laryn- 
geal catarrh, often unilateral. When the 
ulceration is extensive and deep, perichondritis 
may occur, with consequent stenosis of the 
larynx. Respiration, in some cases, becomes so 
much interfered with as to render tracheotomy 
imperative. In rare cases, pale, sessile tuber- 
cular laryngeal tumours have been found, vary- 
ing from the size of a pea to that of a hazel 

2. Non-tuberculous local changes in the larynx 
associated with pulmonary phthisis. These are, 
aneeinia of the larynx, sometimes with occasional 
flushing of the part, and abnormal local sensa- 

Differential Diagnosis. Tubercular infiltra- 
tions of the larynx are generally pale and greyish, 
whereas tertiary syphilitic infiltrations (gum- 
mata) are very red. When ulceration has oc- 
curred, syphilitic ulcers are more often single 
and they extend more rapidly than tubercular 
ulcers, which are often numerous, small, have 
usually a yellowish margin, and are commonest 
on the false cords, the ary-epiglottic folds, the 
inter-arytenoid space, and the under surface of 
the epiglottis. Syphilitic ulcers are commonest 
on the upper surface and margins of the epi- 
glottis. The history is generally distinctive. 
The finding of tubercle-bacilli in the sputum or in 
a portion of the growth may settle the diagnosis. 
There are several other diseases which occa- 
sionally produce infiltration and ulceration of 
the larynx ; these are enteric fever, lupus and 
leprosy. The characteristic nodules of lupus are 

P., mammary. Wasting of the mam- 
mary gland, usually after a mammary abscess. 

P. mesaraica. (Mesaraic.) Tabes 

P., mesenteric. Tabes mesenterica. 

P., mill stone grind ers'. Also some- 
times termed P., millstone makers'. See Mill- 
stone grinders' phthisis. 

P., miners'. The same as P., coal 

P. muco'sa. Bronchorrhcea in which the 
secretion is exceptionally profuse. (Dunglison.) 

P. nodo sa. (L. nodosus, full of knots or 
knobs.) A name for P., tubercular. 

P. no'tias. (Nto-ros, the back.) Tabes 

P. pltuito'sa. The same as P. mucosa. 

P., placental. See Placental phthisis. 

P., pneumonic. A variety of phthisis 
in which pneumonic processes predominate over 
tubercle. Generally classed as the most acute 
form of phthisis; but divided by Dr. Douglas 
Powell into — 1. Acute, («) Confluent, and (b) 
Disseminated (F. phtisie gallopante). 2. 

Chronic pneumonic phthisis often passes into 
fibroid phthisis. 

P., pot' tors'. One form of P., dust (q. v.). 

P. pulmona'lls. Pulmonary phthisis. 
See Phthisis. 

P., pul'monary. The same as P. pul- 

P. pupil lae. Synizesis pupillce. 
P. puplllaris. Myosis (Dunglison). 
P. purulen ta exulcerata. Tuber- 
cular phthisis. 

P. renaiis. Tubercular disease of the 

P. re num. The same as P. renaiis. 
P. scropnulo'sa. P., tubercular. 

P., se'nlle. It is extremely common for 
phthisis to occur in old people, "especially in 
institutions" (Osier). It is usually latent, and 
runs a very chronic course, and it may be diffi- 
cult to diagnose, owing to co-existing bronchitis 
or emphysema. As a rule, the lymphatic glands, 
bones, and meninges are less often affected in old 
than in young people. 

P. sic'ca. Tabes dorsalis. 

P., stone cut ters'. A form of P., dust 
(q. v.). 

P., syphilit ic. It has been seriously 
doubted by many authorities whether this does 
exist as a definite disease, and, at any rate, 
granting its existence, it is extremely rare. 
The diagnosis must rest on the discovery of 
tubercle bacilli; though even here a source of 
doubt occurs, as tubercle may co- exist with 

P., tuber cular. A specific inflammation 
of the lung, usually chronic, originated and 
kept up by the tubercle-bacillus. This variety 
comprises a large majority of all cases of 

Pathology. — Two varieties are distinguished, 
according to their origin ; the one beginning by 
changes within, and the other by changes out- 
side, the alveoli. 

1. Gaseous pneumonia, beginning by changes 
within the alveoli, may give rise to small isolated 
patches, lobular, or, much more rarely, may 
affect a large part or the whole of one lobe, 
lobar. Both subvarieties generally begin in 
the upper part of the lung, and both extend, 
partly from the original patch, and partly from 
secondary tubercular patches. By softening of 
a patch and its opening up into a bronchus, a 
cavity is formed. The consolidated patch ori- 
ginates in an exudation containing varying pro- 
portions of cells (leucocytes and epithelial cells) 
and fibrin. Caseation occurs early, and the 
signs of caseation enable the exudation to be 
distinguished from that of acute croupous pneu- 
monia. In some places, the exudation within 
the alveoli becomes organised into fibrous tissue. 

The alveolar walls in the consolidated patch 
gradually disappear in some parts, and, in others, 
become thickened, as does also the interstitial 
fibrous tissue. Here and there, this tissue 
becomes infiltrated with tubercle. The subse- 
quent change in the interstitial tissue is either 
softening, or the formation of fibrous tissue. 

2. Tubercular peribronchitis. — This begins 
often round the small bronchioles. The change 
is the same as that in the infiltrated interstitial 
tissue in caseous pneumonia. Some exudation 
within the alveoli also occurs ; but the above is 
the more marked and characteristic process in 
this variety. Thus, the microscopical difference 
between 1 and 2 is merely one of degree. 

Causation. — The position of the bacillus of 
tubercle is not (1893) completely established 
with respect to the part it plays in the causa- 
tion of tubercular phthisis, although it ap- 
ears to be invariably present throughout the 
isease; and therefore the disease cannot as 
yet be definitely classed as zymotic. What is at 
the present time certain is, that the pulmonary 
lesions are the result of various causes, and that 
they afford an eminently favourable soil for tho 


bacillus, which, at all events, is an important 
factor in the progress of the disease. As regards 
climate, it is known that tubercular phthisis is 
very prevalent where surface drainage is insuf- 
ficient, and the soil damp. 

Lancereaux states that it is invariably present 
in low and damp countries. Improvement of 
surface drainage has been followed by a diminu- 
tion in the prevalence of the disease. 

It cannot be doubted that hereditary influence 

Elays a part in its causation. Three theories 
av'e been suggested as to the manner in which 
this influence is brought about : — (1) That it is 
due to contagion after birth, directly or through 
the milk ; (2) to transmission of the poison as in 
congenital syphilis, showing itself in childhood 
as meningeal or peritoneal tubercle, or as 
"scrofula"; (3) to inheritance of a predisposi- 
tion, or of qualities of tissue favourable, to the 
growth of the bacillus, if this once gains a foot- 

Thompson states that tubercular phthisis, in 
being transmissible from either parent, occurring 
either after or before the manifestation of the 
disease in the parent, in the fact of one attack 
predisposing to future attacks, and in the part 
played by atavism, differs markedly from syphilis 
and. zymotic diseases, and bears a strong resem- 
blance to insanity and trophic diseases. 

History and course. — The disease is commonly 
divided into acute and chronic, according to its 
rate of progress ; but there are those who also 
further divide into a subacute class. The diagno- 
sis in early cases is often difficult and, sometimes, 
impossible. The family history may here afford 
great help. As regards the patient, there is usually 
some weeks' history of cough, worst in the night 
or early morning, with the expectoration of 
phlegm, probably at one time or another streaked 
with blood. There may be the record of a simi- 
lar previous attack, after which the patient was 
apparently well again. Weakness and loss of 
flesh are almost constant. In some instances, one 
or several profuse hsemoptyses occur early in the 

Signs in the first stage, or stage of tubercular 
deposit.— The early physical signs vary greatly. 
Inspection often reveals a long, narrow chest, 
with a small antero-posterior measurement. 
One or other side may snow impaired expansile 
movement. Old "scrofulous scars" are of im- 
portance as regards the patient's previous history. 
Percussion commonly brings out an altered note 
at or near one apex, either in front or behind 
(rather more frequently behind) ; the resonance 
may be impaired, or the pitch raised and the 
quality of sound altered. There is frequently a 
reeling of increased resistance locally. Where 
consolidation has occurred, the apex of the lung 
is found not to rise so high on the affected as on 
the sound side. Auscultation may discover some 
local alteration of the respiratory murmur, this 
being weakened, jerky, or divided, with a pro- 
longed expiratory murmur, or harsh. There 
may be abnormal auscultatory signs in an early 
case. The super-added sounds vary greatly: 
there may be fine crepitations, rhonchus, or 
creaking rales; these sounds are generally 
localised ; they are usually heard at the apex ; 
but often, only at the base. Pleuritic friction- 
sound is often heard at one part or another, and 
may be the only abnormal auscultatory sig^i. 
In early cases, the temperature not only varies 
greatly, but has much daily irregularity. The 

finding of tubercle-bacilli in the sputum may 
settle the diagnosis where a doubt existed. As 
the case progresses, the symptoms become more 
marked. Cough is nearly always present through- 
out, and later on may seize the patient in ex- 
hausting paroxysms. The sputa become puru- 
lent, and often remain separate after expectora- 
tion, being circular and flattened, nummular ; they 
usually contain elastic fibres and tubercle- bacilli, 
and frequently, streaks of blood. Haemoptyses, 
variable in amount, are common. Dyspnoea often 
comes on early, and becomes very marked late in 
the disease. The temperature is either remittent 
or intermittent, and usually highest in the even- 
ing. Sweating is commonly profuse and occurs 
generally at night. Loss of flesh is fairly con- 
stant while the disease is progressive, and some 
anaemia is usually present. Loss of strength is 
very marked. The mental condition is often 
one of great hopefulness, and the so-called 
" phthisica spes " may remain up to the end ; in 
some cases insanity may be the first noticed 
symptom of phthisis ; at times taking the form 
of melancholia, with delusions of suspicion and 
refusing of food. Pleurisy is extremely common 
in the course of the disease, and empyema may 
occur. Dyspepsia, possibly associated with 
anorexia, is scarcely ever absent, and is a most 
troublesome symptom throughout the disease. 
The heart wastes in chronic cases. Small aneu- 
rysms occur in the branches of the pulmonary 
artery in the lung-cavities. 

Signs in the second stage, or stage of consolida- 
tion. — They are very similar to those of the 
consolidation stage in lobar pneumonia; im- 
paired mobility of the affected side, localised 
impairment of resonance, or a boxy note, bron- 
chial breathing and bronchophony, and con- 
sonating rales. Later on, there is usually some 
falling in above and below the clavicle from 
contraction of scar-tissue, or, earlier, from de- 
struction of tissue. 

Signs in the third stage, or stage of excavation. 
— The chest develops the shape characteristic of 
expiration, and there is generally retraction of the 
upper part, on the affected side, with impaired 
movement. The note on percussion may vary 
greatly. Over a large cavity, the cracked-pot 
sound may often be elicited, cavernous or am- 
phoric breathing, pectoriloquy, and a sort of 
whispering echo are commonly present. Bub- 
bling rales are heard, and sometimes metallic 
tinkling. The heart's apex may be displaced, or 
the precordial dulness increased. 

Complications. — Laryngeal phthisis, pneumo- 
thorax, diarrhoea, lardaceous disease of the liver, 
kidneys, intestines and spleen, fatty liver, fistula 
in ano, acute nephritis, disseminated miliary 
tuberculosis. Tubercular disease of other parts 
— the joints and bones — may exist with phthisis. 
Dyspepsia, anorexia and pleurisy were mentioned 
above as common symptoms. The whole dura- 
tion of the disease varies from three or four 
months to twelve or fifteen years; in chronic 
cases, with recurring periods of quiescence. 

Death most commonly occurs from exhaustion; 
but may be due to haemoptysis, meningitis, peri- 
tonitis from intestinal perforation, pneumothorax, 
or urtemia. 

P. uteri'na. Metrophihisis. 
P. ventric'uli. ( Ventriculus, the stom- 
ach.) A form of sclerotic chronic gastritis in 
whioh the coats of the stomach, and especially 
the mucous membrane, become greatly atro- 


phied, but the size of the viscus is not lessened, 
and may even be increased (Osier). 

P. vermlna'Ui. Also called Hoose or 
Husk (Billings). A parasitic disease of the lungs 
and bronchioles occurring in calves and lambs. 
P. vesicalis. Cystophthisis. 
P. weed. The Zudwigia palustris. 

Phthisiu'ria. (F. phtisurie. I. fii- 
suria.) See Urophthisis. 

Phthisozo ics. (<f>0ta>,in a trans, sense, 
to consume, destroy ; twiKot, belonging to ani- 
mals.) The art of destroying those animals 
which are hurtful either to man or to any of the 
domestic animals. {Century Bid.) 

Phthisu'ria. The same as Fhthisiuria. 

Phtho e. (#eo») = rf>6t<ris.) Fhthisis. 

Phtho icus. (Phthoe.) Phthoical, i. e., 

Phtho is. (Scot's, a kind of cake, also a 
bolus or pill, Foe'sius' Oec. Hipp.) Old name for 
a pastil, cake, or lozenge. 

Phthoiscus. (4>eoi(TKos, a little cake, 
especially in plur., pills.) The same as Phthois. 

Phthongodysphor'ia. ($0oyyds, 
the voice ; dvcr<bopia, pain hard to be borne, ex- 
cessive pain. Hipp.) Excessive sensibility for 
sound, or Hyperacusia. 

Phthongo'meter. (*0oyyds, the 
voice; p.l-rpov, a measure.) An instrument for 
measuring the intensity of voice-sounds. 

Phthor'a. (4>0opa, corruption, destruc- 
tion.) 1. The same as Apophthora, or abortion 
(used by Hippocrates). 

2. Old term for corruption (G. Phthor). 

3. A name for Fluorine, because of the cor- 
rosive action of its hydrogen compound, hydro- 
fluoric acid. 

Phthor'e. The same as Phthora. 

Phthore'ctonum. (<btiopa, destruc- 
tion ; KTttvw, to kill.) A redundant term for a 
means of killing, and causing expulsion of, the 

Phthori na. (#0o/>a, destruction.) A 
name for Fluorine, because of its corrosive 

Phthor'ius. (Phthora, in the sense of 
abortion. F. phthorie.) Having the power of 
destroying. Formerly applied to medicines for 
promoting abortion, Ecbolics. 

Phthoro c tonus. (Phthora; KTtivw, 
to kill.) The same as Phthorius; ecbolic. 

Phthor'on. See Phthorina. 

Phthoropce'os. (®0op&, destruction; 
ttoiiw, to make.) The same as Phthartic. 

Phu. (Arab, phua.) The specific name of 
the Valeriana phu. 

Phucagros tis minor. (*Ckos, sea- 
weed ; dypds, country.) See Pila marina. 

Phus'ca. ("bova-Ka, sour wine. L&t.posca.) 
The same as Oxycrate. 

Phy'cesB. (•Mkos, sea- weed. Lat./wc««.) 
The aquatic section of the Algse. (Acharius and 

Phy'cic ac id. This acid, together with 
phycite, occurs in the Protococcus vulgaris, from 
which it can be extracted by means of alcohol. 
It is insoluble in water ; but soluble in alcohol, 
ether, acetone, and oils. 

Phy'cine. See Phycite. 

Phy'cite. (*u«oe, sea-weed.) Erylhrite. 

Phycochroma cea). The Crypto- 

Phy'cochrome. (<I>5kos, sea- weed; 
Xpuyp-a, colour.) The blue-green colouring- 

matter of some of the A1«b. It is a mixture of 
phycocyan and chlorophyll. 

Phycochromophycere. (Phyco- 
chrome ; <pvicos, sea- weed.) The same as Fhyco- 

Phycocy'an. ($vko?; nvavot, a dark- 
blue substance, used in the Heroic age to adorn 
weapons and armour.) The blue colouring- 
matter occurring together with chlorophyll in 
some of the Alga. 

Phycocy'anin. The 6ame as Phyco- 

Phycocysti'tis. A synonym of Cap- 
sulitis. (Billings.) 

Pbycoer'ytbrin. (*D/cos; Ipvdpot, 
red.) The red colouring-matter which occurs 
together with chlorophyll in some of the Alga. 

Phycohae'matin, ("fti/cos; heematin.) 
A red colouring-matter occurring in the alga 
Myliplosa tinctoria (Kiitzing), from which it can 
be extracted by maceration in cold water. 

Phyco'logy. (*uko«; \6yoi.) The part 
of Botany which deals with the Alga. 

Phycoma'ter. (4>Dkos, sea- weed; /xarvp, 
Dor. for niWnp, a mother.) Term for the gela- 
tin which forms the nutritive medium in which 
the sporules of Alga? first live. 

Phycomyce'teaB. The same as Phyco- 

Phycomyce'tes. (*Dkos, sea-weed; 
juuKtjs, -?jTos, a mushroom. L. fungus.) Term 
applied by De Bary to a group of the Thallo- 
phytes, including the Zygomycetes, Peronosporeee, 
and Saprolegniea. They have a much- branched 
mycelium, with hyphse that possess, for the most 
part, no division- walls (Sachs). 

Phycomyce'tous. Belonging to the 
Phy corny cetes. 

PhycophaVin. (*Dkos; <pauv6<i, shin- 
ing, bright-coloured. F. phycophe'nie ; G. Phy- 
cophain.) The brown colouring-matter that 
occurs, together with chlorophyll, in certain of 
the Phaeophyceae, a group of sea-weeds. 

Phycoste'mon. (*ikos, sea- weed; 
cmip-iov, in the sense of a stamen.) Turpin's 
name for the Nectary of plants ; the Nectar ium 
of Linnaeus. 

Phyco'tyche. (3>ukoti5x»j ; <£5/<os, a kind 
of red paint, so called from its resemblance in 
colour to sea-weed ; tux'I, good luck.) Old name 
of a plaster for every kind of ulcer, but espe- 
cially for an ulcer about the anus, according to 
Aetius (Gorrams). 

Phy coxan'thin. (#D/cos ; £«v0ds, 
yellow.) The brownish yellow colouring-matter 
of some of the Alga ; the same as Diatomin. 

Phyganthro'pia. (*uyi;, flight ; iv - 
0pu>7ros, mankind.) The same as Misanthropy. 

Phygan'trus. (&vyv; avrpov, a cave, 
in the sense of the frontal cells. L. antrum.) 
Eetreating at the antrum or torus frontalis; 
epithet applied to skulls in which an imaginary 
vertical line from the most prominent point of the 
torus frontalis to the radius Jixus lies as much as 
from 6 to 10 mm. behind a vertical line passing 
downwards from the nasion (Lissauer). 

Phyg-ethlon. ($>vytd\ov [probably 
more correctly (ppuytQXov, from typvyw, to roast], 
an inflammation and swelling of the glands, 
especially in the groin.) Inflammation and 
swelling of a subcutaneous gland ; the same as 

Phygoede'ma. (*i>y>;, flight ; oedema.) 
Flying, erratic, or neurotic oedema. 


Phyg-og-alac'tic. (<t> tvyu) (root <t>Yr-), 
to dee; ya\a, ydXaKTos, milk.) Antigalacta- 

Phyg-ometo'pus. (<t>ivyu> ; metopon.) 
Retreating at the metopon; epithet applied to 
skulls in which an imaginary straight line 
joining the bregma with the nasion makes an 
angle of 8° to ffio" with the radius Jixus (Lis- 

Phyg OpiS thiuS. (#£uyu> ; oTriaOios, 
hinder, belonging to the hinder part.) Retreat- 
ing or falling back at the hinder part ; epithet 
applied to skulls in which an imaginary straight 
line drawn from the lambda to the inion makes 
an angle of 106° to 127° with the radius Jixus 

Phyg'OprOSO'pUS. (4>£i5y<u; npovw- 
irov, the face.) Retreating or falling back at 
the face ; epithet applied to skulls in which an 
imaginary straight line drawn between the nasion 
and the alveolar point makes an angle of 38° to 
66'5 3 with the radius Jixus (Lissauer). 

Phyg-orrhi'nus. (Qtuyw, pis, piv6s,the 
nose.) Retreating or falling back at the nose ; 
epithet applied to skulls in which an imaginary 
straight line drawn from the nasion to the sub- 
nasal point makes an angle of 36° to 66-5° with 
the radius Jixus (Lissauer). 

Phylacte'rion. (QuXaicrvpiov, a pre- 
servative, amulet.) Old term for an Amulet. 

Phylacte'rium. The same as Phylac- 

Phylax'is. (#uXa£ts, a guarding.) A 
guarding or preserving. 

Phylet ic. Belonging to a tribe. In Zobl., 
belonging to a phylum. 

Also, the same as Phylogenetic {Century 

Phyllan'theae. (Phyllanthus.) A Tribe 
of the Euphorbiacece, having the Phyllanthus for 
their type. 

Phyllan thus. ($v\\ov, a leaf; avdos, 
a flower. F. phyllanthe ; G. blattblumig .) A 
Genus of the Euphorbiacece. In the plants of 
this genus, the peduncle of the flower is adherent 
to the principal nervure of the leaf. 

P. em'bllca. The Emblica officinalis. 
P. nlru'ri. This species has the same 
habitat as P. urinaria, and its action and uses 
are similar. 

P. urinaria. A plant growing in Ceylon, 
where it is used as a bitter and diuretic. 

Phyl'lary. (4>6\\ov.) A leaflet of the 
floral involucre in the Composites. 

Phylle ria latifo'lia. The same as 
Philyrea latifolia. 

Pbyl'lerin. The same as Philyrine. 

Pbyller'ythrin. (#uAXov, a leaf; 
ipvtipoi, red.) The red colouring-matter of 
autumnal leaves. 

PhylUc ac'id. (4><5AXoi/.) An acid ob- 
tained by C. Bougarel from the leaves of the 
cherry-laurel, quince, apple, peach, elder, mul- 
berry and almond trees. It is purified from an 
alcoholic extract of the leaves, and is thus ob- 
tained in crystalline, colourless granules, in- 
soluble in water, soluble in ether, alcohol, 
chloroform and carbon bisulphide. Both the 
acid and its salts are optically dextro-rotatory. 

Phylli'tis. (*iA/W, a leaf ; because the 
leaves only are visible. F. phyllile.) The 
Scolopendrium vulgare. 

P. murar'ia. The Asplenium ruta-mu- 

P. rotundlfo lia. The Asplenium trieho- 

Phylloba'tes. (*uXXoi/, a leaf; /Harris 
[fluivw], one that treads.) A Genus of the 
Order Mylidee of the Amphibia. Several species 
yield the so-called " animal curare," which is 
used by certain races for poisoning their arrow- 
heads. (Geissler and Moller.) 

Ph.yllobran cb.ia. (*uXXoi/; bronchia.) 
The leaf-like gill of the Crustacea. 

Also, nom. pi. n., a division of the Crustacea, 
including those that have phyllobranchice. 

Phyllochlo ron. The same as Chloro- 

Fhyllochro mogren. (<t>uWof ; xp">m«, 
colour, complexion ; ytvos, stock, descent.) 
Liebermann's name for a constituent of Chloro- 
phyll, which he believes to give rise, by its 
oxidation or reduction, to the various colouring- 
matters of flowers. 

Phylloclade. The same as Phyl/o- 

Phylloclad'ium. (<P6Wov, a leaf; 
KXdoos, a young branch. F. phylloclade ; G. 
Blattast.) A term proposed by Bischoff' for the 
Phyllodium produced by a branch that is en- 
larged and flattened in the form of a leaf. 

Phyllocy anin. (3>uXXov, a leaf ; Kva- 
i»os, a dark-blue substance, used in the Heroic 
Age to adorn weapons and armour.) A blue 
substance that forms one of the colouring- 
matters composing Chlorophyll. (Fremy.) 

Phyllo'deous. (The same as Phyllodes. 
Phylloides would be a more correct form.) Term 
used first by G. Allnian as a synonyin of Foli- 

Phyllo'des. (See Phyllodeous.) The 
same as Phylloides. 

Phyllo'dial. Epithet applied to an 
Ascidmm when it is formed by the Phyllodium. 

Phyllodi'neous. Belonging to a Phyl- 
lodium ; term applied to plants that have Phyl- 
lodia instead of true leaves. 

Phyllo dium. (<bv\\ov, tI<5o9, form. 
Y.phyllode; G. Blattstielblatt.) De Candolle's 
term for a petiole that is flattened out so much 
as to resemble a true leaf, the limb of its foliole 
being aborted. Also used by Herschel as syn- 
onymous with his term Phylloma. 

Phyl'lody. (Phyllodium.) The meta- 
morphosis of various parts of plants, calyx, 
corolla, bracts, &c, into true leaves. 

Phyl'log^en. The same as PhyUophore. 

Phyllo'g'enous. ("fcuXXov; ytvos, de- 
scent, offspring. F. phyllogene ; G. blattwach- 
send.) Growing upon leaves. 

Pnyllo'grony. (*vXXov; yovv, offspring, 
descent.) Schimper's term for the theory of the 
production of leaves. 

Phyl loid. (4>uXXoi/; tlfios, form.) Leaf- 

Phylloid'eCB. (See Phylloid.) Name 
given by Schultz to an Order of the Lichcnes, 
comprehending those that form a leaf-like ex- 

Phylloliche'nes. (*uXXov; X«x»/i>. a 
lichen.) A term of Zenker's, synonymous with 

Phyllo ma. (*uXXov.) Herschel's name 
(see also Phyllodium) for the germ contained in 
the bud of the future leaves of the plant. Also, 
the same as Phyllome. 

Phylloma'nla. (<K>XXoi> ; navia, mad- 
ness. F. phyllomanie ; G. BlattertoUheit.) 


Term for an exaggerated development of the 
leafy parts of a plant. 

Phyllome. Term for foliage. 

Phyllomorphosis. (*uXXov ; p.6p- 
<pm<Tn, a shaping.) The same as Phyllody. 

Phyl lomorphy. {Mop<pri, form.) The 
same as Phyllomorphosis. 

Phyllon. (*uXXov.) A leaf. Used hy 
Link for Sepal. 

Phyllophaei'na. ($v\\ov ; (paws, 

dusky.) See Phyllophein. 

Phyllo phagous. (F. phyllophage.) 
Leaf- eating. 

Phyllophe'in. {Phyllophaina.) The 
same as Phatophyll. 

Phyllo philous. (*u\W ; <pCKim, to 
love.) Loving, or growing among, leaves. 

Phyl lophore. {<bv\ko(p6poi, hearing 
leaves.) The terminal bud in Palms. 

Phyllo poda. (4>uXXoi>; ttous, ttoSos, a 
foot.) A synonym for Branchiopoda. 

Phyllbpodobat'rachi. (4>uXXoi>, a 

leaf; irovi, iroSos, a foot; fid.Tpa.xos, a frog.) 
Name applied by J. A. Eitgen to the Batra- 

Phyllopor'phyrin. (*u\Xov, irop- 

tpvptos, purple. L. purpureus.) A product of 
the decomposition of Chlorophyll, obtained as a 
black substance with a violet metallic lustre. It 
is soluble in water, the solution having a purple 
colour. (Geissler and Moller.) 

Phyllopto sis. (fcuXW, a leaf ; ir-ruins, 
a falling.) The falling of the leaf. 

Phyllorrhetin. pim, to 

flow.) A carbide of hydrogen which occurs, 
together with tehorrhetin, between the bark 
and the wood, or within the spaces of the wood, 
in fossil pines. The substance is soluble in 
alcohol, and is crystallisable. (Littre.) 

Phyllorrhi'nus. (3>uXXoi>, a leaf ; plv, 
later form of pis, the nose.) See Jthinolo- 

Phylloso ma. (*u\Xou ; aw/ia, the 
body.) Name for a variety of the Crustacea 
which has a leaf-like body ; also, formerly ap- 
plied to the larva of the lobster, which was 
believed to be a separate species. 

Phylloso'madse. Nom. pi. f. Har- 
worth's name for a Family of the Decapodous 
Crustacea, having the Phyllosoma as their 

Phyllo'spora. (#t>XXoi;; airopi, a seed.) 
Term used by K. H. Schultz for plants that 
have their seed in or under the leaf. 

Phyllosteophyte. ($i)XXov ; osteo- 
phyte.) A lamellated osteophyte. 

Phyllostic'ta. (#uXXov ; <ttikt6s, 
marked, spotted.) A Genus of Fungi, Class 
Sphceopsidem, Order Sphcsrioidece, parasitic upon 
the leaves of various plants, and thought to be 
stages in the life-history of other fungi. {Cen- 
tury Diet.) 

Phyllotac'tic. Belonging to Phyllo- 

Phyllotaxis. (*<5XXoi>; t&^, an 
arranging.) The arrangement of the leaves 
upon the stem; also, the laws governing this 

Phylloxan'thin. (*uXXov, £01/605, 
yellow. G. Blattgelb.) The yellow colouring- 
matter of the leaves of plants, and one of the 
constituents of Chlorophyll (q. v.). Also termed 

Phylloxe'ra vasta'trix. (*i5XXoi-; 

Znpaivw, to parch up. L. vastalrix, she who 
wastes or destroys.) An insect belonging to the 
Genus Phylloxera, Family Aphides, which 
oauses a peculiar disease in the vine plant. 
These insects attack the rootlets, which appear 
to be covered by a yellow powder, this being a 
mass of phylloxera with their eggs. Numbers of 
swellings form on the roots, these decay, and the 
plant dies. The insect attacks the vine during 
August and September. 

Phyl'lule. (Dim. formed from <pv\\ov.) 
Term used by Zuccarini for the cicatrix left, 
after its fall, by each leaf, at its former place 
of insertion upon the bark. 

Phylog"enet ic. Belonging to Phylo- 

Phylo'greny. (&v\ov, a stock, race; 
yivos, descent. F. phylogenie ; G. Stammes- 
geschichte.) The history of the evolution of the 
race, as distinguished from that of the indi- 
vidual, or Ontogeny. 

Phylum. (3>DXov, a stock, race.) A 
division or sub -division of the animal or vege- 
table kingdom. 

Also, a Zoological "family tree." {Century 

Phy'ma. (Nom. plural being Phymata. 
4>D/ua, an inflamed swelling on the body.) 1. 
Used by the Ancients in the general sense of an 
inflamed superficial swelling. 2. A Genus in 
Willan's arrangement of cutaneous diseases. 3. 
An Order of diseases, Phymata, in Sauvage's 
Nosology, including phlegmon, erysipelas, oedema, 
&c. 4. A Genus in Dr. Good's Nosology, in- 
cluding furunculus, sycosis, hordeolum, and 

It has been proposed to use the word as a 
synonym of " tubercle." 

P. an'tbrax. The same as Anthrax. 
P. an'tbrax termin'thus. See Ter- 


P., fl'cous. (L.Jieus, a fig.) A name for 

P. horde' olum. See Hordeolum. 
P. per nio. A term for Frostbite; see also 

P. syco'sis. See Sycosis. 

Phymat'ic. Belonging to Phyma. 

Phy matin. {Phyma. F. phymatine.) 
An organic substance which has been obtained 
from tubercle. It is soluble in alcohol, and can 
be precipitated from its solution by acetate of 
lead. (Littre.) 

Phymat ion. (Dim. of Phyma.) A small 
tumour or boil. 

Phymato'des. (3>C/ua, -otos, an in- 
flamed swelling; tlSos, form.) Having phy- 
mata, or resembling a Phyma. 

Phy matoid. (See Phymatodes.) Ee- 
sembling a Phyma. 

Phymatorhu'sin. {Phyma; pu<r6s, 
drawn out, freed.) Term for a black pigmentary 
substance occurring in granules, which has been 
found in melanotic sarcoma. (Billings.) 

Phymato'ses. (Nom. pi. of Phyma- 
tosis.) General term for diseases characterised 
by the formation of tubercles. 

Phymato sis. (Phyma.) One of the 
Phymatoses ; also, a swelling or excrescence. 

P. cer ebri. The same as Encephah- 

P. elephantiasis. See Elephantiasis. 

P. lu pus. See Lupus. 

P. pulmo'num. Pulmonary tuberculosis. 



P. verrnco sa. (L. verrucosus, warty.) 
The same as Verruca. 

Phymocnido sis. {Phyma; KviSwan, 
an itching, especially such as is caused by a 
nettle.) Term for Urticaria. 

Phymolep'ra. {Phyma; lepra. F. 
phymolepre.) Tuberculous leprosy. 

Phy'non. Old name of a collyrium, ac- 
cording to Celsus, vi, 6, 20. 

Phypel la. The same as Panus (Hart- 
mannus, Prac. Chymist. Op. p. 89). 

Phy sa. (*0<ra, wind, flatulence.) Old 
term for Flatus. Also, a term for Bulla and 

Phy safi Og'ue. {Physa ; dyioyds, draw- 
ing forth.) Carrying off, or expelling, flatus. 

Physalecphlogio'is. {&u<ra\U, a 
bladder, blister; ecphlogiois.) Vesicular vario- 
loid, or modified variola. 

Physaliderysip'elas. (*uo-aXis, 
-£3os; erysipelas. F. physaliderysipele ; G. 
Blatterrose.) Bullous erysipelas. 

Physalides. (Norn. pi. of <twaXIs, a 
bladder, vesicle.) The vesicles contained within 
Physaliphores. Virchow has called them brood 

Physalidocnido sis. (*u<raXts, 
-tfios; KviSwa-Li, the itching caused by a nettle.) 
Vesicular urticaria. 

Phy salin. The active principle of Phy. 
salis alkekengi; it is a bitter, amorphous sub- 

Physal iphore. ($u<7oXi's; <j>opd, a 
carrying.) One of the cells containing vesicles 
developed in the process of endogenous cell- 
formation, and giving origin, within its vesicle, 
to daughter-cells. See also Physalides. 

Phy salis. ($u<raX£s, a bladder, vesicle.) 
Pot. A Linn. Genus of plants ; Class Pentan- 
dria, Order Monogynia (Juss. Solanete). 
Also, the P. alkekengi. See also Physalides. 

P. alkeken gi. (P. coqueret ; G. Judens- 
kirsche.) The winter cherry. Order Solanea. 
A European plant. The fruit, which is enclosed 
in a red, accrescent calyx, has a diuretic action ; 
six to twelve of the berries have been given as a 
dose. The plant has been stated to have an 
antiperiodic action similar to that of cinchona. 

P. halica cabum. (See Halicacabum.) 
The P. alkekengi. 

P. obscu'ra. The P. viscosa. 

P. pennsylvan'lca. The P. viscosa. 

P. pubes'cens. The P. viscosa. 

P. stramo nium. A synonym of Scopolia 

P. vlsco'sa. The American ground cherry. 
The berries have been stated to possess a diuretic 
and sedative action. 

Physalopa3do'phlysis. {Phy salis ; 
padophlysis.) Bullous padophlysis. 

Phy sas'thma. {<bi<ra, wind ; asthma.) 
Asthma emphysematicura, or Pneumothorax. 

Phys'ce. {<bv(n<ri, the stomach and large 
intestine.) The colon; also, the abdomen in 
general. (Dunglison.) 

Phys'cia. A Genus of the Parmeliacea. 
P. lslan dlca. The Cetraria islandica. 
P. nivalis. The Peltigera canina. 
P. parleti'na. The Parmelia parietina. 
Physco nia. {<P(«tkwi>, fat-paunch. F. 
physconie; G. Physkonie.) A Genus of the 
Order Intumescentice, Class Cachexia, of Cullen's 
Nosology {Hyposarca of Linneeus). Syno- 
nymous with Good's Parabysma. 

Sauvages has comprised, under this term, all 
large tumours of the abdomen, except those that 
are either resonant or fluctuating. 

P. adlpo'sa. An accumulation of adipose 
tissue in the great omentum. 

P. bllio sa. Distension of the gall-bladder 
with bile. 

P. emptaysemat lea. Subcutaneous or 
subperitoneal emphysema of the abdomen. 

P. bepat'lea. Any enlargement of the 

P. intestlna lis. Physconia due to disten- 
sion or to any morbid growth of the intestine. 

P. lle'nls. (L. lien, lienis, the spleen.) 
Physconia due to enlargement of the spleen. 

P. mesenter lea. This term includes 
Parabysma helminthicum, p. strumosum, p. 
scirrhosum, p. sarcomaticum, p. sleatomatosutn, 
and p. fungosum. 

P. omenta'lis. This term includes P. 
adiposa, and all other enlargements of the great 

P. peritone'l. Physconia due to any 
morbid growth (hydatids, new growths) of the 

P. polysplancb'na. (IIoXus, many; 
onrXdyx'""') the inward parts.) Syn. used by 
Cusson, Sauvages and Cullen for Parabysma 
complicatum (q. v.). 

P. rena'lls. Any enlargement of the 
kidney sufficient to produce Physconia. 
P. splen ica. The Ague cake. 
P. strumo sa. Enlargement of the abdo- 
men due to Tabes mesenterica. 

P. uterl'na. Physconia due to any patho- 
logical enlargement of the uterus. 

Physconie. Belonging to, or charac- 
terised by, Physconia. 

Physconocol ica. {Physconia ; colica.) 
Physconia accompanied by colic. 

Physeche ma. (*C<ro, wind; f,x>wa, a 
sound.) See Bruit de souffle. 

Physe'chos. (<t>0cra, wind; 3x os > a 
sound.) The vesicular respiratory murmur. 
See under Murmur. 

Physe'ma. (4>uo-ii/ua, that which is blown 
up. F. physeme ; G. Aufblahung.) Pine resin 
(Galen, Gorraeus). 

Also, term applied by Wallroth to the caulis, 
frons. or folium of aquatic algae. 

Physemat'ic. Belonging to Physema. 

Physe matous. The same as Physe- 

Physe sis. (*uo-n<ris, a blowing.) The 
same as Physema. 

Physe'ter. (4>u<njT?;p [</>uo-d«>, to blow], 
a kind of whale. F. physelere ; G. Pottfi-sch.) 
A Genus of the Cetacea ; also, term used for the 
P. macrocephalus. 

P. macroceph alus. (M aicpoKlcfraXos , 
long-headed.) The spermaceti whale. See 

Fhyseteri'deB. (Physeter.) A Family 
of the Cetacea, having the Physeter for their 

Physetole'iC ac'id. {Physeter; oleic. 
F. acide physetoleique ; G. Physetblsaure.) 
C| 6 H 30 O a . An unsaturated fatty acid, obtained 
by saponification of the fatty matter contained 
in the head of Physeter macrocephalus. The 
acid is isomeric (and, possibly, identical) with 
hypogeeic acid (Littre) ; its triglyceride is fluid 
at the ordinary temperatures of the air. 

Physiah thropy. (*u<m, the nature 


of a person or thing; avdpuiiros, man.) That 
science which deals with man's constitution and 
diseases, and with medical treatment. (Century 

Phy siatreusio'logy . (*u<ris, nature; 
iatreusiology.) The same as Physiatrics, in its 
first meaning. 

Physiat rical. Belonging to Physia- 
trics, or to Physiatric'e. 

Physiat rice. (*<5<ris; im-pixc's. L. 
vis medicatrix naturae.) The healing power of 
nature, or the natural healing power inherent 
in healthy living tissues. 

Phy siat'rics. (#i5<7ts ; laTpiKos, belong- 
ing to, or skilled in, medicine. G. Physiatrik.) 
The doctrine of the healing powers of nature. 

Also, the application of the Physical forces, 
heat, light, &c, to therapeutics (Billings). 

Phy sia'tros. (3>u<ris ; lai-pos, a surgeon 
or physician. F. physiatre ; G. Naturarzt.) A 
physician who treats his patients in strict ac- 
cordance with natural laws. 

Physiautocrati a. (*u<ris ; auto- 
crateia or autocratia.) The absolute power of 

Physiautotherapi'a. Olsons ; aWs, 
self; OepaireLa, a remedy, cure.) The same as 

Phys ic. ($u<ri(cos, according to the laws 
of nature. F. medecine ; G. Arzneikunst, 
Arzneimittel.) 1. The science of medicine. 2. 
A medicine used in the treatment of disease. 3. 
As a verb, " to physic," meaning to administer 
physic or medicine ; also, to administer a purga- 
tive medicine. 

P. balls. See Veterinary medicines. 

P., In dian. The Gillenia trifoliata. 

P. nut. The seed of the Jatropha curcas. 

P. nut, French. The seed of the Jatropha 

P. root. The Leptandra of the U.S. Ph. 
Physical. (S>v(jlk6<i. F. physique; G. 
physisch.) Synonymous with natural ; belong- 
ing to nature. 

P. examina tion. The examination, by 
means of the senses of sight, touch, and hearing, 
of the physical signs presented by a patient. 

P. signs. Those signs of disease which 
can be elicited by physical examination (inspec- 
tion, percussion, &c.) of the patient. 

Physician. (Old F. physicien. L. 
physicus.) This term is strictly applicable to 
one who studies the science of Physics, namely, 
a Physicist or Natural Philosopher; but it is 
used as distinctive of a Doctor of Medicine or 
Physic. Used to a great extent in the U.S. as 
synonymous with " general practitioner." 

P. accoucheur'. The same as Ac- 

P. a'lienlst. See Alienist. 

P., fam ily. The regular medical atten- 
dant of a family. 

P., priest. See Asclepiadai. 
Physi'ciancy. The post of physician. 
Physi clanship. The same as Physi- 

Phy siciat rical. See Physiatrical. 

Physicia'tros. See Physiatros. 

Physicism. (<bv<rii<6s.) A belief in the 
physical or material in contradistinction to be- 
lief in the spiritual. 

Phys'icist. (Physics.) One who studies 
the science of Physics. 

Phys'icky. Resembling physic. 

Phys'ico-chem'ical. Belonging both 
to Physics and Chemistry; applied to certain 
molecular phenomena of matter. 

Phys'ico-men'tal. (<l>u<nKos ; mental.) 
Having to do with the mutual relationship be- 
tween physical and mental phenomena. 

Physics. (<I>uoriKos, according to the 
laws of nature. F. physique; I. Jisica ; G. 
Naturlehre, Physik.) Natural philosophy ; the 
science of the forms of energy at work in or- 
ganic nature, and of the principles underlying 

P., medical. The science of Physics as 
applied to that of Medicine. 

Phy'sinx. (*0o-iy£, the hollow Btalk of 
garlic, Hipp.) Old term for fistula; also, a 
hollow canal or stem. 

Physiocrati'a. See Phy siaidocr alia. 

Physiogen esis. See Physiogeny. 

Physio'geny. (<I>uo-is, the nature or 
essence of anything ; yivos, race, stock, descent. 
F. physiogenie; G. Naturerzeugung .) The 
evolution of function. 

According to Rumpf, the formation of bodies 
from their original elements. 

Physiognomist. (See Physiognomy.) 
One who judges of character from observation of 
the physiognomy. 

Also, one who, from the same observation, tells 
fortunes {Century Diet.). 

Physiognbmon ia. (*uo-ts; yvwfiwv, 
one that knows or examines.) The same as 

Physiog-nomon'ical. Belonging to 

Physiognomon'ics. (Physiogno- 
monia.) The doctrine of the indication of the 
character given by the countenance. 

Physio' gnbmy . (<t>u<rts, nature ; yv&fxn, 
a means of knowing.) The general appearance 
of the features of an individual countenance; 
also, the art of judging of the moral and intel- 
lectual character by examining the features of 
the countenance. 

Physiog'no'sia. (<J>u<ns; yvwtris, in- 
quiry, knowledge. F. physiognosie.) Natural 
science. (Littre.) 

Physio gnotype. (Physiognomy ; 
type. F. physionotype.) An instrument de- 
vised to make a tracing on paper of the outline 
of the face. (E. Huschke.) 

Physio'graphy. (<Mo-is; ypacpr,, a 
delineation, description. G. Naturbeschreibung .) 
Term generally used as synonymous with Physi- 
cal geography. 

Physio latry. (<t> utris ; Xaxpsia, service, 
worship.) The worship of nature. 

Physiolog-'ia pathogenet ica. 
Pathogenetic physiology. An old term for that 
part of Pathology which treats of the origin of 
disease, Pathogenesis. 

Physiological. (Physiology.) Be- 
longing to Physiology. 

P. anat'omy. See Anatomy, physio- 

P. an'tidote. See Antidote, physio- 

P. doc'trine. See Broussdism. 
P. psycho logy. See Psychology, physio- 

P. salt solution. The same as Salt 
solution, normal. 

P. test. The testing of a drug that is 
believed to be poisonous, or of the contents of 


the stomach or the substance obtained from the 
tissues in a fatal caso in which there is a sus- 
picion of poisoning, by observing its physio- 
logical action upon one of the lower animals. 

P. time. See Reaction time. 

P. u'nit. Corresponding to histological 
differentiation of tissues in the development of 
the organism, there is a physiological division of 
labour ; and thus, each tissue may be considered 
as being made up of physiological units, alike in 
the same tissue, but differing from the physio- 
logical units of other tissues. 

Physio logism. The same as Acci- 

Physiologist. (G. Physiolog.) One 
who makes a special study of Physiology. 

Physio'lOgry. (4>u<rioXoyia [</>i5<rts; 
koyos], an enquiring into nature. 
logie ; I. fisiologia; G. Physiologic) That 
branch of Natural Science which treats of the 
functions of living organisms. Formerly used 
in the sense in which Physics is now. 

P., an imal. The study of the physio- 
logy of animals. 

P., compar'atlve. The comparative 
study of the physiology of the different members 
of the animal and vegetable kingdom. 

P., gen eral. Physiology which treats of 
function in general without reference to any 
species of living organism. 

P.', men tal. Physiological psychology. 

P., pathogenetic. See Physiologia 
pathogenetica . 

P., special. The physiology of any 
Species, either animal or vegetable. 

P., veg etable. The study of the physio- 
logy of plants. 

PhysiolysiS. (4>uo-is ; Xu<ri5, a setting 
free, or loosing.) The natural decomposition of 
dead organic matter. 

Physiomed icalism. (#u<ris; medi- 
calism.) The practice of using as remedies 
vegetable drugs only, and also discarding en- 
tirely those vegetable drugs which are poi- 

Phy siomed icalist. One who follows 

the school of Physiomedicalism. 

Phy sionom ia. (*uo-ts, nature ; i/o>os, 
a law. F. physionomie.) The doctrine of the 
laws of nature ; natural philosophy. 

Physiophilosoph ia. (fciW; <pi\o- 
trocpia, the love or pursuit of knowledge.) Na- 
tural Philosophy. 

Physio'phyly. (*uo-is; (pv\ov, a stock, 
race.) That part of Phytogeny which treats 
exclusively of function. 

Physioplas tica. (*i5<ri9; irAao-rtKo'?, 
belonging to moulding.) The doctrine of natural 
formation, in Natural Philosophy. 

Physio 'Sophy. (<i>v<ris; trotpia, know- 
ledge, wisdom.) A doctrine of the secret opera- 
tions of nature. 

Physiotherapi'a. See Physiauto- 

Physiothet'ica. (#u(ns, nature; Gtrt- 
ko's, positive.) The special or positive interpre- 
tation of nature. 

Physique'. (F. physique.) The physical 
organisation of an individual, or that which is 
characteristic of a race or of a class. 

Phys'is. (*u<rts, the nature or essence of 
anything.) Old term of varied signification, but 
applied generally to the nature of every natural 
body, and especially of man. 

Physiurg-ic. nature; ipyov, 

work.) Actedupon solely by the forces of 

Physohleph aron. (*D<ro, wind ; 
(3kt(l>apov, the eyelid. F. physoblepharon.) 
Emphysematous swelling of the eyelid. 

Physocar'pous. (#5<ra ; Kapirdi, fruit. 
F. physocarpe ; G. blasenfriichtig .) Having an 
inflated fruit. Applied to those plants in which 
the fruit becomes blown up like a bladder. 

Phy socele. (* vtra ; K»;Xtj, a tumour.) 
Old term synonymous with Pneumatocele. 

Physoceph'alus. (#Co-«; Kt<p a \v, 
the head.) Old term lor emphysema of the 

Physocoelia. (*Dcra; KoiXia, the 
bowels.) Term for Tympanites. 

Physocol'ica. (*wa; colica. F. 
physocolique ; G. Bldhungskolik.) Colic with 

PhySO'de'S. (*u<ra>6V [<pu<ra, elios], 
full of wind. F. physeux.) Full of wind ; 

Physodyspnoe'a. (*D<ra ; dyspnoea.) 
The same as Emphysemodyspnwa. 

Physohsematome'tra. (*u<ra ; hm- 
matometra.) An accumulation, in the uterine 
cavity, of blood mixed with extraneous gases. 

Phy sohy drome tra. (*D<ra ; hydro- 
metra.) A variety of Sydromctra gravidarum, 
or dropsy of the amnion, in which the gases of 
decomposition are mixed with the amniotic 

Physo'i'des. (*0<ra; elSos.) Resembling 
a bladder in appearance. 

Physo logy . (*5<ra, wind ; Xoyos, a 
discourse.) A discourse upon intestinal flatus. 

Physome'tra. (*Do-a, wind ; pvTpa, 
the womb. L. tympanites uteri. F. physo- 
metre; I. fisometria ; G. Mutterwindsucht.) 
The presence of air or the gases of decomposition 
in the cavity of the pregnant uterus, usually at 
or near full term. Air may pass into the uterus 
during obstetric operations, or, in smaller amount, 
may simply replace a portion of the liquor amnii 
as this escapes. Gas may be formed from de- 
composition of the foetus. In either case, death 
may occur from entrance of the air or gas into 
the uterine veins. See A'erhannoctonia. 

Physoncus. (*0cra; oyfcos, a tumour. 
F. phy sonde ; G. Windgeschwulst.) A localised 
abdominal swelling due to a collection of flatus, 
constituting the commonest kind of Phantom 
tumour. Also, Emphysema (Billings). 

Physopsoph ia. (4>uo-a, wind ; x^o'^os, 
a noise.) The escape of gas (including air) from 
the body, with a hissing noise. 

Physos'cheocele. (#u<ra; oscheocele.) 
Oscheocele containing flatus. 

Phy'SOSpasm. (Quara; <rrra<Tp.6s, a 
convulsion. G. Windkolik.) Colic caused by 

PhySOSti&T'ma. (*5<ra; stigma.) A 
Genus of the Tribe Phaseolece, Order Legu- 
minoscc, having a spiral keel, and a bearded 
style continued into an oblique hood. 

P., poi soning by. See under Physo- 
sligmatis semen. 

P. vene'nosum. (L. vcncnostts, poi- 
sonous. F.feve du Calabar; I. fava del Cala- 
bar ; G. Kalabarbohne.) A West African 
twining plant. Its seed is the Calabar bean or 
Physostigmatis semen. 
Physostig-'matin. Physostigmtnc. 


Physostig matis f aba. (L. faba, 
a bean.) Former name for P. semen. 

P. se men, B. Ph. (L. semen, -inis, seed.) 
The Calabar bean, or dried seed of Physostigma 
venenosum. It contains two alkaloids, Physo- 
stigmine or Eserine, and Calabarine. Dose of 
the powdered seed, 1 to 4 grains. From the 
seed are made Ext. physostigmatis, and Physo- 

Action. — Applied locally to the conjunctiva, 
the extract or preparations of physostigmine 
cause contraction of the pupil. Internally, 
Calabar bean causes vomiting and colicky pains, 
and, in larger doses, diarrhoea. Associated with 
these symptoms there are also faintness and 
shortness of breath, with contraction of the 
pupil, passing on, with a large dose, to increase 
of the above, -with salivation, sweating, frontal 
headache, a slow, feeble pulse, paralysis, and, in 
fatal cases, asphyxia. The part mainly affected 
is the spinal cord, motor paralysis occurring 
after large doses, from affection of the anterior 
cornua. The respiratory centre is first briefly 
stimulated, then depressed, and finally paralysed. 
The cardiac centre is at first stimulated, causing 
a slow, powerful heart's action ; but afterwards 
depressed. Contraction of the pupil, and spasm 
of accommodation, together with a fall of intra- 
ocular tension, occur from stimulation of the 
fibres of the motor oculi nerve. Salivation is 
due to stimulation of the centre for the chorda 
tympani nerve. The above-described action is 
due to the alkaloid Physostigmine. The action 
of Calabarine is similar, except that it has a 
stimulant effect on the spinal cord. 

Calabar bean has been given in the treatment 
of tetanus and other convulsive affections of the 
cord, and is occasionally used in the treatment 
of chronic constipation ; the alkaloid Physostig- 
mine is much used as a Myotic. 

Physostig-'mia. Physostigmine. 

Physostig-mi'na, B. Ph. Physostig- 
mine or Eserine, C 15 H 2I N 3 0 2 . An alkaloid con- 
tained in Physostigmatis semen, and made from 
Ext. physostigmatis by adding sodium bicar- 
bonate to an aqueous solution, shaking up with 
ether, and evaporating. It is obtained in faintly 
pink crystals, easily soluble in alcohol and dilute 
acids, only slightly in water. From it are pre- 
pared Lamella physostigminm (q. v.). 

Action, see under Physostigmatis semen. 

Physostig mi nae hydrobro mas. 
A soluble, hygroscopic, white amorphous powder. 
Dose, l-60th to l-20th grain. (Ex. Ph.) 

P. salic y las. {Physostigmine Salicylate, 
U.S. Ph. ; Physostigminum Salicylicum, P. G.) 
Crystalline; solubility 1 in 140 of cold water; 
solution at first colourless, but afterwards becom- 
ing red. Dose, l-60th to l-20th grain, or up to 
l-12th grain. From this is prepared Injectio 
p. salicylatis hypodermica. (Ex. Ph.) 

P. sulphas. A hygroscopic, white 
amorphous powder. Dose, l-60th to l-20th, 
or l-12th grain. From this are prepared the 
Guttas p., and Injectio p. sulphatis hypodermica. 
(Ex. Ph.) 

Physostigmine. See Physostigmina. 
Physothorax. (*Co-o; thorax.) Pneu- 

Phy tal buraose. (#uto'v ; albwnose.) 
An albwnose existing in the seeds of Leguminosce, 
in papaw juice, and in flour. 

Phytana'tomy. (*uto'i/, a plant ; ana- 
tomy.) Vegetable anatomy. 

Phytan'thrax. (Qvtov, a plant; av- 
doa£, charcoal.) Tordi's name for vegetable 

PhytaUX'ia. (#uto'i/, at/£is = aujijais, 
growth, increase.) Name used by Dupetit- 
Thouars for the growth of plants. 

Phytel ephas. (*utoi/; elcphas.) A 
Genus of the Order Phytelephasim, Class Mono- 
cotyledons. The plants of this genus develope 
an albumen, which is eatable while young, but, 
when ripe, becomes very hard, and forms the 
so-called " vegetable ivory " that is used as a 
substitute for elephants' tusks. 

Phyter'ythrin. (#utoV, a plant ; ipvd- 
pos, red.) A synonym of Phyllerythrin. 

Phyteuma. {JbvTtv/xa, a plant.) A 
Linn. Genus of plants ; Class Pentandria, Order 

P. orbicular'e. The Horned Rampion. 
Supposed by some to be efficacious in the cure of 

Phyteumacol'la. See Phytocolla. 
Phyteumatocol'la. See Phytocolla. 

Phyteus'is. ("Su-ra/o-is, a planting, and 
in general, producing.) A planting or producing. 

Phyteute'rion. {Qwrtv-rvpiov, a plant 
grown as a sucker, or in a nursery.) A nursery 
for trees, or nursery-garden. ma. (3>i/to'v, a plant; alp.a, 
blood.) The sap of plants. 

Phy tiat'rics. (4>uxoV ; laTptia, a means 
of healing.) The doctrine of the healing of 
plant diseases. 

Phyt'ice. (<I>utik-o's, coming from plants; 
to (pvTiKov, vegetable life.) Old term for vege- 
tative life. 

Phyt'icus. (*utiko's.) Belonging to 

Phytice ; vegetative. 

Phy'tiform. See Phyto'id. 

Phyti phagous. (#utoV; <paytiv, to 
devour.) See Phytophagous. 

Phy ti'vorbus. (*utod ; L. voro, to de- 
vour.) A hybrid word for Phytophagous. 

Phy toalope'cia. ($uto'» ; alopecia.) 
Alopecia areata ; also, term used for Tinea ton- 
surans. (Littre.) 

Phytobiolog/y. (fuToV; biology.) 
Vegetable biology. 

Pbytobiotis mus. (*uto'i/; /Ji'os, life.) 
Vegetable life. 

Phy tocataleps'is. (3>utoV ; cata- 
lepsis.). The maintenance by the leaves and 
other parts of plants of an acquired position, as, 
for example, the oblique position produced by 
the prevailing winds. 

Phytocero sium. (<$>vt6v; k^wo-is, 
the formation of wax.) Vegetable wax. 

Phytochemi'a. (*«™ ; chemia. F. 
phytochimie ; I. Jitochimia.) Phytochemistry. 

Phytochem'istry. (*u™; chemis- 
try.) The chemistry of plants. 

Phy tochlorai non. (*uto'u ; y\uyp6?, 
pale green.) Term, introduced by Giese, 
synonymous with Chlorophyll. 

Phy tochlore. The same as Phyto- 

Phy'tochrome. (<b\>T6v, \pwfxa, 

colour.) A name for Chlorophyll. 

Phytochym'istry. {®vt6v, chymis- 
try.) Botanical chemistry. 

Phytocolla. (*uto'w ; koXXo, glue. G. 
PhytoUoll.) General term for vegetable sub- 
stances containing a large amount of nitrogen. 

Phytocrcne gig- an tea. (*utoV ; 


Kpnvi), a spring, or well.) Aliane, the type of the 
Tribe Phytocrenea, Nat. Order Olacinea. The 
stem is white and extremely porous ; when cut, 
limpid, potable water flows from it. 

Phy toder'mata. (<&vt6v ; derma.) See 

Phytodermic diseases. See 

Phyto'de's. (*uto'v; tlfios, form.) Full 
of, or pertaining to, plants. 

Phytog ae a. (#utoV, yaia, earth. P. 
phytoye; G. Pflanzenerde.) Vegetable earth. 

Phyto'gramy. (<Pvt6v, yip.o%, mar- 
riage.) Name given by Dupetit-Thouars to "the 
marriage of the plants," i. e. the fertilisation of 
the flower. 

Phy tog e. (<Pvt6v ; y?j = yaia, earth.) 
The same as Phytogcea. 

Phy'togen. (4>i/toi/ ; ytvos, race, de- 
scent.) _ Term for the supposed principle of the 
generation of plants. 

Phytogen'esis. (#uto«; ytvi<ri<s, crea- 
tion, birth.) Term introduced by Dupetit- 
Thouars for germination. 

Phyto genous. (Phytogen.) Geol. 
Epithet applied by Brongniart to the group of 
earths that are produced by the accumulation of 
plant debris. 

Mineral. Applied by Jondi to a kind of coal 
which he named " Carbon phytogenium." 

Under the head of " Phytogenous substances," 
Haiiy has formed an appendix to the Combusti- 
bilia, comprehending those that have a vegetable 

Phyto'g"eny. The same as Phytogenesis. 

Phytog-eo'graphy. ($utod; geo- 
graphy.) 1. According to Schouw, the descrip- 
tion of the differences presented by plants over 
different parts of the globe. 

2. According to De Candolle, the description 
of plants, including the naming and description 
of species. 

Phyto'glyphy. (#i}toV; yXvcpv, carv- 
ing.) Nature-printing; lit., plant- engraving, so 
named because first used for plants ; also a syn. 
for Phytography. (Century Diet.) 

Phytognomon'ia. ($u™ ; yvwfiwv, 
a judge.) Old term for the naming and descrip- 
tion of the external parts of plants. 

Phytognomon'ics. (Same as Phyto- 
gnomonia.) The characteristics of plants, their 
habitat, &c. 

Phyto'graphy. (*utoV, a plant; 
ypa<pii, a writing, description.) The description 
of plants. 

Phytoid. (*utov; tliSos.) Eesembling 
a plant. 

Phytois'mus. (3>utoV) The process 
of vegetable life. 

Phy tolac'ca. (4>utov ; lacca.) A Linn. 
Genus of plants ; Class Decandria, Order Dcca- 
gynia; Juss. Phytolaccaceee. 

P. ber'ry. See Phytolacca bacca. 
P. decan'dra. Systematic name of the 
Pork physic, or American nightshade, a plant 
growing in Virginia and other parts of America. 
The leaves are said to be anodyne, and the juice 
of the root, violently cathartic. The berries also 
are used (see Phytolacca baccw). The plant has 
been used most generally in chronic rheumatism ; 
it was formerly believed to be a cure for 

P. dlo'lca. Native to Mexico and Brazil. 
The fruit is edible, and is eaten by the people 

living upon the coast of Algeria, where also the 
plant is grown. 

P. dras'tlca. A Chilian plant, growing 
among rocks. The root is chewed by the natives, 
for its purgative action. 

Phytolac ca? bae'eae, U.S. Ph. (L. 
bacca, a berry. F. raisin d'Amerique ; I. bacche 
dijitolacca; G. amerikanische Kermsbeere.) The 
berries of the Phytolacca decandra, also called 
oke berries. They are alterative, and, in large 
oses, emetic and purgative. 

P. ra dix, U.S. Ph. Poke root ; the root 
of the Phytolacca decandra. 

Phytolac ceae. 1. R.Brown'snamefora 
Family of plants having the Phytolacca for their 
type. 2. The Family of the Chenopodiacea is 
sometimes designated by this name. 

Phytolac'cic ac'id. An acid of pro- 
blematical existence, stated by Bracannot to be 
present in the stem of Phytolacca decandra. 

Phytolac'cin. 1. A crystalline substance 
obtained from the seeds of Phytolacca decandra. 
The crystals are soluble in alcohol, ether, and 
chloroform ; but insoluble in water. 2. A pow- 
dered alcoholic extract of Phytolacca radix, used 
in America, also, in the Ex. Ph., dose, 1 to 5 
grains, in a pill with glycerinum tragacanthse. 
From it, Tinctura Phytolacca (Ex. Ph.) is pre- 
pared. (For therapeutic action, see Phytolacca 

Phy'tolite. The same as Phytolith. 

Phy'tolith. (<t>vrov, a plant; X£6os, a 
stone. F. phytolithe ; G. PJlanzetiversteinerung .) 
A petrified or fossil plant. 

Phytolithology. (Phytolith; Xdyos, 
a discourse.) A treatise on fossil plants. 

Phyto'log"y. ($vt6v, a plant; \oyos, a 
discourse.) The same as Botany. 

Phytomel'in. (*uto'i/; /KtXas, black.) 
A synonym of Putin. 

Phytomentag'ra. (Qvtov, mentagra.) 
A synonym of Sycosis. 

Phytomephi tis. (<Put6v; mephitis.) 
A mephitis, or mephitic miasm, of vegetable 

Phy tomer. ($vt6v\ ^ipos, a part.) One 
of the proximate principles in the structure of a 
specialised plant. 

Phytomor'phic. Belonging to Phyto- 

Pbyt'omorphism. ($>vt6v ; p.op<pv, 
form.) The study or the forms of outline in plants. 

Phy'ton. (*oto'v.) A plant. 

Phytonec'tar. (4>uxd«; vinrap, the 
drink of the gods.) Term used by Braconnot for 
the pure honey from flowers. 

Phytonomatotech'nia. (4>vt6v ; 
ovottu. -otos, a name; Tt'xi/ij, an art.) Term 
introduced by Bergerot for the naming of plants. 

Phyto'nomy. (*utoV; v6p,os, a law.) 
The laws of vegetation in general. 

Phytonose'ma. (&vt6v, koVii/uo, a 
disease.) Plant disease. 

Phytonoso'log-y. (*«'tom; nosology.) 
The classification of plant diseases. 

Phytonym'phia. (*uto'k: vvfupiot, 
wedded.) Term applied by Dupetit-Thouars to 
the inflorescence, or the first appearance of the 

Phytorvymy. (Qvtov; Sw/na, Aeol. for 
5vona, a name. F. phytonymie ; G. Phytonymie.) 
The nomenclature of plants. 

Phytopar'asite. (*ut<$i>; parasite.) 
The same as Epiphyte. 


Phytopathology. (*uT-oi/; patho- 
logy.) Vegetable pathology ; also, the pathology 
oi diseases caused hy vegetable parasites. (Bil- 

PhytO'phagOUS. (*utov ; <f>ayiiv, to 
devour.) The same as Herbivorous. 

Phyto'philous. (#utoV; <piktu>, to 
love.) Plant-loving. 

Phyto phthora intes tans, Bary. 
The Peronospora infestans. 

Phytophyla'cium. (Jburov, cpuXaxiov 
= <t>v\aKiiov, a watch tower.) A plant-house. 

Phytophysiognomon'ics. (*utw; 
physiognornonics.) The study of the individual 
characteristics of plants. 

Phytophysio'log-y . (*u-rdV ; physio- 
logy.) Vegetable physiology. 

Pny'toplasm. (<&ut6v, plasma.) The 
protoplasm of plant- cells; also, according to 
Littre, the plasma of the latex of plants. 

Phyto polite. {&vt6v ; -n-oXiTtjs, a 
citizen. G. blattburgerlich.) Epithet applied 
by Palisot-Beauvais to every vegetable organism 
growing upon another vegetable organism, 
whether living upon the latter' s substance or not. 

Phytoproteine'ma. (*uto'w; protein.) 
A vegetable combination of protein. 

Phytopto'sis. {Phytoptus.) The dis- 
ease, consisting in overgrowth, caused in plants 
by members of the Genus Phytoptus. 

Phytop'tus ri'bis. (&vt6v, otttvp, 
one who spies after a thing ; L. ribes, red 
gooseberries.) The Currant Mite ; Genus Phy- 
toptus, Order Arachnida. The mite is whitish 
in colour, and about l-200th of an inch long; it 
feeds upon the buds and their sap. There are 
other distinct species of the Family Phytoptus 
infesting the pear-tree, the lime, the birch, &c. 

Phytor'g"anies. {fbwrov ; opyavov, an 
organ of senseT) A vegetable parasitic growth. 

Phytorgano'graphy. (*utoV; or- 
ganography.) The describing of the internal 
organisation of plants. 

Phytoschesia. (*i/to'v; crxi'£ a > a 
splinter of wood.) Term used, by Dupetit- 
Thouars, for the investigation of the further 
progress of cuttings and grafts taken from 

Phytosco'ria. (*utoV, o-Kwpia, filthy 
refuse, especially the dross of metal.) The 
remains or refuse of decayed plants ; coal. 

Phytosep ticus. (&vt6v ; septic.) Be- 
longing to decaying or putrid vegetable matter. 

Phyto'sis. (4>i/tok.) 1. A synonym of 
Tinea. 2. The progress, or life-history, of plants. 
P. annula ta. The same as P. circinata. 
P. circina ta. £. Wilson's term for 
Tinea circinata. 

P. favo'sa. Tinea favosa. 
P. ton surans. Tinea tonsurans. 
P. versi'color. Tinea versicolor. 
Phy tosper mata. (<&vtov ; a-Trlp/ia, a 
germ or seed.) The granules or fovillce of the 
pollen cell (Mirbel, 1839) ; also, the spermatozoids 
of cryptogamic plants. 

Phyto sterin. C 2fl H< 4 0 + H 2 0. "Vege- 
table cholesterin." A substance occurring in 
the seeds of many of the Leguminosce, pea, 
maize, colchicum, Calabar bean, &o. It is 
obtained from peas by treating them with petro- 
' leum ether, evaporating, pressing between pieces 
of filter paper, and crystallising out from alcohol. 
The reactions of a chloroform solution of phyto- 

aterin are the same as those of a similar solution 
of cholesterin. (Loebisch.) 

Phy'totaxy. QPutov', ra^ts, an arrang- 
ing.) Plant classification. 

Phytotech'nia. (#utoV, rtxvn, an 
art.) Term used, by Desvaux, for the distin- 
guishing, classifying and naming of plants ; by 
H. Cassini, for the study of plants, and the 
teaching of that study. 

Phytoterops'ia. (*uto'i>; Ttplw, to 
bore through.) The same as Phytopathology. 

Phy totne'ca. (<J>uto'i/ ; o>jk»j, a box.) A 
box of plants ; also used as synonymous with 

Phytotherapi'a. ($vt6v, Qtpaviia, 
care, nurture.) The cultivation of plants. 

Phytothe'rion. (<Put6v, a plant; 0>j- 
piov, a beast.) A term synonymous with Zoo- 
phyte ; also, applied to the plant Polypodium 

Phytotoc'ia. (<&utov ; tokos, a birth. 
G. Pflanzengeburt.) Plant-birth; applied by 
Dupetit-Thouars to the changes undergone by 
the fertilised pistil. 

Phyto'tomist. (See Phytotomy.) A 
plant dissector. See Anatomist. 

Phyto'tomy. (3>uto'k ; topA, a cutting.) 

Phytotopo'logy. (*uto'i/; topology.) 
The study of the distribution of plants. 

Phytotraumat'ia. (4>m-oV, xpau/xa, 

a wound, or hurt.) Term used, by Dupetit- 
Thouars, for the study of injuries to plants, 
especially those due to removal of some of their 

Phytotroph'ia. (*utov ; -rpofyri, nou- 
rishment.) Term used, by Dupetit-Thouars, for 
the study of plant- nutrition. 

Phytotroph'on. (<bur6v ; Tpo(j>6v [to], 
that which nourishes, namely food.) Plant- 

Phytotrop'ia. (*utoV; Tpoirv, a turning 
round.) Term, introduced by Link, for the art 
of producing artificial varieties of plants. 

Phy tovitel lin. (*utoi/ ; vitellin.) 
Plant vitellin ; a substance very similar to 
animal vitellin, found in the seeds of the pump- 
kin and other plants. 

Phy tozo a. (PI. of Phytozoon.) Certain 
animals which resemble plants ; Zoophytes. Also, 
marine animalcules living in plant tissues. 

Phytozo'an. Belonging to the Phytozoa. 

Also, the same as Phytozoon. 

Phytozoa'ria. (Norn, pi. n.) The In- 

Phytozo on, ($utoV ; X,wov, an animal. 
F. phytozoaire ; G. Pflanzenthier.) The same 
as Zoophyte. 

Pi a. A name for Arrowroot, Tahiti. 

Pi'a ma'ter. L. (Kind mother ; because it 
nourishes the brain, and was anciently supposed 
to be its origin. F. pie mere ; I. pia madre ; G. 
weiche Haut, Gefdsshaut.) The vascular mem- 
brane immediately investing the brain and spinal 
cord. It oonsists of delicate connective and 
elastic tissue, covered in part with epithelial 
cells, and forming a framework for a minute 
plexus of blood-vessels. Besides investing the 
entire surface of the brain, it dips down between 
the convolutions and lamince, and sends processes 
into the interior. Such are the choroid plexuses 
of the fourth ventricle, and the velum interposi- 
tum, which passes through the transverse fissure. 
The membrane varies considerably in vascularity 


and thickness in different parts of the brain ; upon 
the crura cerebri and pons Varolii its structure 
is densely fibrous, and out little vascular. 

P. ma ter tes'tls. The Tunica vasculosa 

P. men'inx. The P. mater. 
Pial. Belonging to the Fia mater. 

P. sheath. (G. Pialscheide.) A name for 
the pia mater sheath of the optic nerve. (Bil- 

Pl an. See Frambcesia. 

P., mother of. See Mama pi an. 
Pianoforte player's cramp. (F. 

crampe des pianistes ; G. Klavierspielerkrampf.) 
A variety of Writer's cramp or Scrivener' s palsy 
occurring in pianists. 

Piante rium. (Jliaivw, to fatten.) Old 
term for a fattening substance. 

Pi'ar. (IIia/D, fat.) Old medical term for 

Piarhae'mia. (ntop, fat; alua, blood. 
F. piarrhemie ; G. Fettblut.) A morbid condi- 
tion characterised by the occurrence of free fat 
in the blood. 

Piarolyt'ic. (Ulap ; \vu, to loosen.) 

Piassa'ba, or Piassa'ne. The same 
as Para piassaba. See Leopoldinia piassaba. 

Piatigorsk, mineral waters 
of. The Caucasus, Russia. There are seven- 
teen saline, sulphur springs, varying in tem- 
perature from 28-5° to 45-5° C. In 1000 parts 
they contain from -0005 to *134 of sulphuretted 
hydrogen, and 1*46 to 1'93 of sodium chloride. 
There are, besides these, a bitter spring, at 
Lysogorsh, containing 10 - 19 parts of sodium 
chloride, 2-24 of potassium sulphate, 3'27 of 
sodium sulphate, and 3'06 of magnesium sul- 
phate ; and a lake, the Tambucansee, containing 
16-96 of sodium chloride, 1T6 of sodium sulphate, 
and 16*79 of magnesium sulphate, in 1000 parts. 
(Geissler and Holler.) 

Piat tones. Old term, translated from 
It. idiom into Lat., for Pediculi pubis. See 
Fediculus pubis. 

Pi'ca. (L. pica, a magpie.) In Med. (F. 
pica, picacisme ; G. Krankhafte Esslust), de- 
praved appetite, common in insanity, pregnancy, 
and hysteria; also occurring, but less commonly, 
in chlorosis ; named after the magpie, on account 
of this bird's omnivorous habits. 

Also, a Genus of the Corvidce containing the 
common magpie, P. melanoleuca. 

P. afrlcano'rum. Chthonophagia. 

Pic'ac. The Euphorbia corollata. 

Picacis mus. (L. pix.) Depilation by 
use of a pitch plaster. In Med. Pathol. = Dro- 

Pi'cae. (L. picus, a woodpecker.) An Order 
of the Class Aves having a straight wedge-shaped 
bill, an extensible, barbed tongue, and apically 
stiffened tail-feathers ; the first and fourth toes 
are turned backwards. It includes the wood- 
peckers and the wrynecks. 

Pic amar. (L. pix ; amarus, bitter.) An 
oily substance found in the tarry matters ob- 
tained by the dry distillation of wood. (Reichen- 

Pica'o de Prai'a. (Span.) Name for 
the leaves and flowers of Acanthospermum 

Pica'tlo. An old term = pica. Med. 
Pharm. Also a name for a certain remedy, which 
was a species of Dropax. 

Pice'a. (flewo;.) The pitch pine, Finns 

P. excel'sa. Syn. for Pinus abies. 

Pi'celt. A name for the Nicotiana tabaeum. 

Pl'ceous. (F. de poix-passe ; G. gepicht.) 
Belonging to pitch ; pitch-black. 

Picer'ion. (lliKipiov = pouTupov.) Old 
term for butter. 

Pi'chi. Name (American Indian ?) for the 
Chilian plant Fabiana imbricata. The plant 
contains an ethereal oil, a resin, an alkaloid, and 
a glucoside ; which last closely resembles JEs- 
culin. It is used as a diuretic, antiseptic and 
sedative, in bladder diseases ; it is used also in 
liver affections. 

Pichu rim bean. The fruit of the Nec- 
tandra puchury (Laurus pichurim of Richard) ; 
elliptical, flattened on one side, convex on the 
other, taste spicy, odour aromatic. Action, that 
of aromatics in general. 

P. cor'tex. The highly aromatic bark of 
a species of Laurus, used in Lisbon in dysentery 
and to allay vomiting. 

Pichurinstearic acid. A syn. of 
Laurie acid. 

Pici. See Piece. 

Pi'ciS. (L.) Gen. of Pix. 
P. emplas'trum. See under Emplas- 

P. liquldse uaguen'tum. See under 


Pick'eridg"e. One of the varieties of 
Warbles ; a swelling occurring on the backs of 

Pickle. (Mid. E. pikil. G. Pokel or 
Bokel.) Any solution for preserving animal or 
vegetable food ; term originally used for brine 
in which herrings were preserved. For pickling 
vegetables, vinegar is generally used, flavoured 
with spices or aromatic herbs. For pickling ani- 
mal food, ordinary brine is used, mixed with sugar, 
nitre, and spices. It is of great importance that no 
vessel of copper, zinc, lead, or brass should be used 
either in preparing or storing pickles. Pickles 
used sparingly aid digestion by stimulating the 
nerves of taste and the gastric nerves, and their 
acid acts as a solvent to many constituents of 
food. Used in excess they cause dyspepsia. 

Picnohydro'meter. {Picno meter ; 
hydrometer.} An apparatus which is a combined 
picnometer and hydrometer. {Century Diet.) 

Picnometer. See Pycnometer. 

Picoden dron Sloan eii. See Lig- 
num quassia; spurium. 

Pic'oline. C 5 H<(CH 3 )N. A methyl- 
pyridine, isomeric with aniline. It is a volatile 
body, found in the tarry matters obtained in the 
destructive distillation of organic substances; and 
is also present in tobacco-smoke, together with 
other pyridine compounds, all of which have an 
action similar to that of nicotine, but weaker. 

Pico'ta. Old medical term for an affection 
characterised by small pustules of a red colour. 
The same as Sarrampis. 

PiCOte'. (F.) A common name for Variola, 
in some of the French provinces. (Littre.) 

P. des betes a lalne. The Mot of sheep. 

Picquotfa'na. Name employed in 
France, where it is cultivated, for the Psoralen 

Pi era. See Hiera picra. 

Picrac'onine. A derivative of Picra- 

Picraconitine. (Tli^ds; aconitine.) 


C 3 ,H„NO 10 . An alkaloid derived from A con itum 


Picrae'na excel'sa. Order Simarubacea. 
Habitat, Jamaica. The tree yielding Quassia 
lignum, B. Ph. 

P. quassioi des. Habitat, China and 
the Himalayas. Used in the Pharm. Ind. under 
the name of Brucea (see B. quassioides) as a 
substitute for Quassia. The bark is febrifuge. 

Pier am ic acid. See under Picric acid 

Pic'ramin. (TliKpos, pungent, bitter.) 
Name employed by Berzelius for the alkaloid 

Ficram'nia. The typical Genus of the 
Tribe Picramnia, Order Simarubacea. 

P. antides'ma. A Mexican and West 
Indian shrub. The bark is used in syphilis, and 
as a tonic and alterative, under the name of 
Honduras bark. 

P. bark. See P. antidesma. 

P. cilia ta. A Brazilian plant. The bark 
is sometimes used instead of Cascarilla bark. 

Picram niae. A Tribe of plants, Order 
Simarubacea, of which the Genus Picramnia is 
the type. 

Picras ma excel'sa. The Picrana 

Pic'rate. (ni/cpos. L. picras ; I.picrato.) 
A salt of picric acid. The best known salts are 
the Ammonium picrate and Sodium picrate. 

P. of iron. This exists in two forms, as 
a ferrous and as a ferric salt. It is not of any 

Pic'ria. (TIiKpia, sourness or bitterness.) 

Pic ric ac id. C 6 H 2 (NO.,) 3 OH. (L.aci- 
dum picrienm. F. acide picrique ; G. Picrin- 
saure.) Trinitrophenol. A bright yellow, 
crystalline compound, poisonous, and explosive 
when heated rapidly. It dyes organic substances 
permanently yellow. It has a bitter taste, and 
strong acid properties ; is soluble in 86 parts of 
water at 15° C, and readily soluble in alcohol and 
ether. It has been used for ague and albuminuria ; 
for hardening tissues ; and in certain tests. 

P. ac id tests. A saturated solution is 
used. 1. For albumen in urine. The solution 
poured upon the urine gives an opalescent pre- 
cipitate of coagulated albumen where the liquids 

2. For sugar in urine. The urine is boiled 
with picric acid and potash solution. A deep 
red colour is formed when "sugar is present, from 
formation of picramic acid, and, subsequently, 
picramate of potassium. 

Pi cris. (IIiK-pds, bitter.) A name for the 
Cichorium intybus. 

P. echoid'es. A name for the common 
ox-tongue, Helminthia echio'ides. (Hooper.) 

Pi'crium spica'tum. The Coutoubea 

Picroacon itine. See Picraconitine. 

Picroadon idin. (Ili/cpos; Adonis.) 
The active principle of the Adonis vernalis. It 
is an intensely bitter, amorphous glucoside, 
readily soluble in water. Taken internally it is 
a powerful cardiac poison. 

Picroan ilin. (UiKpof, anilin.) A 
mixture of saturated solutions of picric acid and 
anilin blue ; used to colour microscopic objects. 
(Geissler and Moller.) 

Picrocar'mlne. A red staining-fluid, 
made by adding to picric acid an ammoniacal 

solution of carmine. Also called Picrocarminate 
of ammonia. 

Picro'cholOUB. (JliKpoxoXoi ; from 
vo\>j, bile.) Old medical term, sig- 
nifying full of bitter bile ; and hence, metaph., 

Picrocro'cin. (TftKpo?; Crocus.) Saffron- 
bitter. A bitter, crystalline glucoside obtained 
from ethereal extract of Saffron. When boiled 
with dilute acids it splits up into oil of saffron 
and sugar. 

Picrocyam'ic ac'id. Isopurpuric acid. 

Picrog"ly cion. (n«c/>os, bitter; yXu/aos, 
sweet.) Name for a bitter-sweet substance iso- 
lated from Solanum dulcamara. 

Picroliche'nin. (JIiupos; lichenin.) 
Ci 2 H )0 O 6 . An intensely bitter crystalline body, 
soluble in boiling water, obtained from Vario- 
laria amara. (Littre.) 

Pic romel. (Jltupos, bitter; fit\i, honey.) 
A bitter-sweet substance obtained from the bile, 
consisting of a mixture of the glycocholate and 
taurocholate of soda, with the addition of sugar ; 
the choleic acid of Demanjay. (Littre.) 

Picrope g-ae. Nom. pi. (Ilt/cpos ; injyi?, 
a spring.) Term for mineral waters, bitter from 
magnesium chloride in solution. 

Picropodophyl lie ac'id. A bitter 
crystalline acid obtained from Podophyllotoxin. 
See Pier opodophy llin. 

Picropodo phyllin. (TliKpos; podo- 
phyllin.) A bitter, crystalline, neutral body 
obtained, together with picropodophyllic acid 
and podophyllic acid, by the splitting up of Po- 
dophyllotoxin by means of ammonia. 

Picrorhi'za tee'ta. (TliKpSi ; pt'£a, a 
root.) Order Scrophularinece, Tribe Digitalece. 
Hab., the Himalayas. This plant is intensely 
bitter, and is in high repute for ague. 

Pic'ro sacchari meter. (Ui K p6s ; 
c-aKxapov, sugar [L. saccharum ; F. saccharin] ; 
and ixinrpov, a measure.) An apparatus invented 
by Dr. G. Johnson for the quantitative estima- 
tion of sugar in urine, by means of the Picric 
acid test (q. v.). The colour produced on boil- 
ing the urine with picric acid is compared with 
that of a standard solution. 

Pic rotin. A constituent principle of 

Picrotox in. C 9 H I0 0 4 . (IWos, bitter ; 
to£ov, an arrow.) U.S. Ph. The bitter, poi- 
sonous principle prepared from the seeds of 
Cocculus indicus. It is neutral, and does not 
form salts; it crystallises in white needles or 
laminae; is sparingly soluble in water, freely 
soluble in glacial acetic acid, in alkaline solu- 
tions, alcohol, ether, and chloroform; gives an 
orange colour with hot sulphuric acid, and 
reddens Fehling's solution. Physiologically, it 
acts as a motor stimulant. It can be split up 
into the two bodies Picrotoxinin and Picrotin. 
It has been used to check night-sweats, and in 
chronic alcoholism. 

Picrotox'inin. A constituent principle 
of Picrotoxin. 

Picrotoxi'num. Picrotoxin. 

Picta'vi. The same as Pictoncs. 

Pic tones. A people of Gaul, south of the 
Loire, in the region now known as Poictou. Lead 
colic has been very prevalent in this country, 
hence the term Colica pictonum . 

Pie plant. See P. rhubarb. 
P. rbu'barb. The Rheum rhaponlicwn. 

Pie'bald skin. See Leukoderma. 


Pied mont spring's. A name for 
various mineral springs in the United States. 1. 
Sulphur springs near Oakland, in Alameda Co., 

2. Chalybeate springs near Danbury, in Stokes 
Co., N. Carolina. 

3. Sulphuretted and chalybeate springs in 
Burke Co., N. Carolina. (Billings.) 

P. truffle. The Tuber cibarium. 
Pier'refonds. In France, departement 
Oise. A cold sulphur spring, and a chalybeate 

Pies'ma. (n/ei^a; Trie£u>, to press or 
squeeze.) Bot. Ancient term for either a thick 
juice expressed, or a pulpy mass left after ex- 
pression of the juice. 

Pies'meter. (n«&«i p.£rpov, a mea- 
sure.) Med. An instrument devised for 
estimating the acuteness of the sense of pres- 

Pies trum. (U'uaTpov = triicrTi'jpiov, a 
press ; -wit^w, to compress.) An ancient obstet- 
rical instrument, which was designed to crush 
the head of a dead foetus, in order to facilitate 

Pietrapo'la. A place in Corsica, where 
there is a mineral spring containing '02 parts of 
sodium chloride per 1000. 

Piezometer. (IIu£u>, to compress ; 
UtTp ou, a measure. F. piezometre; G. Druck- 
messer.) An apparatus for estimating the tension 
of liquids. 

Pif fard's paste. Used as a test for 
sugar in urine. It is composed of one part of 
sulphate of copper, 5 parts of tartarated soda, 
and 2 of caustic soda. 

Pig-nut. The nut of Bunium bulbocasta- 
mtm, so called because of the fondness for it 
exhibited by pigs. 

P. ty phoid. Swine plague. 
P.'s wrack. The Chondrus crispus. 
Pige on. (L. pipire, to chirp ; pipionem, 
acc. of pipio, a chirper. F. pigeon.) General 
name for the Genus Columba. 

P. ber'ry. The fruit of the Phytolacca 

P. breast. Deformity of thorax, so called 
from its resemblance to a pigeon's breast. The 
ribs are flattened laterally, and the sternum pro- 
jects like a keel. 

P. cher'ry. The Prunus pennsylvanica ; 
also, its fruit. 

P. diphtheria. 1. A disease arising 
naturally among pigeons. 2. Produced arti- 
ficially (not identical with 1), characterised by 
the production of false membrane. 

P. louse. Dermanyssus avium. 

P. pea. The Cajanus indie us. 

P. tree. The Aralia spinosa. 
Pige'onfoot. A syn. of Dove's foot. 
Pigment. (L. pigmentum, paint. F. 
pigment; I. pigmento ; G. Pigment, Farbstoff.) 
Paint. In Physiol., colouring matter occurring 
usually in granules in the tissues and secretions 
of plants and animals as a normal constituent. 
There are also morbid pigments. The excess or 
deficiency of a pigment may bo a symptom of dis- 
ease ; as also its misplacement, as in jaundice. 

P. bacte'rla. Certain bacteria which 
have the property of abstracting pigment from 
various bodies. 

P., bil iary. See Bilirubin ; also, Bili- 

P. cells. Large, irregularly branched 


connective tissue cells containing pigment, very 
common in many animals. In the human body 
they are found in the choroid tunic, iris, pia 
mater of the upper part of the cord, lymphatic 
glands, and sometimes the spleen. Migratory 
•ells sometimes contain pigment, usually only in 
pathological conditions. 

P. em bolism. See Embolism, pigmental. 

P. gran ules. See chief heading. 

P. indura'tlon. The name for a chronic 
inflammatory process, chiefly applied to that 
process as occurring in the lungs, associated with 
deposit of pigment derived from the blood, pro- 
bably of the nature of hcematoidin. 

P., liv'er. See Liver, pigmentation of. 

P. of blood. Haemoglobin, which splits 
up into a colourless proteid closely related to 
globulin, and a coloured compound hcematin. 

P. sarco'ma. Sarcoma, melanotic. 

P. spot. 1. A term for Ncevus. 

2. Zool. The "eye-spot" of certain of the 
Protozoa. See under Spot. 

3. Bot. A brownish spot seen in some vege- 
table spores. 

P., u rinary . There are several pigments 
occurring in the urine. 1. Indican (q. v.). 

2. TTroerythin. Supposed to give to rheu- 
matic urine its pink colour. 

3. Urobilin. But little exists ready formed in 

4. Urochrome. The antecedent of Urobilin. 
Pigmen tal. Belonging to, or producing, 


P. em'bolism. See under Embolism. 
Pigmentar'ius. A seller of paints or 
of ointments. 

Pig mentary. Containing, or belonging 
to, pigment. 

P. degenera tion. See under Degenera- 

P. lay'er. (L. tapetum nigrum.) The 
outer stratum of the retina, which has a pig- 
mented epithelium. 

P. nae'vus. See Ncevus. 
Pigmenta tion. The process of deposi- 
tion ot pigment, whether physiological or patho- 

Pigmented. Containing pigment. 

Pigmentum. (L.) Pigment. 
P. chlo ral et cam'phorae, Throat Hosp. 
Pharm. Rub together flowers of camphor and 
chloral hydrate, of each 1 oz., in a warm mortar, 
until liquid, and then filter. A permanent liquid 
at ordinary temperatures. Used as a local appli- 
cation in rheumatism and neuralgia. 

P. cbrysarobl'nl, Ex. Ph. Mix together 
pure chrysarobin 1 oz., liquor gutta-percha, B. 
Ph., 9 fl. oz. Used as a local application for 

P. glas'tl. (L. glastum, the herb "Woad, 
which furnished a blue pigment.) A syn. of P. 

P. In dicum. Indigo. 

P. io'di et o'lel pi els. A name for 
Coster's paste. 

P. ni grum. The pigment of the Choroid 
tunic of the eye. 

P. papa'ln, Ex. Ph. Papain 12 gr., borax 
5 gr., water 2 dr. It has been used to remove 
warts, and to dissolve diphtheritic false mem- 

P. plcrotoxl'nl, Ex. Ph. Dissolve picro- 
toxin 8 gr. in glacial acetic acid 4 dr. ; add 
castor oil 4 dr., and eucalyptus oil 16 min. It 



has been used for Tinea tonsurans, but with less 
success than Coster's paste. 

P. plum'bl. A syn. for Glycerinum 
plumbi subacetatis, B. Ph. 

P. uru cu. A syn. for Annotto. 

PigT'weed. The Chenopodium album. 

Pii tis. (Pia, i.e. Pia mater.) Inflamma- 
tion of the pia mater ; synonymous with Lepto~ 

Pike. See Esox lucius. 

Pikrope'erBB. See Picropegce. 

Pi kry. The same as Picra. 

Pil. Abbrev. for Pilula. 

Pil'a. (L. Pilus, a hair [one meaning of 
pila being an effigy stuffed with straw] ; or 
■7Tt\os, a ball, globe, also hair matted into felt.) 
A ball or globe ; also, a pill. 

P. damar'um. (L. dama, a fallow deer.) 

P. bys'tricis. The Bezoar hystricis. 
P. marina. A globular mass composed 
of the fibres of marine plants, chiefly the Zostera 
marina, abounding on the shores of the Medi- 
terranean ; formerly used as an anthelmintic and 
in scrofula. 

P. ruplcaprar'um. (L. ntpicapra, a 
wild goat.) ^Egagropihis. 

Pi la. L. (Piso =pinso, to pound.) A 
mortar and pestle. 

Pilaco'tia. (Pilulce ; coccxcr.) Syn. "pill 
cochia." A mixture of aloes and colocynth. 
Used as a purgative. 

Pilar. (L. pilaris. F.pilaire ; G. haarig.) 
Pertaining to hair. 

P. mus'cles. Arrectores pilorum. 

Pilar'e, ma lum. The hair evil. See 
Malum pilare. 

Pilaris, mor bus. The hair disease ; 
a syn. of Trichiasis. 

Pi'lary. The same as Pilar. 

Pila'tlO. (L. pilus, a hair.) The same as 
Capillary fissure. 

Pile. (M. E.pile, aheap.) A heap of things 
laid one on another. A haemorrhoid ; see Piles. 
Also (L. pilus) a hair. 

P. -clamp. An instrument, of which various 
forms have been devised, for crushing the base 
of the pile before cutting off, or for holding and 
compressing the pile while it is removed by the 

P., dry, of Zambon'i. This is made of 
paper discs, coated on one side with zinc-foil, and 
on the other, with binoxide of manganese, several 
thousand discs being piled one on another in a 
glass tube. These may be used for the same 
medical purposes as ordinary voltaic cells, but 
are not commonly employed. 

Pi lea pu'mila. (Pilus.) An American 
herb, Order Urticacece. It has been used locally 
as a wash for the skin- affection occurring in 
poisoning by different species of Rhus. 

Pi'leiform. (L. pilus; forma, shape.) 

Pi'leola. Pot. Mirbel's name for the 
funnel-shaped primordial leaf which covers the 
other leaves in the gemmule or stem-bud. 

Pi'leolus. (L. pilcolus, a little hat.) 1. 
A caul. 

2. Bot. The same as Pileola. 

Pileorhiza. (L. pileus, a cap ; Gr. pt£a, 
a root.) Bot. The root-sheath. 

Pileous. (Pilus.) Hairy. 
P. sys tem. Bichat's term for the arrange- 
ment of hair on the body. 

Piles. PI. of Pile. Common name for 


P., bleeding. Piles which bleed ; in- 
ternal piles frequently bleed. See Hemorrhoids, 

P., blind. Non-bleeding piles. 

P., capillary. One of the two main 
varieties of P., internal (q. v.). They consist 
of a superficial protruding mass of small vessels 
in the mucous membrane of the rectum. 

P., cuta'neous. A form of external piles 
consisting of masses of hypertrophied skin. 

P., exter'nal. See Haemorrhoids, ex- 

P., flesb'y. The same as P., cutaneous. 
P., inter'nal. See Haemorrhoids, in- 

They are generally described as of two kinds, 
capillary and venous. See P., capillary and P., 

P., oede'matous. Term for a swelling 
and inflammation of one or more of the muco- 
cutaneous folds of the anus. Not, strictly 
speaking, piles. (Cripps.) 

P., o pen. Bleeding piles. 

P., tbrombot'ic. External piles com- 
posed of veins that have become inflamed and 
then ruptured, with subsequent clotting of the 
effused blood. (Cripps.) 

P., ve'nous. One of the two varieties of 
P., internal usually described. They consist of 
swellings composed of several large varicose veins 
covered by mucous membrane. 

Pi'leum. (L. pileum, a cap.) Ornithol. 
The surface of the whole top of the head, and of 
the side of the head above the level of the eyes. 
It is divided into front, corona, and occiput. 
(Century Diet.) 

Pi leus. (L.) Originally a hat. Hence 
used with the following meanings : A nipple- 
shield. A caul. Cuctipha. In Ornithol., a syn. 
of Pileum. 

P. Hippocrat'icus. The cap of Hippo- 
crates. See Bandage, capeline. 

Pile wort. (Pile; wort.) The Ranun- 
culus ficaria ; so called because the crushed root 
has been used to make a poultice for piles. 
Pil'i. (PL of pilus.) Hairs. 

P. ana'les. The hairs round the anus. 

P. cibo'tli. The hairs of Cibotium baro- 
metz, used locally as a styptic. 

P. compos'ltl. In Bot., compound hairs ; 
they may be either feathery, plumosi, branched, 
ramosi, or star-like, stellati. 

P. cong-en'itl. Congenital hairs; the 
hair, i. e., of the head, the eyebrows, and eye- 

P. cu'tls. A term for Lanugo. 

P. grossyp il. A name for the Gossypium 
of the B. Ph. 

P. palpebrar'um. (L. palpebrce, the 
eyelids.) The eyelashes. 

P. postgen itl. Postgenital hairs ; the 
hair of the pubes, axilla?, &c, and, in men, of 
the face, all of which first develope about pu- 

P. pudendo'rum. The pubic hairs. 

P. slm'pllces. In Bot., simple hairs; 
they are usually in the form of flexible-jointed 

P. Bubaxillar'es. The axillary hairs. 
Pilid ium. 1. The hemispherical apothe- 
ciutn of certain lichens. 
2. The name for a supposed Gsnus, which was 


made up in reality of merely a number of larvae 
of different species of Nemertini. 

3. A Genus of false limpets of the Family 

4. A syn. of Pileola. 

Pili ierous. (L. Pilus ; fero, to bear.) 
Bearing hair. Zo'61. Applied by Blainville to 
Mammifera, because their body is covered with 

Bot. Applied to parts of the plant which bear 
several hairs, or which terminate in a single 

Pi liform. (L. pilus ; forma, likeness.) 

Pil'igran. (South American name.) The 
Lycopodium saururus, a South American species 
of Lycopodium (Billings). Used where it is 
native, as an emetic and purgative. 

PiliS' anine. An alkaloid obtained from 
Piligan. In large doses, it causes vomiting, 
convulsions, and asphyxia by direct action on 
the medulla (Bardet) ; in small doses, it causes 
vomiting and purging. 

Pili'g-erous. (L. gero, to bear.) Pili- 

PilimiCtiO. (L. pili, hairs; mingo, 
miction, to make water.) A disease of the bladder 
or kidneys in which piliform, hair-like bodies 
are passed in the urine. It has also been termed 
Pill. See Pilula. 

P., Ab'ernethy's. Pil. hydrarg. gr. 10, 
Pulv. jal. gr. 20, Syr. rhamni q. s. ut riant pil. 
6. Two at night, followed by Inf. sennse the 
next morning. 

P., analep tic, James'. See James' 
analeptic pills. 

P., An derson's. Pilula aloes et ja- 

P., an odyne. Pilula opiata. 

P., antibil ious. Barclay's. Ext. of 
coloeynth 2 dr., jalap resin 1 dr., almond soap 
\\ dr., guaiac 3 dr., tartar emetic 8 gr., oils of 
rosemary, juniper, and caraway, 4 min. each, 
syr. of buckthorn enough to make 64 pills. 
Dose, 2 or 3 pills. (Dunglison.) 

Dixon's. Aloes, scammony, rhubarb, and 
tartar emetic. 

P., Ba'ly's. Pulv. digitalis, Pulv. scillae, 
Pil. hydrarg., ana gr. 1. 

P., Barbaros sa's. See Barbarossa's 

P., Bar thez's. Aloes, myrrh, camphor, 
musk, and balsam of Peru. 

P., Bee querel's. Quin. sulph. 2 dr., 
Ext. digitalis 15 gr., Colchicum seeds powdered 
2 scruples, made into 50 pills. Dose, 1 to 3 

P., Bellos te's. Fr. Codex, 1866. (F. 
Pilules mercurielles purgatives.) Mercury, white 
honey, Cape aloes, black pepper, rhubarb, scam- 

P., Blair's. A pill of colchicum for 

P., Blan'card's. Ferrous iodide, sugar, 
and liquorice powder. 

P., Blaud's. 21 grs. of sulphate of iron, 
and 21 grs. of carbonate of potash. _ 

P., blue. Pilula hydrargyri. 

P., Bon'tius', Fr. Codex. Bnrbadoes aloes, 
gamboge, gum ammoniac, and white vinegar. 

P., Bran'dretb's. The main constituents 
are aloes, gamboge, and senmmony. 

P., Cham berlain s resto rative. Cin- 

nabar, sulphur, calcium sulphate, and some 
vegetable matter. (Dr. Paris.) Each pill 
weighs 3 grains. 

P. coat'er. A machine for coating pills 
with sugar. The pills are put into a pan con- 
taining a solution of sugar, and the pan is kept 
constantly rotating, to prevent them from stick- 
ing together. {Century Diet.) 

P. coeb'y. Pilula aloes et colocynlhidis. 

P.s, concen'trlc. Pills composed of 
several layers of different preparations, either to 
effect their successive digestion or their solution 
in different parts of the alimentary canal. 

P., Debout's. Similar to P., BecquereVs. 

P., din ner. A pill taken shortly before 
dinner, to arouse the digestion. 

P., din ner, of May o. Pulv. rhei 4 
gr., Sodii carb. 1 gr. 

P., Dupuy tren's. Fr. Codex. Perchlo- 
ride of mercury, Ext. of opium, Ext. of qui- 

P., everlas ting:. A pill formerly given, 
said to have been made of metallic antimony. 
Each pill swallowed was believed infallible in 
causing purgation. 

P., fe'male. Pilula de aloe etfwtidis. 

P., Foth'er gill's. Aloes, scammony, 
coloeynth, and oxide of antimony. 

P., Frank's. (F. Graines de sanfe.) 
Aloes, jalap, rhubarb, and syrup of worm- 

P., Fuller's. The Pilula de aloe et 

P., Grif fith's. The Pilula ferri co., 
U.S. Ph. 

P., Grif'ntt's. Pulv. rhei drachmas H, 
Ferri sulph. dr. \, Saponis scrupula 2, aquae q.s. 
ut ft. massa in pU. 40 dividenda. Dose, 3 or 4 
at bedtime. 

P., Guy's. The same as P., Baly's. 

P., Harvey's. Pilula aloes et eolo- 

P., Helvetius'. (F. pilule alunee d' 
Helvetius.) Alum, sandragon, honey of roses. 
Fr. Codex, 1866. 

P., Hoop'er's. See Hooper's pills. 

P., hy giene. P., Morrison's. 

P., James' analep'tic. See James' ana- 
leptic pills. 

P., Key'ser's. See Keyset's pills. 

P., La dy Cresplg'ny's. See Lady 
Crespigny's pills. 

P., Lady Hesketh's. See Lady 
Hesketh's pills. 

P., Lady Webster's. See Lady 
Webster's dinner pills. Also, one form was 
similar to P., Lady Hesketh's. 

P., Lartigue's. See Lartigue, pills of. 

P., Lavllle's. See Laville's pills. 

P., Lee's New Lon don. Scammony, 
gamboge, calomel, jalap, soap, and syrup of 
buckthorn. (Dunglison.) 

P., Lee's Wind ham. Gamboge, aloes, 
soap, potassium nitrate. (Dunglison.) 

P. machine'. (F. pilulier.) An instru- 
ment used for rolling and cutting up a pill mass ; 
also, an earthen pot in which pills are kept 

P., Moffat's. Similar to P., Brand- 

P., Mor rison s. Similar to P., Mof- 
fat's. . . 

P., Niemey'er's. Quinine I grain, digi- 
talis £ gr., opium i gr. Dose, 1 pill every 4 or 6 


hours. Used in early cases of phthisis with 
much pyrexia. 

P., Plum'mer's. Pil. hydrarg. sub- 
chlor. co. 

P., red. Pilula hydrarg. snbchlor. eo. 

P., red, Bo erhaave's. The basis is red 
sulphide of mercury, hydrargyri sulphuretum 

P., Ric'ord's. Hydrarg. protiodidi, Lac- 
tucse, Gallse, ana 5iss., Ext. oph aquos. gr. ix, 
Ext. guaiaci aquos. 5j. Div. in pilulas xxxvi. 
Used by Bicord in syphilis. 

P., Ru'dius'. Similar to P., Fothergill's. 

P., Ru'fus'. The Pilula aloes et myrrhce 
of the U.S. Ph., 1873. 

P., Scotch. Pilula de aloe etfcetidis. 

P., sedillot's. Fr. Codex. (F. pilule 
mercurielle savoneuse.) Ointment of mercury, 
medicinal soap, and liquorice powder. 

P. slab. A slab used for rolling pills upon. 

P., Spen'der's. Each pill contains 1 to 3 
grains of sulphateof iron, and about 1 or 1\ grains 
of either watery extract of aloes, compound extract 
of colocynth, or compound rhubarb pill. Some- 
times i grain of extract of nux vomica or bella- 
donna is also added. Used in chronic constipation. 

P., squat ting. A name for the Pilula 

P., Tanjo're. The Pilula asiatiea. 
P. tile. See P. slab. 

P., Val'lets. The Pilula Jerri carbonatis 
of the U.S. Ph., 1873. 

Pillar. (F. pilier ; G. Saule.) A term 
employed in Anatomy to indicate the relation 
certain structures stand in towards certain 
others, i.e., as columns to a vault or arch. 

P.s of Cor'ti. See under Corti. 

P.s of di apnragm. See Diaphragm, 
pillars oj. 

P.s. of exter nal abdom inal ring:. 

The free borders of the divided aponeurosis of 
the external oblique muscle, which bound the 
external abdominal ring externally and inter- 
nally, being attached respectively to the spine 
and symphysis of the pubes. 

P.s of fau'ces. Two arching folds of 
mucous membrane containing muscular fibres, 
which pass from the base of the uvula outwards 
and downwards, on either side ; the anterior 
pillar to the side and base of the tongue ; the 
posterior pillar to the sides of the pharynx. 

P.s of for'nix. The extensions of the 
Fornix anteriorly and posteriorly towards the 
base of the brain. The anterior pillars pass 
down to the base of the brain, curve upon them- 
selves, and spread out, each to form part of the 
corresponding corpus albicans. The posterior 
pillars, connected by their upper surface with the 
corpus callosum, pass downwards each into the 
descending horn of the corresponding lateral 
ventricle, where they become continuous with 
the hippocampus major on each side. 

P.s of velum pen'dulum pala'tl. 
The P.s oj Jauces. 

Pill box. A small circular box for keeping 
pills in, usually made of cardboard, occasionally 
of metal or wood. 

P. hydatid. A sterile hydatid or Ace- 

Pil 11. A town in Tuscany, noted for a cold 
mineral spring, containing sodium chloride 9*39 
parts, sodium sulphate 1"53, sodium bicarbonate 
3-96, and carbonate of iron (FeH 2 (C0 3 ) a ) -096, 
in 1000 parts. (Geissler and Holler.) 

Pilliocau'sia. A more modern name 
(deriv. not known) for Hiera picra, and vul- 
garly rendered Pillicoshy. 

Pilocar'pidine. An alkaloid isolated 
from the leaves of Pilocarpus pennatijolius (q. v.). 

Pilocarpi'na. Pilocarpine. 

Pilocarpine hydrochlo'ras. Ex. 
Ph. White granular crystals, very soluble in 
water, slightly deliquescent. Dose, 1-20 to £ 
grain by the mouth, 1-10 to 1-3 grain hypo- 

P. ni'tras. B. Ph. It occurs in white 
crystals, either small and granular, or large and 
prismatic. Solubility 1 in 10 of cold water; 
freely soluble in hot, but only slightly in cold 
alcohol. Dose, the same as of P. hydrochloras. 

Filocar'pine. C n H 16 Nj0 2 . An alkaloid 
obtained from Jaborandi, colourless and syrupy, 
forming crystallisable salts with acids. It is a 
powerful sudorific and sialogogue, contracts the 
pupil, and in large doses acts as an emetic. It 
has been used in diabetes mellitus and d. insi- 
pidus, in asthma, and as an antidote to bella- 
donna poisoning. The alkaloid will act, when 
given hypodermically, in three to five minutes. 
The pure alkaloid is not used medicinally. 

P., hydrochlo'rate of. See Pilocarpine 

Pilocarpus pennatifo'lius. 
(II7A.OS, hair or wool wrought into felt ; L. pilus ; 
KapTroi, fruit.) A Brazilian shrub, Order 
Rutacea. The leaflets contain a volatile oil, 
and the alkaloids, pilocarpine, jaborine, pilo- 
carpidine, and jaboridine. "When dried, the 
leaflets constitute the Jaborandi of the B. Ph. 

Pilocys'tic tumour. (m\os ; cyst.) 
A dermoid cyst, so called because of its often 
containing hairs. 

Piloni dal si'nus. {Pilus; nidus, a 
nest.) A sinus occasionally found in the hu- 
man subject as an abnormality, opening near 
the tip of the coccyx, and containing hair. 

Filoselia alpi'na. The Hieracium 

Pilos'ity. (Pilus.) Hairiness. 

Pi lous. The same as Pileous. 

Pilo'xus. (L.) Hairy. 

Pil ula. Lat. (F . pilule ; I. pillola ; G. 
Pille.) A pill. A small mass of solid medica- 
ment made into a globular form for convenience 
in swallowing. A pill usually consists of one or 
more active ingredients and an excipient, such as 
mucilage, soap, syrup or spirit, or some soft, inert 
extract. The weight rarely exceeds 5 grains, 
unless the ingredients are exceptionally heavy. 
Pills are often rendered tasteless by silvering or 
gilding, or more commonly now by covering with 
a solution of gelatine or sandarach, or by sugar- 
coating, or pearl- coating with French chalk and 
gum. Also, see Pills, concentric. More than 
half the B. Ph. pills are purgative. For B. Ph. 
pills, see under Pilulce. 

P. ac'idi carbol'ici. Ex. Ph. Absolute 
phenol 2 grains, glycerin £ minim, powdered 
althaea 3 grains, for one pill. Dose, 1 pill. 

P. aconl'ti. Powdered aconite root 1-8 
grain in each. Dose, 1 hourly (1 pill is equiva- 
lent to 1 minim of the tincture) . 

P. al oes barbaden'sis. Barb, aloes 2, 
hard soap 1, oil of caraway 1-8, conf. of roses 1. 

P. al oes et colocyn thidls. Former 
name (B. Ph., 1867) for the P. colocynthidis 
composita, B. Ph. 


P. al oes et j iila pa? . Barb, aloes 1 lb., 
black hellebore root, jalap, carbonate of potash, 
of each 1 oz., oil of anise 4 dr., simple syrup q. s. 
Dose, 10 to 30 gr. 

P. aloin, strychni'noe et bella- 
don'nee. Aloin 1-5 gr., strychnine 1-60 gr., 
alcoholic ext. of belladonna 1-8 gr., in each. 
Dose, 1 or 2. 

P. aslat'ica. Arsenious acid 55 gr., black 
pepper 9 dr., acacia enough to make 800 pills. 
Used in India for syphilis and elephantiasis. 

P. Benedic'tae Fulle'ri. The P. de aloe 

P. bu tyl- chloral. Ex. Ph. Hydrate 
of butyl- chloral 4 gr., glycerine of tragacanth or 
mucilage of acacia, q. s. Dose, 1 every two hours. 

P. calomel anos compos ita. The P. 
hydrargyri subchloridi composita, B. Ph. 

P. de al oe et fce'tidis. P. Ph. Socot. 
aloes, senna, asafcetida, galbanum, 2 dr. of each, 
myrrh 4 dr., crocus and mace 1 dr. of each, sul- 
phate of iron 1£ dr. To the above are added, oil 
of amber 8 min., and syrup of artemisia, q. 8. 
Dose, 15 to 20 gr. 

P. gallant compos'ita. A syn. of P. 
asafcet. co. B. Ph. 

P. opia'ta. U.S. Ph., 1873. Pulv. opii 
24 gr., soap 6 gr., for 24 pills (1 gr. of opium in 
each). Dose, 1 or 2 pills. 
Pil ulae. Plur. of Pilula. 

P. alephan grinae. (According to Lemery 
alephangince is an Arabic word signifying 
odorous.) Also called called P. aloephanginm. 
Pills composed of aloes combined with aromatic 

P. de caccion'de. Term for certain 
astringent pills containing catechu. 

P. sublingua'les. See Hypoglottides. 
Pil ulae of the B. Ph. Official. The 
dose is 5 to 10 grains, except where otherwise 

P. al oes et asafoe'tidae. Eq. parts of 
Socot. aloes, asafcet., hard soap, and conf. of roses. 

P. al oes et fer'ri. Sulphate of iron 1J, 
Barb, aloes 2,comp. cinnamon powder 3, conf. of 
roses 4. 

P. al oes et myr'rhae. Socot. aloes 2, 
myrrh 1, saffron treacle 1, glycerine q. s. 

P. al'oes socotri'nae. Socot. aloes 2, hard 
soap 1, vol. oil of nutmeg 1-8, conf. of roses 1. 

P. asafoe'tidae compos'ita. Asafcet. 2, 
galbanum 2, myrrh 2, treacle 1. 

P. cambo gfiae compos'ita. Gamboge 1, 
Barb, aloes 1, comp. cinnamon powder 1, hard 
soap 2, syrup q. 8. 

P. colocyn thiuis compos'ita. Colo- 
cynth pulp 1, Barb, aloes 2, scammony resin 2, 
potassium sulphate J, oil of cloves \, water q. a. 
(about \). 

P. colocyn thiuis et hyoscy'ami. Pil. 
col. co. 2, ext. of hyoscy. 1. 

P. coni'i compos'ita. Ext. conii 1, 
ipecac. 1, treacle q. s. 

P. fer'ri carbona'tis. Ferri carb. sacch. 
4, conf. rosse 1. Dose, 5 to 20 gr. 

P. fer'ri lodl'di. Mix aqueous solutions 
of iron and iodine with sugar and liquorice (1 in 
3J). Dose, 3 to 8 gr. 

P. hydrar'gyri. (Blue pill.) Mercury 1, 
conf. of roses 1J, liquorice J. Dose, 3 to 8 gr. 

P. hydrargyri subchloridi com- 
pos'ita. Calomel 1, sulphurated antimony 1, 
guaiac resin 2, castor oil 1. 

P. lpecacuan'hae cum sell la. Dover's 
powder 3, squill 1, ammoniacum 1, treacle q. s. 
(Opium, 1 in 23.) 

P. phos'phori. Phosphorus 1, balsam of 
tolu 40, yellow wax 19, curd soap 30. Dose, 2 
to 4 gr. (= 1-45 to 1-22-5 gr. of phos.). 

P. plum'bl cum o'plo. Opium 1, acetate 
of lead 6, conf. of roses 1. (Opium, 1 in 8.) 
Dose, 4 to 8 gr. 

P. rhe'l compos'ita. Rhubarb 6, Socot. 
aloes 4J, myrrh 3, hard soap 3, peppermint oil 
1-3, glycerine 2, treacle 6. 

P. sapo'nls compos'ita. Opium 1, hard 
soap 4, water q. s. (Opium, 1 in 6, nearly.) 
Dose, 3 to 5 gr. 

P. scammo nil compos'ita. Scammony 
1, jalap resin 1, curd soap 1, tinct. zingib. fort. 1, 
6pirit. rect. 2. Dose, 5 to 15 gr. {The only 
vegetable purgative pill of the B. Ph. not con- 
taining aloes/) 

P. sciriae compos'ita. Squill 1J, ginger 
1, ammoniacum 1, hard soap 1, treacle 2. 
Fil'ular. Pertaining to a pilula or pill. 
Pilule. (F. pilule.) Pilula. 
Pi'lum. (L. For pissilum ; frompiso=pinso, 
to pound. F. pilon.) A pestle. 

Pil'us. (Nom. plural pili, q. v. IIiXos, 
felted hair or wool.) A hair. 

Pimar'ic ac'id. C 20 H 30 O 2 . An aeid, 
isomeric with Sylvic acid, obtained from the 
resin of Pinus pinaster, and apparently closely 
allied to pinic acid and oil of turpentine. 
Pimel'aden. (ID/ueXj}, fat; &6vu, a 

gland.) Term for a sebaceous gland. 

Pim'ele. (HiiizXv. L. adeps.) Fat; 
also, fatness. 

Pimelec'chysis. (ID^eX/) ; eV-xuo-is, a 
pouring out.) The same as Pimelorrhcea. 

Pimel ic ac'id. C 5 H 10 (CO a H) 2 . A di- 
basic acid, of the oxalic series, obtained by the 
action of nitric on oleic acid. 

Pimel'icus. (nifitX^.) Of, or belonging 
to, fat. 

Pimeli'tiS. (ID/ueXj}.) Inflammation of 
the adipose tissue. 

Pimelo'des. (IIi/ueXj}; eIoos, form.) 
Composed of fat ; fatty. 

Fimelo'ma. (JlifiiXv.) A fatty swelling. 

Pimeloptery'g-ium. (n^Xt;; ptery- 
gium.) The same as Pterygium or Pinguecula. 

Pimelorrhoe'a. (jlifitXv ; plu>, to flow.) 
Morbid discharge of fat. 

Pimelorthopnoe'a. (Iliixtkv ; or- 
thopneea.) Orthqpncea from obesity. 

Pimelo'sis. (IVeX/;.) Obesity. 
P. bepati ca. Fatty liver. 
P. mlm'ia. (L. mimius, excessive.) Ex- 
cessive obesity. 

Pimelotic. Belonging to, or charac- 
terised by, Pimelosis, 

Pimelu'ria. (ni/<tXii; ovpov, urine.) 
Discharge of fat in the urine. 

Pimen'ta. (Pimenta, the Spanish fir.) 
B. Ph. Allspice ; the dried, unripe, full-grown 
berries of Pimenta officinalis {Eugenia pimento), 
the West Dadian allspice tree, containing an 
essential oil with stimulant and carminative 
properties. Its official preparations are Aqua 
pimento! and Oleum pimenta. 

P. a'crls. The Myrcia pimenta. 
P. officina lis. See Pimenta. 

Pimen'tee bae'eee. Pimenta berries. 

Pimen'tic ac'id. Eugenic acid. 

Pimento. (I.) Pimenta. 


P. oil. See Oleum pimento. 

P. wa ter. See Aqua pimento. 
Pimiac ula. (ITi^eX?;, fat) Term for 
the Labia majora. 
Pimpernel. See Pimpinella. 

P., Ital ian. The Sanguisorba officinalis. 

P., scar'let. The common name for the 
plant Anagallis arvensis. 

p., wa ter. The Veronica beccabunga. 
Pim'pilin. A name for the Piper longum. 
Pimpinella. A Genus of plants, Order 

P. alba. A variety of P. magna; also, 
the P. saxifraga. 

P. anl'sum. The systematic name of the 
plant Anise, which contains an essential oil with 
carminative properties, and is a native of Egypt 
and the Levant. 

P. italica. The Sanguisorba officinalis. 

P. magna. A European species, whose 
root has been used against erysipelatous ulcera- 

P. ni'gra. The same as P. magna. 

P. officinalis. The P. italica. 

P. saxifraga. Systematic name of the 
Burnet saxifrage, whose root has diuretic, dia- 
phoretic, and stomachic qualities. 

Pimpinellin. A substance, readily 
soluble m alcohol and slightly in ether, dis- 
covered by Buchheim in an alcoholic extract of 

Pim pie. (Anglo-Sax. pipel, prob. from 
L. papula.) A common name for a papule. See 

P. mite. The Demodex folliculorum. 
Pin. (L. pinna = penna, a feather ; also, a 
pen. Old F. penne.) A peg of some sort. 

P. and web. Old popular name for a 
corneal opacity. 

P. bone. The Ischium. 
P. cber'ry. Syn. for Pigeon cherry. 
P. -eyed. Bot. Term applied to a flower 
in which the stigma is at the throat of the corolla 
and the stamens are inserted at a lower level. 

P. foot'ed. Having lobate toes, such as 
those of birds. 

P., bare-lip. A long steel pin used for 
closing wounds ot any sort, but especially after 
the operation for hare-lip. It has also been used 
for arresting haemorrhage by acupressure. 
P.-bead'ed. The same as P. -eyed. 
P. -worm. The Oxyuris vermicularis. 
Pina ceae. (Lindley.) Syn. for Conifcrce. 
Pinang 1 '. Malayan name for the Betel 
nut palm ; also, for its fruit, the Betel nut. 
Pin'ash. See Peenash. 
Pinastellum. {Pinus, the pine-tree; 
from the resemblance of their leaves.) The 
Peucedanum silaiis. 
Pinas'ter. {Pinus.) See Pinus pinaster. 
Pince-nez. (F.) _ Name for that form of 
double eye-glass which is held on the nose by 
means of a spring. 

Pinch. (Mid. E. pinchen ; Old F. pincer, 
to pinch.) The amount of any substance in pow- 
der that can be taken up between the thumb 
and forefinger. The French Codex indicates 
the equivalent weight of a " pinch " of certain 
substances ; e. g., a pinch of anise = 2 grammes ; 
of fennel seeds, 2 grms. ; of arnica, 1 grm., &c. 

Pinched'. Metaph., Shrunken. 
Plncknc ya pu bens. Hab., Carolina. 
This plant is a bitter febrifuge. 

Pin dars. A name for the Arachis hy- 


Pine. (L- pinus.) A pine-apple. 
P.-ap'ple. (F. ananas; G. Ftchtenapfel.) 
The fruit of Ananassa sativa. 

P. -apple, Apbernousll. The Pinus 


P. -apple, oil of, artificial. Butyric 

P. batb. A bath containing a liquor 
made from the leaves of the Pinus sylvestris, 
used in the treatment of rheumatism. 

P. cure. The cure said to result from 
treatment by pine baths. 

P., gin ger. The Ohammcyparis Law- 
soniana. Also known as the Oregon, Port Or- 
ford, or White, Cedar. Its resin is used as a 
diuretic, and also as an insecticide. 

P., ground. Lycopodium complanatum. 

P., ground, stinking. Camphorosma 

P., loblol ly. Pinus tmda. 

P., moun tain. Pinus pumilio. 

P. -needle. A name for the sharp-pointed 
leaf of the pine. 

P. oil. 1. The essential oil obtained from 
the resinous exudation found on the bark of 
pines and firs. It is used for varnish. 2. The 
essential oil distilled from the leaves and twigs 
of Pinus mughos and p. sylvestris. It is used me- 
dicinally in Germany. 3. The fixed oil obtained 
in Sweden by distillation of the wood of firs and 
pines. It is used as lamp-oil. {Century Diet.) 

P., Prln'ce's. Chimaphila umbellata. 

P. -sap, American. The Eypopitys 

P., stone. Pinus pinea. 

P., su'gar. The Zamia pumila. 

P. -this' tie. The Atractylis gummifera. 

P., yellow. The Pinus palustris. 

P. -weed. The Hypericum sarothra. 
Pi'nea. (Fem. of pineus.) The specific 
name of the stone pine, Pinus pinea. 

Pi'neal. {Pineus.) Eelating to, or like, a 
pine cone. 

P. bod'y. The P. gland. 

P. eye. See Parietal eye. 

P. gland. So named from its resemblance 
in shape to a pine cone. A small reddish body, 
about the size of a small cherry-stone, and con- 
taining sand-like particles, connected with the 
back of the third ventricle of the brain, and pass- 
ing downwards and backwards between the two 
superior corpora quadrigemina. It is usually de- 
veloped as a hollow outgrowth from that part of 
the brain of the embryo which afterwards becomes 
the third ventricle. It was thought by Descartes 
to be the seat of the soul. It is considered now 
by many comparative anatomists to be an abor- 
tive eye. See Parietal eye. 

P. lamina. {Lamina conarii.) That 
part of the Pineal gland below the Recessus 

P. ped uncles. The peduncles of the P. 

P. sand. See P. gland. 
P. ven'tricle. ( Ventriculus conarii.) A 
hollow in the pineal gland, a foetal survival. 

Pine a turn. (Neut. of pineatus = pineus, 
belonging to the pine.) Old name for a certain 
medicine prepared from pine kernels. 

Pi'neoli. (L.) Nuces pxneat. The seeds of 
Pinus pinea. They are rich in oil, and are used 
for the same purposes as almonds. 


Pi'neus. (L.) Belonging to Finns, a 

P. pur' grans. Tho Jatropha curcas. 

Ping h war harjam bi. The same as 
Penjavar yambi. 

Pin g o-pin go. Name for the root of 
Ephedra andiva, Older Gnetacem, imported from 
Chili, and used in bladder diseases. 

Ping uec ula. (L. pinguis, fat.) A small 
yellowisli spot consisting of thickened tissue, 
but containing no fat, occurring as an abnor- 
mality in the conjunctiva, and situated close to 
the edge of the cornea. 

Pingue'dinous. Eesembling, or per- 
taining to, Pinguedo ; fatty, greasy. 

Ping ue do. (L.) Fat, fatness. 

Pin guefy. (L. pinguis, fat, greasy; 
facio, to make.) To make fat. 

Pinguicula. (L. pinguis.) 1. The same 
as Pinyiwcula. 

2. Also, in Sot., a Linn. Genus of plants, 
•Class Diandria, Order Monogynia. 

P. vulg-ar'is. The butterwort, or York- 
shire sanicle, an unctuous plant, used as an 
application to chapped hands, and as a pomatum. 
The leaves are used, in broth, as an aperient by 
the country people of Wales. 

Pin guid. (L. pinguis.) Fat {adj.) or 

Fin'guin. See Sromelia pinguin. 
Pinguis. (L.) Fat (adj.) or greasy. 
Pinguitu'do. (L.) Fatness, obesity. 
Pinguol'eum theobroma turn. 

(L. pinguis; oleum.) Oil of theobroma. 

Pin hole OS. Term for a very small Os 

Pin hole pu pil. A syn. of Pinpoint 

Pinho'nes in'dici. (F. pignons d'Inde.) 
The seeds of the Jatropha curcas. 

Pi'ni sylves tris ol eum. See under 

Pi'nic ac'id. (L. pinus, the fir-tree.) 
First discovered in French colophony or resin 
by Baup. It is soluble in alcohol, crystal- 
lises in triangular plates, and has ah acid re- 

Pinifolious. (Pimts ; folium.) Having 
linear or coriaceous leaves, as the fir. 

Pi'niform. (Pinus; forma, likeness.) 
Like a fir-cone. 

P. decussa tion. Name for the decussa- 
tion of the superior pyramids of the medulla 
oblongata. (Billings. ) 

Pi nima. (Pinus.) Guibourt's term. for 
pine resin. 

Pinipic rin. C^rL^O,,. A brown, bitter, 
amorphous glucoside, insoluble in ether, soluble 
in water, obtained from the leaves and bark of 
Pinus sytvestris, and from the leaves of Thuja 

Pinitan'nic ac'id. A variety of tannic 
acid which has been obtained from the leaves of 
Pinus sytvestris. 

Pi'nlte. C 6 H,(OH) s . A crystallisable 
sugar found in the exudation from the trunk 
of Pinus lambtrtiana and p. sabiniana. It 
is dextrorotatory ; it neither ferment* with 
yeast, nor answers to Fehling's test ; its 
therapeutic action is similar to that of Brianqon 

Pini'tea. A name for certain fossil plants, 
or parts of them, supposed to belong to the Genus 

P. succin'ifer. (Goppert.) An extinct 
ooniferous tree, the source of the fossil-resin 
Amber (q.v.). 

Pink. (Mid. E. pinken, to pinch; from 
pick.) Flower so named because of cut or peaked 
edges of corolla ; colour named from the flower. 

1. Sot. _ The Common Pink or Carnation; 
also, generic term for the Pinks, synonymous 
with Dianthus. 

2. The colour characteristic of the corolla of 
the common pink. 

P., Caroli na. Spigelia marilandica. 

P., clove. See Clove pink. 

P.-ey e. A specific contagious fever, very 
similar to Influenza, occurring in the horse, and 
so named from the colour of the inflamed con- 

P.-fe'ver. The same as P.-eye. 

P., ground. Silene virginica. 

P., Zn'dian. The P., Carolina. 

P., Mar yland. P., Carolina. 

P., wild. The P., ground. 

P. yeast. The Saccharomyces glutinis. 
Pinkne'ya. See Pinckneya. 
Pink root. The Spigelia marilandica. 

P., Demerar'a. The Spigelia anthelmia. 
Pin'na. (Collateral form of L. penna, a 
wing, feather.) 1. The expanded part of the 
external ear, also called the Auricle (F. lobe 
d'oreille; G. das Hussere Ohr). 2. The nostril 
or ala nasi. 

3. In Sot., the leaflet of a pinnate leaf. 
P. mari'na. The Syssus of molluscs. 

Pinna'culum. Late Latin. (Pinna, a 
peak, a pinnacle of a building, the top of an 
arch.) Term applied to the Uvula by "Wedelius 
(P. fornicis gutturalis). 
Pin'nae. Nom. pi. of Pinna. 
P. dila'tor. The depressor alee nasi. 
P. he'patis. The lobes of the liver. 
P.nar is. The Alec nasi. 
P. na'si. The same as P. naris. 
Pin'nate. (L. pinna.) Feathered ; having 
leaves proceeding laterally from one stalk. 

Pinnat ifid. (L. pinna ; findo, to cleave.) 
Term applied to leaves cleft transversely into 
oblong, parallel segments. 

Pinnat'ulate. (Low L. pinnatulatus, 
dim. of L. pinnatus.) Sot. Subdivided a second 

Pinni'ferous. (L. pinna,vo. the sense of 
a fin ;fero, to bear.) Fin-bearing. 

Fihnigra da. (L. gradus, a step.) Syn. 
for Pinnipedia. 

Pin nigrade. Moving by means of fins ; 
also, a member of the Group Pinnigrada. 

Pinniner'vate. See Penninervate. 

Pinnipe'dia. (L. pinna, a fin ; 
pes, pedis, a foot. F. pinnipedes.) The Aquatic 
carnivora, a group of Mammalia in which all 
four limbs are modified, to a greater or less 
extent, to form fins. This group includes the 
Phocidee, Otariidm, and Tricheciaoc. 

Pinnisect'ed. (L. seettu, from seco, to 
cut.) The same as Pinnatifid. 

Pin'nula. (Dim. of pinna.) A little 
feather ; a leaflet. Term for a leaflet of a bipin- 
nate or tripinnate leaf ; also, a little fin. 

Pin'nulate. (Pinnula.) Furnished with 
Pinnuhu. See Pinnula. 

Pi'nol. A name for Oleum pini pumi- 

Pirioncil lo tree. The Castigteoma 


Pin'point pu'pil. See under Pupil. 

Pint. ( F. pinte, ehopine ; G. 
Nossel.) A liquid measure containing twenty 
tluid ounces, and forming one eighth part of a 

Pin ta. (F. pinta du Mexique; S. Mai 
de los pintos ; root pintar, signifying to paint.) 
An endemic skin disease of Mexico, characterised 
by the presence of blotches, chiefly on the breast, 
extremities, and about the eyes, &i first of a 
yellowish hue, but afterwards blue, and finally 
black. The diseased skin becomes rough and 
irritable, and ulcerates. The disease is thought 
to be due to a vegetable parasite. 

Pi'nus. (F.pi?i. G.Fichte.) A Genus of 
the Coniferce, many of whose species yield resin. 
Also, the Pineal gland. 

P. a'bies. The Abies excelsa. 

P. austra'lis. Marsh-pine or pitch-pine. 
It is common in the Southern U. S., and is the 
chief source of American turpentine and resin. 

P. balsam'ea. Abies bahamea, the Balm 
of Gilead Br, the source of Canada balsam. 

P. Banksiana. A North American 
species. Its cones are used in Canada as a 

P. canaden sis. Abies canadensis. 
P. can'dicans. The P. picea. 

P. ce'drus. The wood of this species is 
very odorous (cedar wood ; see Libanus) ; its 
other properties are similar to those of the fir. 

P. cembra. The stone-pine. Hab., 
Central Europe and Siberia. This species yields 
Carpathian balsam and Briangon turpentine; 
the shoots afford, by distillation, Riga balsam. 

P. damar'ra. The Bammara orientalis. 

P. excel'sa. The P. abies. 

P. gallica. The P. picea. 

P. lambertiana. A native of Oregon 
and California. The source of Pinit. 

P. laric io. The Corsican pine. Hab., S. 
Europe. One of the sources of turpentine. 

P. lar'ix. The larch, from which are 
obtained Venice turpentine, Orenburgh gum, and 
Briangon manna. 

P. marit'ima. The P. pinaster. 

P. massonia'na. A peculiar fungus, 
brown externally, white within, which grows 
upon the exposed roots of this species; and a 
decoction is used by the Chinese and Japanese 
for diseases of the bladder and lungs. 

P. mu'ghos. The P. pumilio. 

P. ni gra. The black spruce fir. Hab., 
North Europe. The syrup, obtained by boiling 
the young branches and concentrating the liquor 
formed, is termed essence of spruce, and is used 
in making spruce beer. 

P. palus'tris. The same as P. australis. 

P. pectina'ta. The same as Abies pec- 

P. pi'cea. The silver or common fir, from 
which Strasbitrg turpentine is obtained. 

P. pinas'ter. The cluster-pine of South- 
western Europe; one of the sources of Oil of 

P. pl'nea. The stone-pine. The fresh 
young fruit is eaten where it grows, and is 
aperient and diuretic. 

P. pumil'io. (L. pumilio, a dwarf.) The 
mountain or Mugho pine ; the source of Hun- 
garian balsam, and of Oleum templinum, or 
Oleum pini pumilionis. 

P. sabinla'na. The trunk of this species, 

as well as that of P. lambertiana, exudes 

P. sylves'tris. The Scotch fir. One of 
the sources of common turpentine, pitch, and 

P. tae'da. The Loblolly pine of S. Ame- 
rica. One source of Thus amencanum. 

P. taxifo lia. The P. picea. 

P. uber'rlma. The P. pinea. 

P. vulgar is. The P. picea. 
Pi on. (Jliov, fat, rich milk.) Fat (sub- 

Pionorrhoe'a. (niwv (adj.), fat; pim, 
to flow.) A morbid discharge of fat, Pimelor- 

Piorthopnoe'a. (niwv ; orthopnosa.) 

Pi'oscope. (ntof ; aKotriw, to look at.) 
A form of Lactometer. 

Pioxae mia. The same as Piarhcemia. 

Pip. (Mid. E.pippe, pyppe; Mod. L.pipita; 
L. pituila. F. pepie ; I. pipita ; G. Pipps.) A 
disease, occurring in birds, in which there is 
secreted an abundance of mucus in the mouth 
and throat, and the tongue often becomes coated 
with a scaly covering. 

Pipe. (Anglo-Sax. pipe.) A musical in- 
strument formed of a long tube ; hence, a tube. 

P. gamboge'. A name for cylindrical 
pieces of gamboge, some of which are hollow 
from loss of the juice. (Billings.) 

P. plant, in'dian. See Monotropa uni- 

P., tobac'co. (Span, tabaco, a word taken 
from the Haytian language.) Pipes were used 
for tobacco- smoking in America for an unknown 
period before Columbus' arrival there. Tobacco- 
smoking was unknown in Europe previously to 
the discovery of America; but it is thought that 
the Romans used pipes (of iron, clay, and bronze) 
for smoking hemp or aromatic herbs, or for the 
burning of incense. The Smoker's plaque ap- 
pears to be due to irritation from the constant 
impinging of smoke from the pipe-stem on one 
part of the tongue. The constant smoking of a 
clay pipe with an unguarded stem appears to be 
often an exciting cause of cancer of the tongue. 
See Tongue, cancer of. 

Pi'per. (L. From Gr. nr'nrtpi = -KiTrtpL, 
pepper, the pepper tree.) 1. Pepper. 2. Piper 
nigrum, B. Pn. 3. A Genus of plants, Nat. 
Order Piperacem (F. poivre ; G. Pfeffer). 

P.Afzelii. SeeP.Clusii. 

P. al'bum. "White pepper, obtained from 
the same tree (P. nigrum) as black pepper. It 
consists of the ripe fruit freed from its outer coat 
after maceration. 

P. amal go. An American species. Fruit 
used as a condiment. 

P. angustifo'lium. A South American 
herb. See Matico. 

P. anisa'tum. Hab., South America. The 
crushed seeds have a strong smell of anise, hence 
the name. The seeds are used like those of other 
peppers, and a decoction has also been used for 
washing ulcers. 

P. aromat'icum. The P. nigrum. 

P. be'tel or betle. This climbing shrub 
produces a kind of pepper. It is cultivated in 
India and other parts of Asia ; the natives make 
a mixture with it called Betel, whioh they chew. 

P. bra zilia num. The fruit of the 
Cayenne-pepper plant, Capsicum annuum. 



PIPERACEjE— piptostegia 

P. calicut'lcam. Another name for P. 

P. capen'se. Hab., S. Africa. Characters 
and actions similar to those of Cubebs. 

P. carpo'piga. Leaves used in dyspepsia, 
and as an insecticide. 

P. carpun'ya. Hab., Peru and Chili. 
A small tree, a preparation from whose leaves is 
used in dyspepsia. 

P. caryophylla'tum. The Phyllus 
pimenta, or allspice tree. 

P. cauda'tum. The P. cubeba. 

P. churumay a. Similar in Hab. and 
uses to P. amalgo. 

P. citrifolium. See P. churumaya. 

P. Clu'sii. The Bame as Cubeba Clusii, or 
African black pepper. 

P. croca turn. See P. churumaya. 

P. crystalli num. See P. churumaya. 

P. cubeba. Hab., Java. The plant 
whose dried berries are termed Cubebs. 

P. decortica'tum. P. album. 

P. elonga'tum. A syn. of P. angusti- 

P. favas'cl. A name for the Myrcia acris.